The Untapped Potential of Ethno-Tourism in Ulytau Region
Kazakhstan is a unique country, with beautiful nature, original culture, and traditions. Ulytau region is the historical and geographical center of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the cradle of the Kazakh people. It is one of the epicenters of steppe civilization and nomadic culture. Ulytau is a unique region with over 700 registered monuments of history and culture and has a great potential to develop ethno-tourism. According to conducted survey over a 10-month period from January to October 2021, it was revealed that a huge part of tourists doesn’t know about this destination and features of this region and would like to visit this region with ethno-cultural purposes. This article shows the results of the study, the main constraining factors, and mechanisms for the implementation of ethno-tourism. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the involvement of tourists in visiting a tourist destination for the purpose of ethno-tourism, and a number of recommendations are proposed for key stakeholders.
 Ara, E., Tucker, H., and Coetzee, W.J.L. 2022. Handicrafts-enacted: Emplacing non-human agency in ethnic tourism. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 50: 345–354. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2022.01.008
 Bassey, B. E. 2015. Transforming the Nigeria tourism industry through tourism entrepreneurial development. African Journal of Business Management, 9(15): 569-580. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5897/AJBM2015.7844
 Buhalis, D. 2001. Tourism in Greece: Strategic analysis and challenges. Current Issues in Tourism, 4(5): 440-480. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500108667898
 Calero, C., and Turner, L.W. 2020. Regional economic development and tourism: A literature review to highlight future directions for regional tourism research. Tourism Economics. 26(1): 3–26. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/1354816619881244
 Fourie, J., and Santana-Gallego, M. 2013. Ethnic reunion and cultural affinity. Tourism Management, 36: 411-420. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2012.10.002
 Gnoth, J., and Zins, A. H. 2013. Developing a tourism Cultural Contact Scale. Journal of Business Research, 66: 738-744. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.09.012
 Gravari-Barbas, M. 2018. Tourism as a heritage producing machine. Tourism Management Perspectives, 25: 173–176. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2018.01.004
 Greenwood, D. J. 1982. Cultural Authenticity. Cultural Survival Quarterly, 6(3): 27-28.
 Grаburn, N. 1978. Tоurіsm: thе sасrеd jоurnеy, іn V. Smіth, еd, Hоsts аnd Guеsts. Thе Аnthrоpоlоgy оf Tоurіsm, Bаsіl Blасkwеll, Оxfоrd
 Harron, S., and Weiler, B. 1992. Review: Ethnic tourism. In B.Weiler., & C. M. Hall (Eds.), Special interest tourism: 83–92. London: Belhaven.
 Hsu, C.H., Cai, L.A., and Li, M. 2010. Expectation, motivation, and attitude: a tourist behavioral model. J. Trav. Res. 49 (3): 282–296. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287509349266
 Huang, S. S., and Chen, G. 2016. Current state of tourism research in China. Tourism Management Perspectives, 20: 10–18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2016.06.002
 Hung, Chiu-Hui. 2017. A Study of How Indigenous Peoples Perceive the Impact of Tourism and Support These Attitudes in Their Tribes. Asian Journal of Environment & Ecology, 5(4): 1-11, DOI:https://doi.org/10.9734/AJEE/2017/39012
 Jin, C., Xu, J. and Huang, Z. 2019. Spatiotemporal analysis of regional tourism development: a semiparametric Geographically Weighted Regression model approach. Habitat Int., 87: 1–10. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2019.03.011
 Kim, J., Brent Ritchie1, J. R., and McCormick, B. 2012. Development of a Scale to Measure Memorable Tourism Experiences. Journal of Travel Research, 51(1): 12–25. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287510385467
 Klieger, P. C. 1990. Close Encounters: Intimate Tourism in Tibet. Cultural Survival Quarterly, 14(2): 38-42.
 Kruger, M., and Saayman, M. 2010. Travel motivation of tourists to Kruger and Tsitsikamma National Parks: A comparative study. South African Journal of Wildlife Research, 40: 93–102. DOI:https://doi.org/10.3957/056.040.0106
 Kuskov, A.S., and Dzhaladyan, Yu.A. 2021. Osnovy turizma. Moskva, Knorus, 396
 Lee, J. 1988. Tourism and Development in the Third World. London: Routledge Press.
 Maruyama, N., and Woosnam, K.M. 2015. Residents' ethnic attitudes and support for ethnic neighborhood tourism: The case of a Brazilian town in Japan. Tourism Management, 50: 225-237. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2015.01.030
 McIntosh, R., and Goeldner, C. 1995.Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies (7th ed.). New York: Wiley
 Medina, L. K. 2003. Commoditizing culture: Tourism and Maya identity. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(2): 353–368. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(02)00099-3.
 Mutangaa, Ch. N., et al. 2017. Travel motivation and tourist satisfaction with wildlife tourism experiences in Gonarezhou and Matusadona National Parks, Zimbabwe. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 20: 1–18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jort.2017.08.001
 MсІntоsh, R.W., and Gоеldnеr, С.R. 1990. Tоurіsm. Prіnсіplеs, Prасtісеs аnd Phіlоsоphіеs, 6th еdn, Wіlеy, Nеw Yоrk
 Pіtchfоrd, S. 1995. Еthnic tourism and nationalism in Walеs. Annals of Tourism Rеsеarch, 22(1): 35–52. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(94)00068-4
 Pоlukhіnа, А.N. 201. 6А сlustеr mоdеl оf еthnо-tоurіsm оrgаnіzаtіоn іn Russіаn rеgіоns. Wоrldwіdе Hоspіtаlіty аnd Tоurіsm Thеmеs, 8(3): 359-372. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/WHATT-02-2016-0002
 Salazar, N. B., and Graburn, N. H. 2014. Tourism imaginaries: Anthropological approaches. Berghahn Books
 Shuptar, V.V. 2016. Avalon Travel Guides Ulytau: Travel Guide– Karaganda: "Avalon" Historical-Geographical Society, 100
 Smіth, V. 1977. Hоsts аnd guеsts: Thе аnthrоpоlоgy оf tоurіsm. Phіlаdеlphіа: Unіvеrsіty оf Pеnnsylvаnіа Prеss
 Taheri, B., Jafari, A., and O’Gorman, K. 2014. Keeping your audience: Presenting a visitor engagement scale. Tourism Management, 42: 321-329
 Timothy, D. J., and Nyaupane, G. P. 2009. Cultural heritage and tourism: a regional perspective. New York: Routledge
 Tomczewska-Popowycz, N., and Taras, V. 2022. The many names of “Roots tourism”: An integrative review of the terminology. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 50: 245–258. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2022.02.016
 Tsui, K.W.H., Tan, D., Chow, C.K.W., and Shi, S., 2019. Regional airline capacity, tourism demand and housing prices: a case study of New Zealand. Transport Pol. 77: 8–22. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2019.02.007
 Vаn dеn Bеrghе, P. L. 1994. Thе quеst for thе othеr: Еthnic tourism in San Cristo´bal. Mеxico, Sеattlе & London: Univеrsity of Washington Prеss
 Wood, R. E.1984. Ethnic Tourism, the State, and Cultural Change in Southeast Asia. Annals of Tourism Research, 11: 353-374. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(84)90027-6
 Wu, M.-Y., and Pearce, P.L. 2017. The rally experience: exploring motivation patterns of Australian Grey Nomads. J. Destin. Market. Manag., 6 (4): 407–415. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2016.06.008
 Wu, T., Yu-En Lin, Wall, G., and Xie, P. 2020. A spectrum of indigenous tourism experiences as revealed through means-end chain analysis. Tourism Management, 76: 103969. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2019.103969
 Wаng, Y., Shеn, H., Yеа, Sh., and Lіngqіаng zhоu. 2020. Bеіng rаtіоnаl аnd еmоtіоnаl: Аn іntеgrаtеd mоdеl оf rеsіdеnts suppоrt оf еthnіс tоurіsm dеvеlоpmеnt. Jоurnаl оf Hоspіtаlіty аnd Tоurіsm Mаnаgеmеnt, 44: 112–121. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2020.05.008
 Wооd, R.Е. 1980. Іntеrnаtіоnаl Tоurіsm аnd Сulturаl Сhаngе іn Sоuthеаst Аsіа. Есоnоmіс Dеvеlоpmеnt аnd Сulturаl Сhаngе, 23(3): 561-581. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/451197
 Yang, L. 2007. Planning for ethnic tourism: Case studies from Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China (Unpublished doctoral thesis). Waterloo, Canada: University of Waterloo.
 Yang, L., and Wall, G. 2009. Ethnic tourism: A framework and an application. Tourism Management, 30: 559–570. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2008.09.008
 Yang, Y., and Fik, T. 2014. Spatial effects in regional tourism growth. Ann. Tourism Res., 46: 144–162. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2014.03.007
 Yun, H. J., and Zhang, X. 2017. Cultural conservation and residents’ attitudes about ethnic minority tourism. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 17(2): 165–175. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1467358415610624
The Copyright Transfer Form to ASERS Publishing (The Publisher)
This form refers to the manuscript, which an author(s) was accepted for publication and was signed by all the authors.
The undersigned Author(s) of the above-mentioned Paper here transfer any and all copyright-rights in and to The Paper to The Publisher. The Author(s) warrants that The Paper is based on their original work and that the undersigned has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment. It is the author's responsibility to obtain written permission to quote material that has been previously published in any form. The Publisher recognizes the retained rights noted below and grants to the above authors and employers for whom the work performed royalty-free permission to reuse their materials below. Authors may reuse all or portions of the above Paper in other works, excepting the publication of the paper in the same form. Authors may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the above Paper for the Author's personal use or for internal company use, provided that the source and The Publisher copyright notice are mentioned, that the copies are not used in any way that implies The Publisher endorsement of a product or service of an employer, and that the copies are not offered for sale as such. Authors are permitted to grant third party requests for reprinting, republishing or other types of reuse. The Authors may make limited distribution of all or portions of the above Paper prior to publication if they inform The Publisher of the nature and extent of such limited distribution prior there to. Authors retain all proprietary rights in any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in The Paper. This agreement becomes null and void if and only if the above paper is not accepted and published by The Publisher, or is with drawn by the author(s) before acceptance by the Publisher.