Tourism and COVID-19: Changes in Travel and Behavioral Patterns of Residents of Bosnia and Herzegovina

  • Amra ČAUŠEVIĆ Department of Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Abstract

This paper analyses whether there have been any changes in the behavior and patterns of tourist travel after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The convenience sample included 265 respondents. The results of the study show that the most important factors in choosing to travel during the COVID-19 pandemic are: cleanliness, safety, comfort, costs, and social distance. The results of the study show a statistically significant difference in the factors that influence choosing to travel during COVID-19 with regard to employment, i.e., occupation, whereby the most factors when deciding on travel during COVID-19 are considered by pensioners and the least by students. When choosing a destination, as well as the image of the destination from the perspective of tourists, the study showed that owning a car is a statistically significant factor. The study also shows that there is a positive relationship that is statistically significant between the factors that influence choosing to travel during COVID-19 and the factors when choosing a destination from the perspective of tourists and the image of the destination, so those respondents who take into account more factors when choosing to travel during COVID-19, also take into account several factors when choosing a destination from the perspective of tourists and the image of the destination.


 

References

References
[1] Abbas, J., et al. 2021. Exploring the impact of COVID-19 on tourism: Transformational potential and implications for a sustainable recovery of the travel and leisure industry. Current Research in Behavioral Sciences, 2: 100033. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j. crbeha.2021.100033
[2] Abdullah, M., Dias, C., Muley, D., and Shahin, M. 2020. Exploring the impacts of COVID-19 on travel behavior and mode preferences. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 8: 100255. DOI:https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.trip.2020.100255
[3] Al Shehri, A.S., Abdel Fattah, M., and Hifnawy, T. 2006. Knowledge and concern about avian influenza among secondary school students in Taif, Saudi Arabia. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 12(Suppl. 2): S178–S188.
[4] Alananzeh, O.A. 2017. Impact of safety issues and hygiene perceptions on customer satisfaction: a case study of four and five-star hotels in Aqaba, Jordan. Journal of Tourism Research and Hospitality, 06(01): 1-7. DOI: 10.4172/2324-8807.1000161
[5] Aman, J., et al. 2019. The influence of Islamic religiosity on the perceived socio-cultural impact of sustainable tourism development in Pakistan: a structural equation modeling approach. Sustainability, 11(11): 3039. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su11113039
[6] Amblee, N. 2015. The impact of cleanliness on customer perceptions of security in hostels: a WOM-based approach. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 49: 37-39. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2015.04.011
[7] Bassil, C., Saleh, A. S., and Anwar, S. 2019. Terrorism and tourism demand: a case study of Lebanon, Turkey and Israel. Current Issues in Tourism, 22(1): 50–70. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2017.1397609
[8] Belik, V., Geisel, T., and Brockmann, D. 2011. Natural human mobility patterns and spatial spread of infectious diseases. Physical Review X, 1: 011001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevX.1.011001
[9] Boto-García, D., and Mayor, M. 2022. Domestic tourism and the resilience of hotel demand. Annals of Tourism Research, 93:103352. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2022.103352
[10] Brouder, P. 2020. Reset redux: Possible evolutionary pathways towards the transformation of tourism in a COVID-19 world. Tourism Geographies, 22(3): 484–490. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1760928
[11] Bukhari, E. E., et al. 2016. The dynamics of travel avoidance: The case of Ebola in the US. Tour. Manage. Perspect, 20: 195–203. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2016.09.004
[12] Chan, J. K. L., and Baum, T. 2007. Determination of satisfiers and dissatisfiers using Herzberg’s motivator and hygiene factor theory: an exploratory study. Tourism Culture and Communication, 7(2): 117-131.
[13] Cooley, P., et al. 2011. The role of subway travel in an influenza epidemic: A New York City simulation. J. Urban Health, 88(5): 982.
[14] Correia, A., and Crouch, G. I. 2004. A study of tourist decision processes: Algarve, Portugal, in Crouch, G.I., Perdue, R. R., Timmermans, H. J. P. and Uysal, M. (Eds), Consumer Psychology of Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure, CABI, Wallingford, pp. 121-134.
[15] De Vos, J. 2020. The effect of COVID-19 and subsequent social distancing on travel behavior. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 5: 100121. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trip.2020.100121
[16] Filep, S., King, B., and McKercher, B. 2022. Reflecting on tourism and COVID-19 research, Tourism Recreation Research. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2021.2023839
[17] Funk, S., Salathé, M., and Jansen, V. A. 2010. Modelling the influence of human behaviour on the spread of infectious diseases: a review. J. R. Soc. Interface, 7(50): 1247–1256.
[18] Hall, C. M., Scott, D., and Gössling, S. 2020. Pandemics, transformations and tourism: Be careful what you wish for. Tourism Geographies, 22(3): 577–598. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1759131
[19] Hotle, S., Murray-Tuite, P., and Singh, K. 2020. Influenza risk perception and travel-related health protection behavior in the US: Insights for the aftermath of the COVID-19 outbreak. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 5: 100127. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trip.2020.100127
[20] Jones, C., Philippon, T., and Venkateswaran, V. 2021. Optimal Mitigation Policies in a Pandemic: Social Distancing and Working from Home. The Review of Financial Studies, 34(11): 5188–5223. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/rfs/hhab076
[21] Jones, J.H., and Salathe, M. 2009. Early assessment of anxiety and behavioral response to novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1). PLoS ONE, 4(12): e8032.
[22] Joo D., Woosnam K. M., Lee S., and Lee C. K. 2020. Destination loyalty as explained through self-congruity, emotional solidarity, and travel satisfaction. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 45: 338–347.
[23] Jovanović, S., Janković–Milić, V., and Ilić, I. 2015. Health and hygiene importance for the improvement of tourism sector competitiveness in Serbia and the South-Eastern Europe countries. Procedia Economics and Finance, 19: 373-382.
[24] Kayar, Ç.H., and Kozak, N. 2010. Measuring destination competitiveness: an application of the travel and tourism competitiveness index (2007). Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 19(3): 203-216.
[25] Kim, C., et al. 2017. Exposure to fear: Changes in travel behavior during MERS outbreak in Seoul. KSCE J. Civ. Eng, 21(7): 2888–2895. DOI: 10.1007/s12205-017-0821-5
[26] Kongoley-MIH, P. S. 2015. The impact of Ebola on the tourism and hospitality industry in Sierra Leone. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 5(12): 542–550.
[27] Lim, W. 2021. Conditional recipes for predicting impacts and prescribing solutions for externalities: The case of COVID-19 and tourism. Tourism Recreation Research, 46(2): 314–318. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/02508 281.2021.1881708
[28] Lockyer, T. 2003. Hotel cleanliness - how do guests view it? Let us get specific. A New Zealand study. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 22(3): 297-305.
[29] Loureiro, S. M. C., and Jesus, S. 2019. How perceived risk and animosity towards a destination may influence destination image and intention to revisit: The case of Rio de Janeiro. Anatolia, 30(4): 497–512. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13032917.2019.1632910
[30] Mamirkulova, G., Mi, J., et al. 2020. New Silk Road infrastructure opportunities in developing tourism environment for residents’ better quality of life. Global Ecology and Conservation, 24: e01194. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01194
[31] Mariolis, T., Rodousakis, N., and Soklis, G. 2021. The COVID-19 multiplier effects of tourism on the Greek economy. Tourism Economics, 27(8): 1848–1855. DOI: https://doi. org/10.1177/1354816620946547
[32] Mirzaei, R., Sadin, M., and Pedram, M. 2021. Tourism and COVID-19: changes in travel patterns and tourists’ behavior in Iran. Journal of Tourism Futures, 1-13.
[33] Muley, D., Shahin, M., Dias, C., and Abdullah, M. 2020. Role of transport during outbreak of infectious diseases: evidence from the past. Sustainability, 12(18): 7367. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su12187367
[34] Naumov, N., Varadzhakova, D. and Naydenov, A. 2020. Sanitation and hygiene as factors for choosing a place to stay: perceptions of the Bulgarian tourists. Anatolia, 1-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13032917.20 20.1771742
[35] Peak, C.M., et al. 2018. Population mobility reductions associated with travel restrictions during the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone: use of mobile phone data. Int. J. Epidemiol, 47(5): 1562–1570. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyy095
[36] Peixoto, P.S., Marcondes, D., Peixoto, C., and Oliva, S.M. (2020). Modeling future spread of infections via mobile geolocation data and population dynamics. An application to COVID-19 in Brazil. PLoS ONE, 15(7): e0235732. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0235732
[37] Rahman, M.K., Gazi, M.A.I., Bhuiyan, M.A., and Rahaman, M.A. 2021. Effect of Covid-19 pandemic on tourist travel risk and management perceptions. PLoS ONE, 16(9): e0256486. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0256486
[38] Ramanathan, U., and Ramanathan, R. 2013. Investigating the impact of resource capabilities on customer loyalty: a structural equation approach for the UK hotels using online ratings. Journal of Services Marketing, 27(5): 404-415. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JSM-12-2011-0186
[39] Rewtrakunphaiboon, W., and Oppewal, H. 2004. Effects of holiday packaging on tourist decision making: some preliminary results, in Crouch, G.I., Perdue, R.R., Timmermans, H.J.P. and Uysal, M. and (Eds), Consumer Psychology of Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure, CABI, pp. 181-188.
[40] Rizzo, A., Frasca, M., and Porfiri, M. 2014. Effect of individual behavior on epidemic spreading in activity-driven networks. Physical Review E, 90(4-1): 042801. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.90.042801
[41] Ryan, C., and Huimin, G. 2007. Perceptions of Chinese hotels. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 48(4): 380-391.
[42] Sigala, M. 2020. Tourism and COVID-19: Impacts and implications for advancing and resetting industry and research. Journal of Business Research, 118: 312-321. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.06.015
[43] Swarbrooke, J., and Horner, S. 2007. Consumer Behavior in Tourism. 2nd Edition, Elsevier.
[44] Tsai, H., Song, H., and Wong, K. K. F. 2009. Tourism and hotel competitiveness research. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 26(5): 522-546.
[45] Wilder-Smith A. 2006. The severe acute respiratory syndrome: impact on travel and tourism. Travel medicine and infectious disease, 4(2): 53–60.
[46] Yan, Q. L., Tang, S. Y., and Xiao, Y. N. 2018. Impact of individual behavior change on the spread of emerging infectious diseases. Stat. Med, 37(6): 948–969. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/sim.7548
[47] Yilmazkuday, H. 2020. COVID-19 spread and inter-county travel: Daily evidence from the U.S. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 8: 100244. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trip.2020.100244
[48] Zemke, D. M. V., Neal, J., Shoemaker, S., and Kirsch, K. 2015. Hotel cleanliness: will guests pay for enhanced disinfection. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(4): 690-710.
[49] Zhang, Y., Zhang, Y., and Liu, Z. The role of different transportation in the spreading of new pandemic influenza in mainland China, 2011 19th International Conference on Geoinformatics, pp. 1-6, DOI:10.1109/GeoInformatics.2011.5981012
Published
2023-06-30
How to Cite
ČAUŠEVIĆ, Amra. Tourism and COVID-19: Changes in Travel and Behavioral Patterns of Residents of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 14, n. 4, p. 1950 - 1961, june 2023. ISSN 2068-7729. Available at: <https://journals.aserspublishing.eu/jemt/article/view/7890>. Date accessed: 17 june 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.14505/jemt.v14.4(68).07.