Identification of Features for the City Branding: The Case of Shusha City, Azerbaijan as Tourism Destination

  • Bahman HUSEYNLI Department of Business Administration, Azerbaijan State University of Economics, Azerbaijan Department of Labor Market Analysis, Azerbaijan Public Employment Agency, Azerbaijan

Abstract

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the strategic importance of the creation of the city brand of Shusha, the cultural capital of Azerbaijan, based on the studies in the literature, and to determine the branding elements. The study was prepared in accordance with the methodology of qualitative research methods and is exploratory research. Systematic approach, synthesis and induction methods were used in the study. The branding of Shusha as a city of music, architecture, heroism, and culture is one of the results of the research. As a result of the study, the brand elements that can be used in the branding of the city of Shusha in Azerbaijan were tried to be determined. Brand elements that can be used in the branding of Shusha are Kharibulbul flower (Ophrys Caucasica), Karabakh horses, Shusha fortress, Govhar Agha mosque, mugham, carpet art, famous people. The creation of the Shusha city brand can make it one of the world's tourism destinations.


 

References

[1] Ahmadov, E. 2020. Shusha-end of 28 Years Longing. Available at: https://xalqqazeti.com/mobile/ az/news/63428
[2] Aliyeva, K. 2017. “Rose” Carpets, Made in Shusha, Their Connection with Oriental and Western Art. In VII. International Turkic Art, History and Folklore Congress/Art Activities. (pp. 9-16). April 2017. Baku, Azerbaijan.
[3] Altınbaş, H. 2007. Pazarlama Iletişimi ve Şehir Pazarlaması “Şehirlerin Markalaşması” (Marketing Communication and City Marketing “Branding of Cities”). Selçuk İletişim (Selcuk Communication), 4(4): 156-162.
[4] Amirova, E. 2022. The Historical City of Shusha and Our Ancient Monuments. Available at https://muallim.edu.az/news.php?id=20161&lang
[5] Anholt, S. 2006. The Anholt-GMI City Brands Index: How the World Sees the World’s Cities. Place Branding, 2(1): 18-31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.pb.5990042
[6] Avcılar, M.Y. & Kara, E. 2015. Şehir Markası Kavramı ve Marka Şehir Yaratma Stratejilerine Yönelik Literatür İncelemesi (Literature Review on City Brand Concept and Brand City Creation Strategies). Sosyal ve Beşeri Bilimler Araştırmaları Dergisi (Journal of Social and Human Sciences Studies), 16(34): 76-94.
[7] Başçı, A. 2006. Şehir Markası Yaratma Süreci ve İstanbul Şehir Markası için bir model Önerisi (City Brand Creation Process and a Model Proposal for Istanbul City Brand). Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Marmara University. İstanbul, Turkey.
[8] Berg, P.O. & Bjorner, E. (Eds.). 2014. Branding Chinese Mega-cities: Policies, Practices and Positioning. Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
[9] Braun, E., Kavaratzis, M. and Zenker, S. 2013. My city – My brand: The Different Roles of Residents in Place Branding. Journal of Place Management and Development, 6(1): 18-28. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1108/17538331311306087
[10] Brizotti-Pasquotto, G. & Medrano, L. 2014. Iconic Buildings and City Marketing the Central Area of São Paulo. Bitácora Urbano Territorial, 24(2): 21-30.
[11] Çetin, S. 2022. Trailblazers III: Süreyya Agaoglu the First Woman Lawyer of Turkey. Available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3926656
[12] Chen, Y. 2015. Legacy Creation Strategy in Olympic cities. International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, 3(1): 74–87. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.3.1_74
[13] Cheng, L. K. P. and Taylor, J. L. 2007. Branding of Former Soviet Cities: The Case of Almaty. The ICFAI University Journal of Brand Management, 4(4): 7-13.
[14] Cop, R. and Akpınar, İ. 2014. Öğrencilerin Şehirlerin Markalaşmasına Yönelik Algıları (Students' Perceptions of the Branding of Cities). Marmara Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi (Marmara University Journal of Economics and Administrative Sciences), 36(1): 69-88.
[15] Dayanç Kıyat, G.B. and Topal, M. 2019. Şehir Markası Kavramı; Malatya`nın Markalaşması (City Brand Concept; Branding of Malatya). Haliç Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi (Haliç University Journal of Social Sciences), 2(2): 371-406.
[16] De Carlo, M., Canali, S., Pritchard, A. and Morgan, N. 2009. Moving Milan towards Expo 2015: Designing Culture into a City Brand. Journal of Place Management and Development, 2(1): 8-22. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1108/17538330910942762
[17] Deffner, A. and Lioruris, C. 2005. City Marketing: A Significant Planning Tool for Urban Development in a Globalized Economy. In 45th Congress of the European Regional Science Association. (pp. 1-15). Vrije University, 23-27 August 2005, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
[18] Dessiatnitchenko, P. 2017. Musical and Ontological Possibilities of Mugham Creativity in pre-Soviet, Soviet, and post-Soviet Azerbaijan. Unpublished thesis of Doctor of Philosophy. University of Toronto. Toronto, Canada.
[19] Dinnie, K. 2011. City Branding: Theory and Cases. Palgrave Mc Millian Publisher Limited, Hampshire, UK.
[20] Dudek-Mańkowska, S. and Grochowski, M. 2019. From Creative İndustries to the Creative Place Brand: Some Reflections on City Branding in Poland. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 15(4): 274-287. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1057/s41254-019-00141-7
[21] Evans, G. 2015. Rethinking Place Branding and Place Making through Creative and Cultural Quarters. In Rethinking Place Branding, pp. 135–158. Cham: Springer.
[22] Fan, Y. 2006. Branding the Nation: What is being Branded? Journal of Vacation Marketing, 12(1): 5-14.
[23] Gasher, M. 2002. Hollywood North: The Feature Film Industry in British Columbia. Vancouver: UBC Press.
[24] Girma, M. & Singh, M. 2019. Factor Affecting Intention to Visit Destination Ethiopia: Branding Perspectives. International Journal of Management Science, 6(1): 1-8.
[25] Hacıhasanoglu, O., and Hacıhasanoglu, I. 1995. Mimari ve Kentsel Kimlik: Venedik Örneği (Architecture and Urban Identity: The case of Venice). Yapı-Kültür.
[26] Han, M., et al. 2018. City Branding in China’s Northeastern Region: How do Cities Reposition Themselves when Facing Industrial Decline and Ecological Modernization. Sustainability, 10(1), pp. 102. DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010102
[27] Hanna, S., and Rowley, J. 2013. A Practitioner-led Strategic Place Brand Management Model. Journal of Marketing Management, 29(15-16): 1782-1815. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2013.800901
[28] Herget, J., Petrù, Z., and Abrhám, J. 2015. City Branding and Its Economic Impacts on Tourism. Economics & Sociology, 8(1): 119-126. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14254/2071-789X.2015/8-1/9
[29] Herstein, R., Jaffe, E. D. 2008. The Children's City - The Transition from a Negative to a Positive City Image. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 4(1): 76-84.
[30] Hospers, G.J. 2004. Place marketing in Europe. Intereconomics, 39(5): 271-279. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/ BF03031785
[31] Huang, C., Oh, K., Zhang, Q. & Choi, Y. J. 2013. Understanding the City Brand in the Regional Tourism Market among College Students. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 30(7): 662-671. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2013.827544
[32] Huseynli, N. 2022a. Impact of revenues from oil and non-oil sectors on the economic growth of Azerbaijan. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 12(5): 31-35. DOI:https://doi.org/10.32479/ijeep.13278
[33] Huseynli, N. 2022b. Causality Relationship between Foreign Investment and Tourism Sector Growth: Selected African Continent Countries. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 11(4): 1656-1667. DOI: https://doi.org/10.46222/ajhtl.19770720.315
[34] Huseynli, N. 2023. A Study on the Causality Relationship between Total Capital Increase, Foreign Investments, and Tourism Sector Revenues in Azerbaijan. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 14(2): 469-476. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14505/jemt.14.2(66).16
[35] İlgüner, M. 2006. Türkiye`de Marka Yaratma ve Yaşatmanın Altın Kuralları (Golden Rules of Brand Creation and Survival in Turkey). İstanbul: Rota Yayıncılık.
[36] Isaxanli, H. 2021. My Karabakh or The Karabakh Knot. Baku: Khazar University Press.
[37] Karakoç, E. 2011. A Brief Overview on Karabakh History from Past to Today. Journal of Human Sciences, 8(2): 1002-1026.
[38] Kavaratzis, M. 2005. Place Branding: A Review of Trends and Conceptual Models. The Marketing Review, 5(4): 329-342. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1362/146934705775186854
[39] Kunzmann, K. 2004. Culture, Creativity and Spatial Planning. Town Planning Review, 75(4): 383-405. DOI:https://doi.org/10.3828/tpr.75.4.2
[40] Laaksonen, P., Laaksonen, M., Borisov, P., and Halkoaho, J. 2006. Measuring Image of a City: A Qualitative Approach with Case Example. Place Branding, 2(3): 210-219. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.pb.5990058
[41] Lee, H., and Jain, D. 2009. Dubai`s Brand Assessment Success and Failure in Brand Management - Part 1. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 5(3): 234-246. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/pb.2009.14
[42] Leisen, B. 2001. Image Segmentation: The Case of a Tourism Destination. Journal of Services Marketing, 15(1): 49-66. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/08876040110381517
[43] Liouris, C., Deffner, A. 2005. City Marketing – A Significant Planning Tool for Urban Development in a Globalised Economy. In 45th Congress of the European Regional Science Association: “Land Use and Water Management in a Sustainable Network Society”. 23-27 August 2005, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
[44] Lucarelli, A., Berg, P.O. 2011. City Branding: A State-of-the-Art Review of the Research Domain. Journal of Place Management and Development, 4(1): 9-27. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/17538331111117133
[45] Ma, W., de Jong, M., de Bruijne, M., and Schraven, D. 2020. Economic City Branding and Stakeholder İnvolvement in China: Attempt of a Medium-Sized City to trigger Industrial Transformation. Cities, 105: 102754. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2020.102754
[46] McCarthy, J. 2006. Regeneration of Cultural Quarters: Public Art for Place Image or Place Identity?. Journal of Urban Design, 11(2): 243-262. https://doi.org/10.1080/13574800600644118
[47] Mengi, O., Drinkwater, S. B. D., Öner, A. C., Velibeyoglu, K. 2017. Place Management of a Creative City: The Case of Izmir. International Journal of Knowledge-Based Development, 8(3): 271-291. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1504/IJKBD.2017.086437
[48] Merrilees, B., Miller, D., Herington, C. 2009. Antecedents of Residents` City Brand Attitudes. Journal of Business Research, 62(3): 362-367. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2008.05.011
[49] Mihalis, K. 2005. Branding the City through Culture and Entertainment. Journal Aesop, 5: 1-7.
[50] Naghiyeva, S., and Ismayilova, A. 2010. Lyrical Motives in Natavan’s Poetry. Journal of Azerbaijani Studies, 1: 81-93.
[51] Ooi, C. S., and Stöber, B. 2010. Authenticity and Place Branding: The Arts and Culture in Branding Berlin and Singapore. In Re-investing Authenticity: Tourism, Places and Emotions. (pp. 66–79). Bristol: Channel View Publications.
[52] Özsöz, F. M. 2018. Şehir Pazarlamasinda Bir Marka Şehir Olarak Eskişehir'in İncelenmesi (Examination of Eskişehir as a Brand City in City Marketing). Uluslararası Batı Karadeniz Sosyal ve Beşeri Bilimler Dergisi (International Western Black Sea Journal of Social and Human Sciences), 2(1): 12-34. DOI:https://doi.org/10.46452/baksoder.425595
[53] Parkerson, B., and Saunders, J. 2005. City Branding: Can Goods and Services Branding Models be used to Brand Cities? Place Branding, 1(3): 242-264. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.pb.5990026
[54] Pike, S., and Ryan, C. 2004. Destination Positioning Analysis through a Comparison of Cognitive, Affective, and Conative Perceptions. Journal of Travel Research, 42(4): 333-342. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 0047287504263029
[55] Rehan, R. M. 2014. Urban Branding as an Effective Sustainability Tool in Urban Development. HBRC Journal, 10(2): 222-230. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hbrcj.2013.11.007
[56] Sağdıç, M. 2014. Üniversite Öğrencilerinin İstanbul'a ilişkin Algılarının Şehir İmajı Açısından Analizi (Analysis of University Students' Perceptions of Istanbul in Terms of City Image). Electronic Turkish Studies, 9(2): 1267-1283.
[57] Shekaraliyeva, Z. 2022. Azərbaycanda qeyri-neft sektorunun inkişafı və onun qiymətləndirilməsi (Development of the non-oil sector in Azerbaijan and its assessment). İqtisadi islahatlar (Economic Reforms), 3(4), 42-49.
[58] Shushinsky, F. 1979. Narodnye Pevtsy i Muzykanty Azerbaydzhana [Folk Singers and Musicians in Azerbaijan]. Moscow: Sovetskiy Kompozitor Press.
[59] Sklair, L. 2010. Iconic Architecture and the Culture-İdeology of Consumerism. Theory, Culture & Society, 27(5):135-159. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0263276410374634
[60] Storper, M., and Venables, A.J. 2004. Buzz: Face-To-Face Contact and the Urban Economy. Journal of Economic Geography, 4(4): 351-370. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jnlecg/lbh027
[61] Tagiyeva, R. 1999. Traditions of Azerbaijan Carpet. Erdem, 10(30): 616-626.
[62] Tagiyeva, R. 2009. The art of Azerbaijani Carpet Weaving in the Context of the Intercivilizational Dialog. The Caucasus & Globalization, 3(2-3): 133-148.
[63] The British Queen was presented with a Karabakh horse named “Shohrat” as a gift from the President of Azerbaijan. Available at https://www.azerbaijan-news.az/index.php/az/posts/detail/britaniya-kralicasina-azerbaycan-prezidentinin-hediyye-etdiyi-sohret-adli-qarabag-ati-teqdim-olunub-1652708234
[64] The Karabakh Horse. 2020. Available at: https://www.agro.gov.az/az/heyvandarliq/atciliq/qarabag-ati
[65] Toksarı, M., İlyas, İ., and Dagcı, A. 2014. Bir Şehrin Markalaşması ve Pazarlanması Süreci: Konya Ilinde bir Uygulama (Branding and Marketing Process of a City: An Application in Konya Province). Niğde Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi (Journal of Niğde University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences), 7(1): 328-343.
[66] Torlak, M. 2020. Destinasyon İmajı, Seyahat Kalitesi, Memnuniyet ve Davranışsal Niyet Bağlamında İstanbul'un Marka Şehir Yönetimine Dair Niteliksel ve Niceliksel Bir Araştırma (A Qualitative and Quantitative Research on Istanbul's Brand City Management in the Context of Destination Image, Travel Quality, Satisfaction and Behavioral Intention). Tüketici ve Tüketim Araştırmaları Dergisi (Journal of Consumer and Consumption Research), 12(1): 61-100.
[67] Türkmenoglu, Ö., and Azizoglu, Z. 2021. The First Opera of the Turkish World “Leyli and Majnun. Zeitschrift für die Welt der Türken/Journal of World of Turks, 13(2): 305-320.
[68] Uslu, D. 2022. Türkiye’nin İlk Kadın Avukatı Süreyya Ağaoğlu’nun Kadın ve Çocuklarla İlgili Faaliyetleri (Turkey's First Woman Lawyer Süreyya Ağaoğlu's Activities on Women and Children). Vakanüvis-Uluslararası Tarih Araştırmaları Dergisi (Chronicler-International Journal of Historical Studies), 7(2): 1064-1089. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24186/vakanuvis.1162273
[69] Vanolo, A. (2008). The Image of the Creative City: Some Reflections on Urban Branding in Turin. Cities, 25(6): 370-382. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2008.08.001
[70] Wilson, J., Richards, G. 2008. Suspending Reality: An Exploration of Enclaves and the Backpacker Experience. Current Issues in Tourism, 11(2): 187-202. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2167/cit371.0
[71] Yayla, E. N., Kaya, B., and Üstün, Ö. 2021. Şehir Markasının Yönetimi (City Brand Management). Anadolu Akademi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi (Anadolu Academy Journal of Social Sciences), 3(3): 549-566.
[72] Yücel, A., and Öztürk, M. 2018. Şehir Pazarlamas ve Şehir Markalaşması: Elazığ İli Örneği (City Marketing and City Branding: The Case of Elazig Province). Fırat Üniversitesi Harput Araştırmaları Dergisi (Fırat University Journal of Harput Studies), 5(1): 77-101.
[73] Zenker, S. 2009. Who`s your target? The Creative Class as a Target Group for Place Branding. Journal of Place Management and Development, 2(1): 23-32. https://doi.org/10.1108/17538330910942771
[74] Zenker, S., and Braun, E. 2010. Branding a city: A Conceptual Approach for Place Branding and Place Brand Management. In 39th EMAC Annual Conference 2010. Frederiksberg, Denmark.
[75] Zhang, L., and Zhao, S.X. 2009. City Branding and the Olympic Effect: A Case Study of Beijing. Cities, 26(5): 245-254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2009.05.002
[76] *** Ministry of Economy of the Republic of Azerbaijan. 2022. Non-oil, gas sector. Available at https://economy.gov.az/storage/files/files/3734/Cg9YgsJ3TEEvM3WeKHV5LvzmVSMskAXC1Br4ErKQ.pdf
Published
2023-06-30
How to Cite
HUSEYNLI, Bahman. Identification of Features for the City Branding: The Case of Shusha City, Azerbaijan as Tourism Destination. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 14, n. 4, p. 1972 - 1983, june 2023. ISSN 2068-7729. Available at: <https://journals.aserspublishing.eu/jemt/article/view/7892>. Date accessed: 17 june 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.14505/jemt.v14.4(68).09.