Earthquake, COVID, and the Economic Survival: How Tourism Entrepreneurs in Lombok Survived During the Double Disaster


This study aims to map the economic survival strategies of tourism entrepreneurs during the disaster period (earthquake and COVID-19) on Lombok Island. The research methods were documentation, interview, and observation. Documentation used to collect the government's policies in the economic, banking, and financial sectors. Interviews were conducted with tourism entrepreneurs in relation to their economic survival steps and strategies. Observation was used to see the economic survival activities carried out by tourism businesses. In this study found that the Indonesian and West Nusa Tenggara regional governments issued an economic policy in the relation with earthquake and covid disasters. Based on these government policies, tourism sector economic entrepreneurs survive in disaster conditions, and create other sources outside the tourism sector as a source of family economics. The survival economy of tourism entrepreneurs during the disaster period was by changing professions as traders with family savings capital, involving all resources in the family to meet household needs, and utilizing several strategic government economic policies during the disaster time.


[1] Ahn, D. G., Shin, H. J., Kim, M. H., Lee, S., Kim, H. S., Myoung, J., Kim, B. T., and Kim, S. J. 2020. Current Status of Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Therapeutics, and Vaccines for Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 30(3), 313–324. DOI:
[2] Albuquerque, R., Koskinen, Y., Yang, S., and Zhang, C. 2020. The resiliency of environmental and social stocks. The Review of Corporate Finance Studies, 9(3), 593–621.
[3] Antoniades, A. 2008. From ‘Theories of Hegemony’ to ‘Hegemony Analysis’ in International Relations International Relations. March, 1–18.
[4] Choironi, M. A. N. 2021. Religion and Narration of Covid-19 on Social Media: A Study on Dapur Narasi Social Movement. DINIKA: Academic Journal of Islamic Studies, 6(2), 213–234. DOI:
[5] Cholik, M. A. 2017. The Development of Tourism Industry in Indonesia: Current Problems and Challenges. European Journal of Research and Reflection in Management Sciences, 5(1): 49–59.
[6] Cinelli, M., Quattrociocchi, W., Galeazzi, A., Valensise, C. M., Brugnoli, E., Schmidt, A. L., Zola, P., Zollo, F., and Scala, A. 2020. The COVID-19 social media infodemic. Scientific Reports, 10(1): 1–11. DOI:
[7] Cooper, C., and Wahab, S. 2001. Tourism in the Age of Globalisation in Cooper and Wahab (eds.); 1st Ed. Routledge. DOI:
[8] Delardas, O., Kechagias, K. S., Pontikos, P. N., and Giannos, P. 2022. Socio-Economic Impacts and Challenges of the Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19): An Updated Review. Sustainability, 14(15). DOI: 10.3390/su14159699
[9] Eberl, J. M., Huber, R. A., and Greussing, E. 2021. From Populism to the ‘Plandemic’: Why Populists Believe in COVID-19 Conspiracies. Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties, 31(S1): 272–284. DOI: 17457289.2021.1924730
[10] Febriani, S. D. 2016.The Impact of Tourism on Local Economic Development in Batu (Case study: Jatim Park 2 Area ).
[11] Gilles, C. 2018. Humanitarian economics (2018/54 Provided). DOI:
[12] Haryana, A. 2020. Economic and Welfare Impacts of Indonesia’s Tourism Sector. Jurnal Perencanaan Pembangunan: The Indonesian Journal of Development Planning, 4(3): 300–311. DOI:
[13] Hughes, S., and Machan, L. 2021. It’s a conspiracy: Covid-19 conspiracies link to psychopathy, Machiavellianism and collective narcissism. Personality and Individual Differences, 171, 1–4. DOI:
[14] Ivanov, S., and Webster, C. 2007. Measuring the Impact of Tourism on Economic Growth. Tourism Economics, 13(3): 379–388. DOI:
[15] Kapiki, S. 2012. The Impact of Economic Crisis on Tourism and Hospitality: Results from a Study in Greece. Central European Review of Economics and Finance, 2(1): 19–30. press_det.php?id=5361
[16] Kasiyarno, K. 2014. The ‘American’ Hegemonic Culture: Its Roots, Features and Implications to World Culture. Rubikon. Journal of Transnational American Studies, 1(1), 19. DOI:l
[17] Krisnahadi, T. 2020. Implications of Covid with the Utilization of Digital Marketing on the Income of Culinary Business Actors Around Pandanan Beach Tourism Objects in North Lombok. Mandala Education, 6(2). DOI:
[18] Levy, E., and Filippini, F. 2021. Social and Economic Impact of COVID 19. In Global Economy and Development (No. 158; Global Economy and Development Program at Brookings, Issue June).
[19] Lull, J. 2011. Media, Communication, and Culture: A Global Approach. In G. Dines and J. M. Humez (Eds.), Gender, Race, and Class in Media A Critical Reader (3rd Ed., pp. 33–36). Sage Publication.
[20] Ma’ruf, A., and Masmulyadi. 2013. Women’s Empowerment Model in Home Industry. Jurnal Ekonomi Dan Studi Pembangunan, 14, 9–17.
[21] Manzoor, F., L, W., M, A., MZ, H., and H., R. 2019. The Contribution of Sustainable Tourism to Economic Growth and Employment in Pakistan. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 16(19), 3785. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16193785.
[22] Maryanti, S., Netrawati, I. O., and Faezal. 2019. Menggerakan Perekonomian Melalui Pemulihan Usaha Dan Industri Mikro Kecil Menengah Pasca Bencana Gempa Bumi Di Nusa Tenggara Barat. 14(4): 2321–2336. (in Indonesian)
[23] Mas’udah, S., Megasari, L. A., and Saud, M. 2021. Women’s Resisteance to Domestic Violence During COVID-19 Pandemic: Study from Indonesia. Jurnal Sosiologi Dialektika, 16(2): 163–174. DOI: jsd.v16i2.2021.163-174
[24] Mihalic, T. 2013. Economic Impacts of Tourism, Particularly Its Potential Contribution to Economic Development. In C. A. Tisdell (Ed.), Handbook of Tourism Economics Analysis, New Aplication and Case Studies (pp. 645–682). DOI:
[25] Miller, A. 2020. COVID-19: Well Planned Conpiracies The Battle of 5G With Covid-19 Bill Gates and His Plan for the World. American Bar Association.
[26] Ngadi, N., Meliana, R., and Purba, Y. A. 2020. Dampak Pandemi Covid-19 Terhadap Phk Dan Pendapatan Pekerja Di Indonesia. Jurnal Kependudukan Indonesia, 2902, 43.DOI:
[27] Nizar, M. A. 2015. Tourism Effect on Economic Growth in Indonesia. Munich Personal RePEc Archive (MPRA), 7(65628), 1–25.
[28] Ntibanyurwa, A. 2006. Tourism as a factor of development. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 97: 73–84. DOI:
[29] Özdemir, Ö. 2020. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Diagnosis and Management (narrative review). Erciyes Medical Journal, 42(3): 242–247. DOI:
[30] Padhan, R., and Prabheesh, K. P. 2021. The economics of COVID-19 pandemic: A survey. Economic Analysis and Policy, 70: 220–237. DOI:
[31] Pérez-Rodríguez, J. V., Rachinger, H., and Santana-Gallego, M. 2022. Does tourism promote economic growth? A fractionally integrated heterogeneous panel data analysis. Tourism Economics, 28(5): 1355–1376. DOI:
[32] Petrovi, N. 2020. Tackling the COVID-19 Conspiracies: The Data-Driven Approach. International Scientific Conference on Information, 27–30.DOI:
[33] Pillay, A. L., and Barnes, B. R. 2020. Psychology and COVID-19: Impacts, Themes and Way Forward. South African Journal of Psychology, 50(2): 148–153. DOI:
[34] Rasool, H., Maqbool, S., and Tarique, M. 2021. The relationship between tourism and economic growth among BRICS countries: a panel cointegration analysis. Future Business Journal, 7(1): 1–11. DOI:
[35] Salahuddin, M., and Abdillah. 2022. Maqashid al-Shariah, Social Dialogue and Tourism Development in Lombok. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, Volume 13, Winter, 8(64): 2213–2221. DOI: jemt.v13.8(64).13
[36] Sarnoto, A. Z. (2021). Resistance of Education Design Based on Islamic Boarding School in the Midst of The Covid-19 Pandemic: Study of Crisis Management. ICONIS: International Conference on Islamic Studies, 151–162.
[37] Silveira, B. and de Oliveira, M. 2020. Covid-19: From Outbreak to Pandemic. Global Scientific Journal, 8(3): 2230–2238.
[38] Siswanto, V. K., Pamungkas, A., Kusuma, S. H., Kuniawati, U. F., and Puspita, A. D. A. 2021. The impact of COVID-19 on the performance of food clusters MSMEs in Surabaya. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 778(1). DOI:
[39] Soesilo, T. E. B. 2021. The pandemic COVID-19 in DKI Jakarta: An Economic and Environmental Impact Model with a Systems Thinking Approach. Jurnal Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Alam Dan Lingkungan (Journal of Natural Resources and Environmental Management), 11(2); 334–341. DOI:
[40] Steinerowska-Streb, I., Glod, G., and Steiner, A. 2022. What do we know about small and medium enterprises’ survival in a post-global economic crisis context? Local Economy, 37(4): 259–278. DOI:
[41] Straubhaar, J. D. 1991. Beyond Media Imperialism: Assymetrical interdependence and Cultural Proximity. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 8(1): 39–59. DOI:
[42] Syafruddin, Salahuddin, M., and Nurhilaliati. 2023. Accessibility of Women’s Empowerment in Tourism Industry from Mandalika Special Economic Zone. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, XIV(2), 105–113.
[43] Tang, Y., Schmitz, J. E., Persing, D. H., and Stratton, C. W. 2020. Laboratory Diagnosis of COVID-19: Current Issues and Challenges. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 58(6): 1–9.
[44] Taqwiem, A., Al Rasyid Muhammad, H., and Maulidi, A. 2020. Halal Tourism Development Analysis in Lombok Island. KnE Social Sciences, 2020, 177–184. DOI:
[45] UNICEF, UNDP, Prospera, and SMERU. 2021. Analysis of the Social and Economic Impacts of COVID-19 on Households and Strategic Policy Recommendations for Indonesia, Jakarta.
[46] Vet, J. M. D. E., Nigohosyan, D., Ferrer, J. N., Gross, A.K., Kuehl, S., and Flickenschild, M. 2021. Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on EU industries. In Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies, European Parliament.
[47] Wahab, S., and Cooper, C. 2005. Tourism in The Age of Globalization. Routledge, 368pp. ISBN 9780415758185
[48] Wibisono, C., Suryanti, Isramilda, and Amelia, C. 2020. Influence of Spiritual, Economic Resistance, Healthy Behavior of Free COVID-19 Pandemics Through Immunity in Riau Islands, Indonesia. Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 11(12): 1535–1547. DOI:
[49] Wilson, T. D., and Ypeij, A. 2012. Tourism, gender, and ethnicity. Latin American Perspectives, 39(6): 5–16. DOI:
[50] Yeh, S. S. 2021. Tourism recovery strategy against COVID-19 pandemic. Tourism Recreation Research, 46(2): 188–194. DOI:
How to Cite
BAIHAQI, Muh. et al. Earthquake, COVID, and the Economic Survival: How Tourism Entrepreneurs in Lombok Survived During the Double Disaster. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 14, n. 6, p. 2596-2604, sep. 2023. ISSN 2068-7729. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 27 may 2024. doi: