Assessing City Marketing in Jordan: The Case of Petra

Abstract

The aim of this study is to assess city marketing approaches used in promoting Petra in Jordan. To this end, four major criteria, including integrated marketing communication, quality of urban services, organizational procedures, and tourism receipt, were considered in this study. A qualitative method using in-depth, face-to-face interviews with top managers, was used to achieve the study objectives. Findings reveal that Petra suffers from a lack of effective city marketing strategies. The processes of city marketing, including integrated marketing communication, urban services, organizational aspects, and financial reserves, are greatly ineffective. Such processes are basically influenced by regulations, funding, and collaboration between various public authorities, as well as between the public sector and the private sector. The study provides useful insights for policymakers in order to improve city marketing in Jordan.

References

[1] Ahmad, A., Kakeesh, D., and Abuhashesh, M. 2022. The role of the online flower of service in enhancing guest loyalty via the mediating role of guest experience: a structural equation modelling approach. International Journal of Electronic Marketing and Retailing, 13(1): 1-24.
[2] Akroush, M. 2011. The 7Ps Classification of the Services Marketing Mix Revisited: An Empirical Assessment of their Generalisability, Applicability and Effect on Performance-Evidence from Jordan. Jordan Journal of Business Administration, 7 (1): 116-147.
[3] Akroush, M.N. et al. 2016. Tourism service quality and destination loyalty – the mediating role of destination image from international tourists’ perspectives. Tourism Review, 1: 18-44.
[4] Akroush, N.M., and Al-Dmour, H.H. 2006. Do Service Organisations Need a Different Strategic Marketing Planning? Gaps Analysis. Journal of Dirasat: Administrative Sciences, 33 (2): 435-449.
[5] Alhammad, F., Al-Weshah, G., Harb, A. 2021. Trends in Jordan Tourism and Hospitality Literature: A Systematic Review. Dirasat, Human and Social Sciences, 48 (4), 523-539.
[6] Alnsour, J. 2011. Evaluation of Local Residents and Specialized Experts of Heritage Environment in Jordan. Jordan Journal of Social Sciences, 4 (1): 133-143.
[7] Alnsour, J. 2014. Effectiveness of Urban Management in Jordanian Municipalities. The sustainable City IX: In N. Marchettini, C.A. Brebbia, R. Pulseliand S. Bastianoni, Urban regeneration and sustainability, 271-282.
[8] Alnsour, J. 2016. The Management of Urban Services in Jordan. International Journal of Economic Research, 13 (4): 1823-1835.
[9] Alnsour, J., and Meaton, J. 2015. The Use of University Research in Planning Decision Making in Jordanian Municipalities. Habitat International, 49, 206–211.
[10] Alnsour, J., Arabeyyat, A., Hyasat, A., Al-Habees, M., and Aldweik, R. 2023. The impact of urbanization on cultural heritage in Jordan: As-Salt as a case study. Future Cities and Environment, 9 (1): 21, 1-14.
[11] Al-Weshah, G. 2017. Marketing intelligence and customer relationships: empirical evidence from Jordanian banks. Journal of Marketing analytics, 5 (3-4): 141-152.
[12] Al-Weshah, G. 2018. E-Marketing Practices from Jordanian Tourism Agencies Perspectives: A Qualitative Evidence. International Journal of Online Marketing, 8(1): 21-36.
[13] Al-Weshah, G. 2019. The current status of customer relationship management: experience of small businesses in Jordanian food industry. International Journal of Electronic Customer Relationship Management, 12 (1):1-20.
[14] Al-Weshah, G., Alnsour, M., Al-Hyari, K., Alhammad, F. and Algharabat, R. 2013. Electronic Networks and Relationship Marketing: Qualitative Evidence from Jordanian Travel Agencies. Journal of Relationship Marketing, 12 (4) 261-279.
[15] Al-Weshah, G., Kakeesh, D. and Shishan, F. 2023. Integrating Electronic Customer Relationship Management and Artificial Intelligence: A Theoretical Foundation for Marketing Intelligence in the Service Industry. Contemporary Approaches of Digital Marketing and the Role of Machine Intelligence, 73-104.
[16] Ashworth, G.J., and Voodg, H. 1990. Selling the City: Marketing Approaches in Public Sector Urban Planning. Belhaven Press.
[17] Bailey, J. 1989. Marketing Cities in the 1980s and Beyond. Cleveland State University Press, Cleveland, OH.
[18] Balencourt, A., and Zafra, A. 2012. City Marketing: How to promote a city? Unpublished master thesis, Umea University.
[19] Barke, M. 1999. City marketing as a planning tool, In Pacione, M. (Ed.), Applied Geography: Principles and Practice. Routledge, London, 486‐96.
[20] Bramwell, B., and Rawding, L. 2004. Tourism marketing images of industrial cities. Annals of Tourism Research, 23 (1): 201-221.
[21] Braun, E. 2008. City Marketing: Towards and integrated approach. Rotterdam: Erasmus Research Institute of Management.
[22] Broadhead, J. 2020. Building inclusive cities: reflections from a knowledge exchange on the inclusion of newcomers by UK local authorities. Comparative Migration Studies, 8(1). DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/s40878-020-0172-0
[23] Chambwe, M., Gumbi, L., and Wessels, W. 2023. City Tourism Product Development and Marketing: The Case of the Provincial Capital city of Mahikeng. Studia Periegetica, 4(44): 159-176.
[24] Chigora, F., and Hoque, M. 2018. City marketing to city branding: A novel practice in Zimbabwe destination branding. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 7 (4): 1-14.
[25] Clark, G. 2006. City Marketing and Economic Development. International City Summit Madrid.
[26] Cozmiuc, C. 2011. City branding- just a compilation of marketable assets? Economy Transdisciplinarity Cognition, 14 (1) 428.
[27] Czapliński, P., Kavetskyy, I. 2021. Place marketing specialization as a way to improve the attractiveness of educational offerings in socio-economic geography. In: Socioeconomic geography: experiences, opportunities and challenges in the educational process. reds. Anny Kołodziejczak i Lidii Mierzejewskiej. Poznań: Bogucki Wydawnictwo Naukowe
[28] Czapliński, P. 2023. Perception of Tourist Places from a Spatial Perspective. European Research Studies Journal, 2, 106-117.
[29] Gale, N., and Donaire, J. 2005. The social construction of the image of Girona: A methodological approach. Tourism Management, 26, 777-785.
[30] Goovaerts, P., Van Biesbroeck, H. and Van Tilt, T. 2014. Measuring the effect and efficiency of city marketing. Procedia Economics and Finance, 12: 191-198.
[31] Hankinson, G. 2004. Relational network brands: Towards a conceptual model of place brands. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 2: 109–121.
[32] Heeley, J. 2016. Rethinking urban destination marketing. International Journal of Tourism Cities, 2 (1): 94-102.
[33] Hubbard, P., and Hall, T. 1998. The Entrepreneurial City: Geographies of Politics, Regime and Representation. John Willey.
[34] Kakeesh, D. and Ahmad. A. 2020. How tourism quality creates satisfaction from the perspective of international tourists. Jordan Journal of Business Administration, 16(2): 473-495.
[35] Kavaratzis, M. 2004. From city marketing to city branding: Towards a theoretical framework for developing city brands. Place Branding, 1 (1): 58-73.
[36] Kavaratzis, M., and Ashworth, G. 2008. Place marketing: how did we get here and where are we going? Journal of Place Management and Development, 1(2): 150-165.
[37] Kotler, P., Asplund, C., Rein, I., and Heider, D. 1999. Marketing Places Europe: Attracting Investments, Industries, Residents and Visitors to European Cities, Communities, Regions and Nations. Pearson Education, London, UK.
[38] Luo, Z., Wang, X., Zhang, J., and Hu, Y. 2013. Urban scaling-up and endogenous development promoted by continuous city marketing: A case study of Xuyi County, China. Planning Theory, 12 (4): 406-424.
[39] Maaiah, B., and Masadeh, M. 2015. The Brochures as a Tool for Tourism Marketing: The Case of Petra. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 6 (2): 98-106.
[40] McCann, E. 2020. City Marketing. (2nd edition). In: Kitchin R, Thrift, N. (eds). International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, 241-246. Elsevier.
[41] Misic, K.U., and Podnar, K. 2019. Perception of city management, fellow residents, and Perceived External Prestige (PEP) as antecedents of city affective commitment - The city marketing perspective. Cities, 84: 66-74.
[42] Niedomysl, T., and Jonasson, M. 2012. Towards a theory of place marketing. Journal of Place Management and Development, 5 (3): 223–230.
[43] Pike, S., and Page, S. 2014. Destination Marketing Organizations and destination marketing: A narrative analysis of the literature. Tourism Management, 41: 202-227.
[44] Rana, P. N., Luthra. S., Mangla, K.S., Islam, R.S., Roderick, S., and Dwivedi, K.Y. 2018. Barriers to the Development of Smart Cities in Indian Context. Information Systems Frontiers, 21: 503–525.
[45] Schmidt, K. 1993. City marketing in Germany. In: Ave, G. and Corsico, F. (Eds), Urban Marketing in Europe. Turin, Torino Incontra.
[46] Shatnawi, T., Ashour, L., and Kakeesh, D. 2020. Investigating the impact of atmospherics and online flow cues on visiting intentions: the case of Jordan'virtual tourist centre. International Journal of Electronic Marketing and Retailing, 11(1): 1-23.
[47] Short, J. R., and Kim, Y. H. 1999. Globalisation and the City. Harlow, Longman.
[48] van den Berg, L., and Braun, E. 1999. Urban competitiveness, marketing and the need for organizing capacity. Urban Studies, 36 (5-6): 987–999.
[49] Sudarmayasa, W., Setiyowati, E., Uhai, S. and Anugrah, K. 2022. The Effect of Location on the Marketing of Sustainable Community-Based Tourism Destinations in the Pela Tourism Village. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 647: 723-728.
[50] Ward, S. V. 1998. Selling Places: The Marketing and Promotion of Towns and Cities 1850–2000. E and FN Spon, London, UK.
[51] Warnaby, G., Bennison, D., and Daviesy, J. B. 2005. Marketing Town Centres: Retailing and Town Centre Management. Local Economy, 20 (2): 183–204.
[52] Department of Statistics. 2022. Annual Statistical Report. Amman, Jordan.
[53] Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities, Jordan. 2008. Tourism Statistical Newsletter.
[54] Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities, Jordan. 2015. Tourism Statistical Newsletter.
[55] Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities, Jordan. 2019. Tourism Statistical Newsletter.
[56] Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities, Jordan. 2020. Tourism Statistical Newsletter.
[57] Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities, Jordan. 2023. Tourism Statistical Newsletter.
[58] World Bank. 2021. International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook and data files.
[59] World Travel and Tourism Council. 2023. Travel and Tourism: economic impact 2015, Jordan.
Published
2024-05-31
How to Cite
ALNSOUR, Jamal Ahmad et al. Assessing City Marketing in Jordan: The Case of Petra. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 15, n. 2, p. 373 - 384, may 2024. ISSN 2068-7729. Available at: <https://journals.aserspublishing.eu/jemt/article/view/8419>. Date accessed: 13 july 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.14505/jemt.v15.2(74).11.