Socio-Economic Aspects of Accessibility to Museums and Galleries in Europe by Removing Barriers

Abstract


The paper deals with the theoretical and empirical investigation of socio-economic aspects of accessibility to museums and galleries by removing various barriers. While there are certain costs associated with barrier removal, making museum and galleries accessible also leads to an increase in visitor numbers, resulting in higher incomes. Thus, accessibility in turn, impacts both economy and society. The aim is to examine and identify the socio-economic aspects associated with making museums and galleries accessible to all and to compare the approach to this process in Slovakia and abroad. The study analyses primary data collected through a combination of questionnaire survey and interviews. The research sample consists of Slovak museums and galleries (n=52) and associations from 6 European countries. Results reveal that the main problem lies in the elimination of architectural barriers, which is caused by the historical nature of buildings and the financial difficulty associated with technical modifications. The lack of financial resources is as well considered to be a fundamental hindrance to the process of removing barriers. However, making culture accessible to people with disabilities is not driven by internal motivation, but rather by an obligation arising from the law. The findings also underscore that representatives from museums, galleries, and associations acknowledge that while the immediate economic benefits may not be readily apparent, the long-term impact on the institution's attractiveness and visitor experience and happiness is profound. Moreover, implemented modifications are beneficial to a significantly broader audience, which expands the potential target group and may contribute to employment.


 

References

[1] Agovino, Massimiliano, Mariaconcetta Casaccia, Antonio Garofalo, and Katia Marchesano, K. (2017). Tourism and disability in Italy. Limits and opportunities. Tourism Management Perspectives 23: 58-677. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2017.05.001
[2] Andani, Alexander, Jack Rostron and Begum Sertyesilisik (2013). An Investigation into Access Issues Affecting Historic Built Environment. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 1(2): 21-31. DOI:https://doi.org/10.12691/ajcea-1-2-1
[3] Blichfeldt, Bodil S. and Jaqueline Nicolaisen (2011). Disabled Travel: Not easy, but Doable. Current Issues in Tourism, 14(1): 79-102. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500903370159
[4] Buhalis, Dimitrios, Simon Darcy and Ivor Ambrose (2012). Best Practice in Accessible Toursim: Inclusion, Disability, Ageing Population and Tourism. Channel View Publications.
[5] Cavapozzi, Danilo and Francesca Zantomio (2020). Senior Tourism in Italy: The role of disability and socioeconomics characteristics. Journal of Population Ageing, 14(14): 229-245. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s12062-020-09286-3
[6] Chikuta, Oliver, Engelina Du Plessis and Melville Saayman (2018). Accessibility Expectations of Tourists with Disabilities in National Parks. Tourism Planning and Development, 16: 1-18. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/21568316.2018.1447509
[7] Crawford, Duane W., Edgar L. Jackson and Geoffrey Godbey (1991). A hierarchical model of leisure constraints. Leisure Sciences, 13(4): 309-320. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01490409109513147
[8] Darcy, Simon and Dimitrios Buhalis (2010). Accessible Tourism: Concepts and Issues. View Channel publications.
[9] Darcy, Simon and Tracey J. Dickson (2009). A Whole-of-Life Approach to Tourism: The Case of Accessible Tourism Experience. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 16(1): 32-44. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1375/jhtm.16.1.32
[10] Deffner, Alex et al. (2015). Accessibility to Culture and Heritage: Designing for all. Paper presented at the AESOP Prague Annual Congress 2015: Definite space - fuzzy responsibility, July 13-16, in Prague, Czech Republic.
[11] Dimache, Alexandru, Amare Wondirad and Elizabeth Agyeiwaah (2017). One museum, two stories: Place identity at the Hong Kong Museum of History. Tourism Management, 63: 287 – 301. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2017.06.020
[12] Domínguez, Trinidad, Jose A. Fraiz and Elisa Alén (2013). Economic profitability of accessible tourism for the tourism sector in Spain. Tourism Economics, 19(6): 1385-1399. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5367/te.2013.0246
[13] Eusébio, Celeste, Joana P. Alves, Maria J. Carneiro and Leonor Teixeira (2023). Needs, motivations, constraints and benefits of people with disabilities participating in tourism activities: the view of formal caregivers. Annals of Leisure Research. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/11745398.2023.2190141
[14] Faizefu, Ambei R. and Busi E. Neba (2024). A Historical Perspective on Social Exclusion and Physical Disabilities. International Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychology 2, no. 1.
[15] Frye, Ann (2015). Capitalising on the grey-haired globetrotters: Economic aspects of increasing tourism among older and disabled people. Available at: https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/5jrvzrqdmnxr-en.pdf?expires=1715345556andid=idandaccname=guestandchecksum=C9DB12C40C3DC388380739AEC9AB21FA
[16] Fuchs, Kevin (2024). The Barriers to Accessible Tourism in Phuket: Toward an Exploratory Framework with Implications for Tourism Planning. Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 71(4): 798-805. DOI:10.37741/t.71.4.10
[17] Gonda, Tibor, Dávid Nagy and Zoltán Raffay (2019). The impact of tourism on the quality of life and happiness. Interdisciplinary Management Research, 15: 1790-1803. Available at: https://nx15738.your-storageshare.de/s/CMPGdyk82YLACoG
[18] Gonda, Tibor (2023). The importance of infrastructure in the development of accessible tourism. Journal of Infrastructure, Policy and Development 8(2). DOI: 10.24294/jipd.v8i2.2735
[19] Gonda, Tibor (2021). Travelling habits of people with disabilities. In Geojournal of Tourism and Geosites, 37(3): 844-850. DOI: https://doi.org/10.30892/gtg.37315-717
[20] Gúčik, Marián (2020). Cestovný ruch v ekonomike a spoločnosti. Wolters Kluwer.
[21] Gura, Dmitry, Nadezhda Kiryunikova, Elina Lesovaya and Saida Pshidatok (2020). Barrier-free environment as an aspect for the development of accessible ecotourism. E3S Web of Conferences 175(21). DOI:10.1051/e3sconf/202017510013
[22] Haluwalia, Sumit, MoMuhammad Bhat and Meera Rani (2021). Exploring the Factors of Social Exclusion: Empirical Study of Rural Haryana, India. Conteporary Voice of Dalit, 14(2). DOI:10.1177/2455328X211000565
[23] Hanko, Jaroslav (2015). Práca s handicapovaným návštevníkom v múzeu. Zväz múzeí na Slovensku.
[24] Hefny, Lamiaa (2024). For accessible tourism experience: Exploring the blog sphere of people with disabilities. Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research 12, no. 1: 33-61. DOI: 10.30519/ahtr.1283500.
[25] Kahtani, Al S., Jianhong Xia and Bert Veenendaal (2011). Measuring accessibility to tourist attractions. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jianhong-cecilia-Xia/publication/257603174_Measuring_accessibility_to_tourist_attractions/links/0deec5257a8df61769000000/Measuring-accessibility-to-tourist-attractions.pdf
[26] Kastenholz, Elisabeth, Celeste Eusébio and Elisabete Figueiredo (2015). Contributions of tourism to social inclusion of persons with disability. Disability and Society 30(8): 1259-1281. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2015.1075868
[27] Kollarová, Alena and Miloš Kollar (2010). Viacnásobné postihnutie ako sociálny problém. Available at: https://www.prohuman.sk/socialna-praca/viacnasobne-postihnutie-ako-socialny-problem
[28] Koustriava, Eleni and Maria Koutsmani (2023). Spatial and Information Accessibility of Museums and Places of Historical Interest: A Comparison between London and Thessaloniki. Sustainability 15(24). DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/su152416611
[29] Koutsogeorgou, Eleni et al. (2014). Social capital, disability, and usefulness of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for the development and monitoring of policy interventions. Disability and Society, 29(7): 1104-1116. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2014.910106
[30] Kovačić, Sanja, et al. (2024). Let us hear the voice of the audience: groups facing the risk of cultural exclusion and cultural accessibility in Vojvodina province, Serbia. Universal Access in the Information Society. DOI:10.1007/s10209-024-01102-5
[31] Kruczek, Zygmunt et al. (2024). Accessibility of Cultural Heritage Sites for People with Disabilities: A Case Study on Krakow Museums. Sustainability, 16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su16010318
[32] Kučera, Peter and Beáta Gavurová (2020). Stav bariér k mobilite a dostupnosti základných ľudských potrieb na Slovensku za rok 2019. Situačná spáva. Košice. Technická univerzita Košice. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340660782_Stav_barier_k_mobilite_a_dostupnosti_zakladnych_ludskych_potrieb_na_Slovensku_za_rok_2019
[33] Leahy, Ann and Delia Ferri (2023). Barriers to cultural participation by people with disabilities in Europe: a study across 28 countries. Disability and Society. DOI:https://doi.org/doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2023.2222898
[34] Leiras, Ana and Celeste Eusébio (2023). Perceived image of accessible tourism destinations: a data mining analysis of Google Maps reviews. Current Issues in Tourism. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2023.2230338
[35] Linderová, Ivica, and Petr Janeček (2017). Accessible tourism for all – current state in the Czech business and non-business environment. Ekonómie a Management, 20(4). DOI: 10.15240/tul/001/2017-4-012
[36] Linderová, Ivica (2015). Ekonomické a sociokultúrne dopady sociálneho cestovného ruchu. Paper presented at Hradec Economic Days, February 3-4, in Hradec Králové, Available at: https://uni.uhk.cz/hed/site/assets/files/1048/proceedings_2015_2.pdf
[37] Linderová, Ivica (2016). Přístupnost památek UNESCO pro zdravotně postižené návštevníky v České republice. Paper presented at XI International Conference: Topical Issues of Tourism, February 24-25, in Jihlava. Available at: https://kcr.vspj.cz/uvod/archiv/konference/conference-topical-issues-of-tourism-2016
[38] Linderová, Ivica (2018). Cestovní ruch osob se zdravotním postižením. Brno: Paido,
[39] Liu, Jialu, Yifei Chen, Hongyun Kang and Chunlin Li (2023). Development Trends and Opportunities in China's Accessible Tourism Market. BCP Business and Management, 50: 77-86. DOI:10.54691/bcpbm.v50i.5572
[40] Lynch, Suzanna and David Proverbs (2020). How adaptation of historic listed buildings affords access. Interantional Journal of Building, Pathology and Adaption, 38(4): 589-605. DOI:10.1108/IJBPA-11-2018-0093
[41] Marčeková, Radka and Ľubica Šebová (2020). Ponuka cestovného ruchu pre zdravotne znevýhodnených návštevníkov na Slovensku. Vydavateľstvo Belianum.
[42] Marsin, Jamilia M., Syed A. I. Ariffin and Raja N. Shahminan (2014). Comparison of legislation concerning people with disability and heritage environment in Malaysia and developed countries. Paper presented at IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Kuching, in Sarawak, Malaysia. DOI:https://doi.org/doi:10.1088/1755-1315/18/1/012178
[43] Mastrogiuseppe, Marilina, Stefania Span and Elena Bortolotti (2021). Improving accessibility to cultural heritage for people with Intellectual Disabilities: A tool for observing the obstacles and facilitators for the access to knowledge. European Journal of Disability Research, 15(2): 113-123. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alter.2020.06.016
[44] Melian, Ariadna. G., Lluís Prats and Lluis Coromina (2018). Tourism constraints for Spanish tourists with disabilities: Scale development and validation. Documents d'anàlisi geogràfica 64(1): 49-71. DOI:https://doi.org/10.5565/rev/dag.364
[45] Meskele, Ashenafi T., Solomon L. Woreta and Engdu G. Weldesenbet (2018). Accessible Tourism Challenges and Development Issues in Tourist Facilities and Attraction Sites of the Amhara Region World Heritage Sites, Ethiopia. International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Systems, 11(1): 26-37.
[46] Michopoulou, Eleni, Simon Darcy, Ivor Ambrose and Dimitros Buhalis (2015). Accessible tourism futures: the world we dream to live in and the opportunities we hope to have. Journals of Tourism Futures, 1(3): 179-188. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JTF-08-2015-0043
[47] Mishra, P. K., Himanshu, B. Rout, Debasis Sahoo, Predip Kumar and S. R. Chaini (2023). International Tourism, Financial Deepening and Economic Growth: Insights from Southern African Countries. Theoretical and Practical Research in Economic Fields, 14, 1(27): 74-84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14505/tpref.v14.1(27).07
[48] Mitra, Sophie et al. (2017). Extra costs of living with a disability: A review and agenda for research. Disability and Health Journal, 10(4): 475-484. DOI: 10.1016/j.dhjo.2017.04.007
[49] Mohanty, Rojalin and Ansuman Samal (2023). The Study on Socio-Economic Impacts of Tourism in the Golden Triangle of Odisha. Theoretical and Practocaô Research in Economic Fields 14, 2(28): 94-104. DOI:https://doi.org/10.14505/tpref.v14.1(27).09
[50] Moura, Andrei, Celeste Eusébio and Eugénia Devile (2022). The ‘why’ and ‘what for’ of participation in tourism activities: travel motivations of people with disabilities. Current Issues in Tourism, 26(6): 941-957. DOI:10.1080/13683500.2022.2044292
[51] Moura, Andreia F. A., Elisabeth Kastenholz and Anabela M. S. Pereira (2017). Accessible tourism and its benefits for coping with stress. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 10(3): 241-264. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19407963.2017.1409750
[52] Naniopoulos, Aristotelis and Panagiotis Tsalis (2015). A Methodology for Facing the Accessibility of Monuments Developed and Realised in Thessaloniki, Greece. Journal of Tourism Futures, 1(2): 240-253. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JTF-03-2015-0007
[53] Önal, Özgür, Merve Güblü, Merve H. Akyol, Ahmet N. Kişioğlu and Ersin Uskun (2024). The impact of perceived social support and social exclusion on the quality of life of individuals with disabilities: A moderation analysis. Psychology Research on Education and Social Sciences, 5(1): 1-11. DOI:10.5281/zenodo.10673583
[54] Pagán, Ricardo (2012). Time allocation in tourism for people with disabilities. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(3): 1514-1537. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2012.04.005
[55] Pahos, AnaMaria, Athanasois Stamos and Sasa Kicosev, S. (2010). Cultural Tourism in Europe. UTMS Journal of Economics, 1(1): 85-92. Available at: https://www.utmsjoe.mk/files/Vol.1%20No.1/0-13-_085-92_Pahos_AM_Stamos_AthanasiosKicosev_Sasa.pdf
[56] Partarakis, Nikolaos et al. (2016). Accessibility of Cultural Heritage Exhibits. Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, July 17-22, in Toronto, Canada. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-40244-4_43
[57] Perangin-Angin, Rosliyana, Rokhshad Tavakoli and Camelia Kusumo (2023). Inclusive tourism: the experience and expectations of Indonesian wheelchair tourists in nature tourism. Tourism Recreation Research, 48(6): 955-968. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2023.2221092
[58] Reyes-García, María E., Fernando Criado-García, José A. Camúñez-Ruíz and María Casado-Pérez (2021). Accessibility to Cultural Tourism: The Case of the Major Museums in the City of Seville. Sustainability, 13(6). DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su13063432
[59] Rubio-Escuderos, Lucía, Hugo García-Andreau, Eleni Michopoulou and Dimitrios Buhalis (2021). Perspectives on experiences of tourists with disabilities: implications for their daily lives and for the tourist industry. Tourism Recreation Researc, 49(1). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2021.1981071
[60] Santana-Santan, Sara B., Carolina Peña-Alonso and Emma P. Espino (2020). Assessing physical accessibility conditions to tourist attractions. The case of Maspalomas Costa Canaria urban area (Gran Canaria, Spain). Applied Geography, 125(1). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2020.102327
[61] Shi, Lei., Shu Cole, Charles Chancellor (2012). Understanding leisure travel motivations of travellers with acquired mobility impairments. Tourism Management, 33(1): 228-231. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2011.02.007
[62] Smith, Ralph W. (1987). Leisure of disabled tourists. Annals of Tourism Research 14(3): 376–389. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(87)90109-5
[63] Souca, Maria L. (2010). Accessible Tourism – The Ignored Opportunity. Annals of the University of Orodea: Economic Science 1(1): 1154-1157.
[64] Warren, Andrew, Wanjira Chege, Meghan Greene and Lisa Berdie (2023). The Financial Health of People With Disabilities. Key Obstacles and Opportunities. Available at: https://finhealthnetwork.org/wp-content/uploads/2023/08/The-Financial-Health-of-People-With-Disabilities_Key-Obstacles-and-Opportunities.pdf
[65] Załuska, Urszula, Dorota Kwiatkowska-Ciotucha and Alicja Greśkowiak (2022). Travelling from Perspective of Persons with Disability: Results of an International Survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19(17). DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191710575
[66] Závodi, Bence, Géza Szabó and Levente B. Alpek (2021). Survey of the Consumer Attitude of Tourists Visisting South Transdanubia, Hungary. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 34(1): 245-250. DOI:https://doi.org/10.30892/gtg.34133-644
[67] Zenko, Zdenka and Valentina Sardi (2014). Systematic thinking for socially responsible innovations in social tourism for people with disabilities. Kybernetes, 43(3/4): 652-666. DOI: 10.1108/K-09-2013-0211
[68] European Commission (2021). Únia rovnosti: Stratégia v oblasti práv osôb so zdravotným postihnutím na roky 2021 – 2030. Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/SK/TXT/?uri=COM:2021:101:FIN#PP4Contents
[69] European Council (2022). Infographic – Disability in the EU: facts and figures. Available at: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/infographics/disability-eu-facts-figures/
[70] Eurostat (2023). Population structure and ageing. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Population_structure_and_ageing#The_share_of_elderly_people_continues_to_increase
[71] ISTO (2011). The social and economic benefits of social tourism. Available at: http://nationbuilder.s3.amazonaws.com/appgonsocialtourism/pages/23/attachments/original/ISTO_-_Inquiry_Social_Tourism.ISTO.pdf?1314889615
[72] UNWTO (2013). Recommendations on accessible Tourism for all. Available at: https://www.accessibletourism.org/resources/accesibilityen_2013_unwto.pdf
[73] UNWTO (2023). Recommendations for key players in the cultural tourism ecosystem. Available at: https://webunwto.s3.eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/2023-09/Cultura-ING_ACC.pdf?VersionId=JUTDNhf8hNBZdgAeBayWzv.ZOqlD.Eta
[74] WHO (2023). Disability. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/disability-and-health
Published
2024-06-28
How to Cite
ŠEBOVÁ, Ľubica; LAZUROVÁ, Izabela; MARČEKOVÁ, Radka. Socio-Economic Aspects of Accessibility to Museums and Galleries in Europe by Removing Barriers. Theoretical and Practical Research in Economic Fields, [S.l.], v. 15, n. 2, p. 375-391, june 2024. ISSN 2068-7710. Available at: <https://journals.aserspublishing.eu/tpref/article/view/8473>. Date accessed: 13 july 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.14505/tpref.v15.2(30).17.