Collective Intelligence and Structural Transformation in the Moroccan Tourism Industry during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Field Survey in the Marrakech-Safi Region

  • Wijdane MERIOUMI Faculty of Legal, Economic and Social Sciences of Fez, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Morocco
  • Bouchra AIBOUD BENCHEKROUN Faculty of Legal, Economic and Social Sciences of Fez, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Morocco


This paper discusses the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism industry, with a focus on the Moroccan tourism sector. It highlights the need for the government to reflect on the crisis's implications and foster a more resilient tourism economy through structural transformation and collective intelligence. This research defines key concepts of collective intelligence and analyzes the mechanisms of actors in the Moroccan tourism sector. The study conducted a field survey in the Marrakech-Safi region, showing that market actors have developed effective tools and methods of collective action in line with collective intelligence principles. By promoting collective intelligence, Morocco can create a sustainable and resilient tourism industry. The study's contributions can provide valuable information for similar contexts worldwide, and its findings are of interest to researchers, policymakers, and practitioners in the tourism industry.


[1] Besson, B. 2002. L’audit d’intelligence économique: Mettre en place et optimiser un dispositif coordonné d’intelligence collective, Dunod.
[2] Boder, A. 2006. Collective intelligence: A keystone in knowledge management. Journal of Knowledge Management 10(1): 81–93. DOI:
[3] Bonabeau, E. 1994. Intelligence collective. Hermès sciences publications.
[4] Courbon, J.C. 1979. Aide à la décision et intelligence collective, CERAG.
[5] Dawn, G. and Gregg. 2010. Designing for collective intelligence. Communications of the ACM 53, 4 (April 2010): 134–138. DOI:
[6] Glynn, M. A. 1996. Innovative Genius: A Framework for Relating Individual and Organizational Intelligences to Innovation. The Academy of Management Review, 21(4): 1081–1111. DOI:
[7] Goux-Baudiment, F. 2001. Prospective d'un siècle à l'autre (II) Expertise, débat public : vers une intelligence collective, Actes du Colloque, 4-8 juin 2000, Centre culturel international de Cerisy-la-Salle. Éditions de l’Aube.
[8] Gréselle-Zaïbet, O. 2007. Vers l'intelligence collective des équipes de travail: une étude de cas. Management & Avenir, 14: 41-59. DOI:
[9] Lévy, P.1997. L’intelligence collective : pour une anthropologie du cyberspace, la Découverte.
[10] Lykourentzou, I. et al. 2011. Collective intelligence systems: Classification and modeling. Journal of Emerging Technologies in Web Intelligence 3, 3 (Aug. 2011). DOI:
[11] Mack, M. 1999. L’apprentissage en équipe. L’Expansion Management Review, 70-75.
[12] Malone, T. W., Laubacher, R. and Dellarocas, C. N. 2009. Harnessing crowds: Mapping the genome of collective intelligence. SSRN Electronic Journal (2009). DOI:
[13] Rabasse, F. 1997. Emergence de compétences collectives au regard des compétences individuelles dans un processus de transfert des innovations technologiques dans le domaine des technologies de l’information, Thèse de Doctorat nouveau régime CNAM Paris.
[14] Ribette, R.1996. Des intelligences individuelles à l’émergence de l’intelligence collective, actes du 1er Salon International de la Formation, SIF, Tunisie, CIFCO, Novembre 27-30, in la Charguia, Tunis.
[15] Salminen, J. 2015. The Role of Collective Intelligence in Crowdsourcing Innovation. PhD dissertation. Lappeenranta University of Technology.
[16] Sandro, G. and Reinhard Jung. 2012. Collective intelligence model: How to describe collective intelligence. In Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing, 113. DOI: 8_5
[17] Sassi, S., et al. 2022. Collective intelligence and knowledge exploration: an introduction. Int J Data Sci Anal, 14: 99–111. DOI:
[18] Schut, M.C. 2010. On model design for simulation of collective intelligence. Information Sciences 180, 1 (2010): 132–155. Special Issue on Collective Intelligence. DOI:
[19] Shweta Suran. 2022. A Generic Framework for Collective Intelligence Systems. PhD diss., Tallinn University of Technology.
[20] Simon, H. 1969. Sciences of the artificial. Cambridge, MA. M.I.T. Press.
[21] Skarzauskiene, A. and Maciuliene, M. 2015. Modelling the index of collective intelligence in online community projects. In International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security. Academic Conferences International Limited, 313.
[22] Suran, S., Pattanaik, V. and Draheim, D. 2020. Frameworks for Collective Intelligence: A Systematic Literature Review. ACM Comput. Surv. 53. DOI:
[23] Van Du Nguyen and Ngoc Thanh Nguyen. 2018. Intelligent collectives: Theory, applications, and research challenges. Cybernetics and Systems, 49(5-6): 261–279. DOI:
[24] Weick, K.E. and Karlene, H. Roberts. 1993. Collective mind in organizations: Heedful interrelating, on Administrative Science Quarterly; vol 38, pp. 357-381, Septembre.
[25] Woolley, A. W., Aggarwal, I., and Malone, T. W. 2015. Collective Intelligence and Group Performance. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24(6). DOI:
[26] Zara, O. 2004. Le management de l’intelligence collective: Vers une nouvelle gouvernance, Edition Paris.
How to Cite
MERIOUMI, Wijdane; AIBOUD BENCHEKROUN, Bouchra. Collective Intelligence and Structural Transformation in the Moroccan Tourism Industry during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Field Survey in the Marrakech-Safi Region. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 14, n. 4, p. 1899 - 1907, june 2023. ISSN 2068-7729. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 17 june 2024. doi: