Sustainable Energy Systems and Green Hotel Practices in Hotels in Tamale Metropolis, Ghana

  • Patricia Animah APPIAH Department of Ecotourism and Hospitality Management, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, University for Development Studies (UDS), Ghana
  • Raymond ADONGO Department of Environment and Sustainability Sciences, Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, University for Development Studies (UDS), Ghana
  • Abdul-Rafiw SAFO Department of Geography and Rural Development, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Ghana


The hotel sector, along with numerous other tourism-related industries, significantly poses a threat to the environment through its extensive consumption of resources like water, energy, and non-durable items. The hotel industry is also well known for its large-scale discharge of raw and solid waste in varying proportions. As a result, numerous hotels have begun implementing innovative approaches to enhance the sustainability of their operations in efforts to alleviate their environmental impact while also addressing the increasing environmental concerns expressed by customers. Employing a cross-sectional design and quantitative approach and using both descriptive and inferential analysis, we assess sustainable energy systems and green hotel practices in the Tamale metropolis, Ghana. We find that majority of hotels in the Tamale metropolis have written green management policy. We also find that cost and customers understanding of green policies are the main challenges hindering their adaptation and implementation of sustainable energy systems. The study establishes a significant relationship between level of education and use of green energy practices. Again, the study finds staff strength to be highly inter-linked with the existence of green management policy. To this end, we recommend that operators should implement training programs for staff, replace fossil fuels with renewable energy sources and educating the citizens to foster increased awareness and trust in renewable energy systems, as well as to provide proper training for their effective utilization.



[1] Abdel-Maksoud, A., H. Kamel, and S. Elbanna. 2016. Investigating Relationships between Stakeholders’ Pressure, Eco-Control Systems and Hotel Performance. International Journal of Hospitality Management 59 (October): 95–104. DOI:
[2] Abdou, A. H., T. H. Hassan, and M. M. El Dief. 2020. A Description of Green Hotel Practices and Their Role in Achieving Sustainable Development. Sustainability 12 (22): 9624. DOI:
[3] Adedoyin, F. F., and F. V. Bekun. 2020. Modelling the Interaction between Tourism, Energy Consumption, Pollutant Emissions and Urbanization: Renewed Evidence from Panel VAR. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 27 (31): 38881–900. DOI:
[4] Alipour, S., and Soosan. 2019. Investigating Sustainable Practices in Hotel Industry-from Employees’ Perspective: Evidence from a Mediterranean Island. Sustainability 11 (23): 6556. DOI:
[5] Amoako, G. K., S. G. Kutu-Adu, Livingstone D. C., and E. Neequaye. 2019. Relationship Marketing and Repurchase Intention in Ghana’s Hospitality Industry: An Empirical Examination of Trust and Commitment. Journal of Relationship Marketing 18 (2): 77–107. DOI:
[6] Ampofo, J. A. 2020. Contributions of the Hospitality Industry (Hotels) in the Development of Wa Municipality in Ghana. International Journal of Advanced Economics 2 (2): 21–38. DOI:
[7] Barakagira, A., and C. Paapa. 2023. Green Practices Implementation for Environmental Sustainability by Five-Star Hotels in Kampala, Uganda. Environment, Development and Sustainability, March. DOI:
[8] Bohdanowicz, P., A. Churie-Kallhauge, and I. Martinac. 2001. Energy-Efficiency and Conservation in Hotels–towards Sustainable Tourism: In 4th International Symposium on Asia Pacific Architecture, Hawai, 1–12. Available at:
[9] Bohdanowicz, P. 2006. Environmental Awareness and Initiatives in the Swedish and Polish Hotel Industries—Survey Results. International Journal of Hospitality Management 25 (4): 662–82. DOI:
[10] Borowski, M., P. Mazur, S. Kleszcz, and K. Zwolińska. 2020. Energy Monitoring in a Heating and Cooling System in a Building Based on the Example of the Turówka Hotel. Energies 13 (8): 1968. DOI:
[11] Cruz-Pérez, N., et al. 2022. Improvements in Hotel Water Consumption: Case Study of a Five-Star Hotel (Canary Islands, Spain). Urban Water Journal 19 (1): 32–39. DOI:
[12] Dascalaki, E., and C. A. Balaras. 2004. XENIOS—a Methodology for Assessing Refurbishment Scenarios and the Potential of Application of RES and RUE in Hotels. Energy and Buildings 36 (11): 1091–1105. DOI:
[13] Deraman, F, N Ismail, A I M Arifin, and M I A Mostafa. 2017. Green Practices in Hotel Industry: Factors Influencing the Implementation. Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Culinary Arts (JTHCA) 2017 9 (2): 305–16. Available at:
[14] Dief, M. E., and X Font. 2010. The Determinants of Hotels’ Marketing Managers’ Green Marketing Behaviour. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 18 (2): 157–74. DOI:
[15] Dimara, E., E. Manganari, and D. Skuras. 2017. Don’t Change My Towels Please: Factors Influencing Participation in Towel Reuse Programs. Tourism Management 59 (April): 425–37. DOI:
[16] Dimitrić, M., I. T. Žiković, and A. A. Blecich. 2019. Profitability Determinants of Hotel Companies in Selected Mediterranean Countries. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja 32 (1): 1977–93. DOI:
[17] Doris, D. S. 2022. Average Rate of Occupancy of Hotel Rooms in Ghana from 2014 to 2021, by Type. Statista. 2022. Available at:
[18] Ruiz-Molina, E. M., I. Gil-Saura, and M. Šerić. 2013. The Use of ICT in Established and Emerging Tourist Destinations: A Comparative Analysis in Hotels. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology 4 (2): 96–118. DOI:
[19] Gabarda-Mallorquí, A., X. Garcia, R. M. Fraguell, and A. Ribas. 2021. Are Hotel Stay Characteristics Influencing Guests’ Environmental Behaviour? Predicting Water Conservation Habits. Current Issues in Tourism 24 (16): 2342–56. DOI:
[20] Deladem, G. et al. 2021. Developing Sustainable Tourism through Public-Private Partnership to Alleviate Poverty in Ghana. Tourist Studies 21 (2): 317–43. DOI:
[21] Grové, J. 2017. Energy Transitions in Developing Countries and the Role of Alternative Liquid Fuels in Reducing Energy Poverty: Exploring the Use of Domestically Produced Dimethyl Ether (DME) to Augment the Use of Imported Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) as a Clean Cooking. The University of Queensland.
[22] Han, Heesup, et al. 2018. Water Conservation and Waste Reduction Management for Increasing Guest Loyalty and Green Hotel Practices. International Journal of Hospitality Management 75 (September): 58–66. DOI:
[23] Han, X., and K. Chan. 2013. Perception of Green Hotels Among Tourists in Hong Kong: An Exploratory Study. Services Marketing Quarterly 34 (4): 339–52. DOI:
[24] Havi, E. D. K., and P. Enu. 2013. The Impact of Tourism on Economic Performance in Ghana. European Scientific Journal 9 (34): 242–57.
[25] Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Jacob, D., and Taylor, M. 2018. Impacts of 1.5 C Global Warming on Natural and Human Systems." Global Warming of 1.5 C. An IPCC Special Report. American Journal of Epidemiology 170 (June): NP. Available at:
[26] Huq, F. A., and M. Stevenson. 2020. Implementing Socially Sustainable Practices in Challenging Institutional Contexts: Building Theory from Seven Developing Country Supplier Cases. Journal of Business Ethics 161 (2): 415–42. DOI:
[27] Im, J., Y. K. Chung, and D. (Daisy) Qin. 2023. Exploring Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in Hospitality and Tourism Firms through the Organizational Justice and Stakeholder Theories. Tourism Management 95 (April): 104662. DOI:
[28] Jauhari, V. 2014. Managing Sustainability in the Hospitality and Tourism Industry: Paradigms and Directions for the Future. Taylor and Francis Group.
[29] Jorba, R. 2021. Highlight 15/2021 – Sustainable Tourism: The End of Travelling as We Knew It. MEIG. 2021. Available at:
[30] Kapera, Z. 2018. Sustainable Development in the Hotel Industry: Between Theory and Practice in Poland. Turyzm, 2: 23–30. Available at:
[31] Kapiki, S. 2010. Energy Management in Hospitality: A Study of the Thessaloniki Hotels. Journal of Economics and Organization of Future Enterprise, 78–97. Available at:
[32] Khan, N., et al. 2020. Factors Affecting Tourism Industry and Its Impacts on Global Economy of the World. SSRN Electronic Journal. DOI:
[33] Khatter, A., L. White, J. Pyke, and M. McGrath. 2021. Barriers and Drivers of Environmental Sustainability: Australian Hotels. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 33 (5): 1830–49. DOI:
[34] Kirk, D. 1998. Attitudes to Environmental Management Held by a Group of Hotel Managers in Edinburgh. International Journal of Hospitality Management 17 (1): 33–47. DOI:
[35] Koiwanit, J., and V. Filimonau. 2021. “Carbon Footprint Assessment of Home-Stays in Thailand.” Resources, Conservation and Recycling 164 (January): 105123. DOI:
[36] Koščak, M., and T. O’Rourke. 2023. Ethical and Responsible Tourism Managing Sustainability in Local Tourism Destinations. 2nd Editio. Routledge. Available at:
[37] Kuklina, M., et al. 2021. Prospects for the Development of Sustainable Tourism in the Okinsky District of the Republic of Buryatia. Sustainability 13 (14): 8042. DOI:
[38] Kuuder, C.-J. W., et al. 2013. Energy, Water and Waste Management in the Accommodation Sector of Tamale Metropolis, Ghana. American Journal of Tourism Management 2 (A): 1–9. DOI:
[39] Lanjewar, J. 2015. Green Initiative by Hotels. Sai Om Journal of Commerce and Management 2 1 (2015): 42–48.
[40] Liu, H., et al. 2022. Impact of Green Financing, FinTech, and Financial Inclusion on Energy Efficiency. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 29 (13): 18955–66. DOI:
[41] López-Gamero, M. D., J. F. Molina-Azorín, J.J. Tarí, and E. M. Pertusa-Ortega. 2023. Interaction between Sustainability Practices and the Mediating Role of Hotel Performance. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, April, 1–26. DOI:
[42] Manaktola, K., and V. Jauhari. 2007. Exploring Consumer Attitude and Behaviour towards Green Practices in the Lodging Industry in India. Edited by Vinnie Jauhari. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 19 (5): 364–77. DOI:
[43] Martínez Ceseña, E. A., N. Good, and P. Mancarella. 2015. Electrical Network Capacity Support from Demand Side Response: Techno-Economic Assessment of Potential Business Cases for Small Commercial and Residential End-Users. Energy Policy 82: 222–32. DOI:
[44] Martínez García de Leaniz, P., Á. Herrero Crespo, and R. Gómez López. 2018. Customer Responses to Environmentally Certified Hotels: The Moderating Effect of Environmental Consciousness on the Formation of Behavioral Intentions. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 26 (7): 1160–77. DOI:
[45] McLeish, B. 2007. Pairing Green Design with Energy Purchasing Strategies. Hospitality 2 (6): 52–54.
[46] Mensah, I. 2009. The Management of Tourism and Hospitality Services: Global Dimensions, Ghanaian Perspectives. Accra: Woeli Publishing Services.
[47] Mensah, I., and E.J. Blankson. 2014. Commitment to Environmental Management in Hotels in Accra. International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration 15 (2): 150–71. DOI:
[48] Mensah, I. 2007. Environmental Management and Sustainable Tourism Development: The Case of Hotels in Greater Accra Region (GAR) of Ghana. Journal of Retail and Leisure Property 6 (1): 15–22. DOI:
[49] Mensah-Ansah, J., E. Martin, and D. Egan. 2011. Tourism Trends in Ghana: The Accommodation Sector. Tourism Analysis 16 (2): 157–68. DOI:
[50] Merli, R., M. Preziosi, A. Acampora, and F. Ali. 2019. Why Should Hotels Go Green? Insights from Guests Experience in Green Hotels. International Journal of Hospitality Management 81 (August): 169–79. DOI:
[51] Moore, D. S., W. Notz, and M. A. Fligner. 2013. Scatterplots and Correlation. In The Basic Practice of Statistics, 6th ed. New York, NY: WH Freeman and Company.
[52] Ozturkoglu, Y., F. O. Sari, and E. Saygili. 2021. A New Holistic Conceptual Framework for Sustainability Oriented Hospitality Innovation with Triple Bottom Line Perspective. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology 12 (1): 39–57. DOI:
[53] Palinkas, L. A., et al. 2011. Mixed Method Designs in Implementation Research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research 38 (1): 44–53. DOI:
[54] Pandey, A., R. Sahu, and Y. Joshi. 2022. Kano Model Application in the Tourism Industry: A Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism 23 (1): 1–31. DOI:
[55] Parpairi, K. 2017. Sustainability and Energy Use in Small Scale Greek Hotels: Energy Saving Strategiesand Environmental Policies. Procedia Environmental Sciences 38: 169–77. DOI:
[56] Petrevska, B., V. Cingoski, and M. Serafimova. 2016. Sustainable Tourism And Hotel Management In Macedonia Through The Use Of Renewable Energy Sources. UTMS Journal of Economics 7 (1): 123–32. Available at:
[57] Prakash, S., et al. 2023. Adopting Green and Sustainable Practices in the Hotel Industry Operations- an Analysis of Critical Performance Indicators for Improved Environmental Quality. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal 34 (4): 1057–76. DOI:
[58] Ragasa, Catherine, Sena Amewu, and Seth Asante. 2021. Changes in Household Income, Food Consumption, and Diet Quality in Urban and Rural Areas of Ghana during the COVID-19 Crisis: Results of 2020 Phone Surveys. DOI:
[59] Rauf, A., et al. 2021. Do Tourism Development, Energy Consumption and Transportation Demolish Sustainable Environments? Evidence from Chinese Provinces. Sustainability 13 (22): 12361. DOI:
[60] Schoffstall, D. G. 2013. The Benefits and Challenges Hospitality Management Students Experience by Working in Conjunction with Completing Their Studies. Ames: Iowa State University, Digital Repository. DOI:
[61] Setia, M.. 2016. Methodology Series Module 3: Cross-Sectional Studies. Indian Journal of Dermatology 61 (3): 261. DOI:
[62] Shen, M., et al. 2020. (Micro)Plastic Crisis: Un-Ignorable Contribution to Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change. Journal of Cleaner Production 254 (May): 120138. DOI:
[63] Strielkowski, W., et al. 2021. Effective Management of Energy Consumption during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of ICT Solutions. Energies 14 (4): 893. DOI:
[64] Tansel, T., G. Yeshenkulova, and U. Nurmanova. 2021. Analysing Waste Management and Recycling Practices for the Hotel Industry. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism 12 (2): 382–91. DOI:
[65] Tanveer, M. I., M. Y. Yusliza, and O. Fawehinmi. 2023. Green HRM and Hospitality Industry: Challenges and Barriers in Adopting Environmentally Friendly Practices. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, February. DOI:
[66] Teye, V. B. 2008. International Involvement in a Regional Development Scheme: Laying the Foundation for National Tourism Development in Ghana. Tourism Review International 12 (3/4): 291–301. Available at:
[67] Thams, A., N. Zech, D. Rempel, and A. Ayia-Koi. 2020. An Initial Assessment of Economic Impacts and Operational Challenges for the Tourism and Hospitality Industry Due to COVID-19. Hospitality, Tourism and Event from IU International University of Applied Sciences. Available at:
[68] Thommandru, A., et al. 2023. “Role of Tourism and Hospitality Business in Economic Development. Materials Today: Proceedings 80. DOI:
[69] Tzschentke, N., D. Kirk, and P. Lynch. 2008. Ahead of Their Time? Barriers to Action in Green Tourism Firms. The Service Industries Journal 28 (2): 167–78. DOI:
[70] Upadhyay, A., and C. Vadam. 2014. The Role of Energy Consumption in Hotel Operations. Brighton Business School, 1–10. Available at:
[71] Vaidya, M., P. Chatterjee, and K. Bhopatkar. 2022. Energy Efficient Smart Lighting System for Rooms. In Studies in Big Data, 107–25. Springer, Cham. DOI:
[72] Verma, V., and B. Chandra. 2016. Hotel Guest’s Perception and Choice Dynamics for Green Hotel Attribute: A Mix Method Approach. Indian Journal of Science and Technology 9 (5). DOI:
[73] Vernon, J., S. Essex, D. Pinder, and K. Curry. 2003. The ?Greening? Of Tourism Micro-Businesses: Outcomes of Focus Group Investigations in South East Cornwall. Business Strategy and the Environment 12 (1): 49–69. DOI:
[74] Wyngaard, A.T., and R. de Lange. 2013. The Effectiveness of Implementing Eco Initiatives to Recycle Water and Food Waste in Selected Cape Town Hotels. International Journal of Hospitality Management 34 (September): 309–16. DOI:
[75] Yusof, Z. B., and M. Jamaludin. 2013. Green Approaches of Malaysian Green Hotels and Resorts.” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 85 (September): 421–31. DOI:
[76] Zhang, F., et al. 2023. Visitors’ Satisfaction towards Indoor Environmental Quality in Australian Hotels and Serviced Apartments. Building and Environment 244 (October): 110819. DOI:
[77] HOTREC. 2018. HOTREC Sustainability Charter: Promoting The Use of Sustainable Energy and Improving Energy Efficiency in The Hospitality Sector. EU-ASE. 2018.
[78] UNWTO. 2019. International Tourism Highlights, 2019 Edition. World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). DOI:
How to Cite
APPIAH, Patricia Animah; ADONGO, Raymond; SAFO, Abdul-Rafiw. Sustainable Energy Systems and Green Hotel Practices in Hotels in Tamale Metropolis, Ghana. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 14, n. 7, p. 2915 - 2934, dec. 2023. ISSN 2068-7729. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 17 june 2024. doi: