Legal Regulation of Civil Liability for Environmental Damage: How Appropriate are Civil Liability Provisions with the Privacy of Environmental Damage?


The study analyzes the nature of civil liability resulting from environmental damage, because the risk of environmental pollution is one of the dangers that cannot be counted or predicted. Therefore, it is difficult to determine the legal basis on which it is based in the field of pollution. Traditional wrong-based liability rules do not respond to the tort-based environmental policy objectives in order to avoid environmental damage and ensure effective protection for those affected. This made the provisions of civil liability in the Jordanian Civil Law no longer commensurate with the specificity of environmental damage, especially since the situation requires compensation for damage to the environment itself and to the health and property of individuals. In addition, it is not hidden that there are shortcomings in the provisions of the Jordanian Environment Protection Law No. (6) of 2017. Its provisions included preventive and remedial measures for environmental pollution without considering the issue of compensation for environmental damage in a manner consistent with the nature and specificity of this damage. This requires the development of these rules in a way that commensurate with the nature of environmental damage.


[1] Abdelrahman, H. 2014. Legal liability Arising from Environmental Damage. PhD Thesis, Omdurman Islamic University, College of Sharia and Law, Omdurman, Sudan.
[2] Al Shara'a, M. 2014. Civil Responsibility for Environmental Pollution. Amman: Amwaj for Publishing and Distribution.
[3] Al-Asir, I. 2014. Compensation for Environmental Damage, University of Kufa, Center for Kufa Studies, 3: 176-210, University of Kufa, Iraq.
[4] Al-Billeh, T. 2022a. Judicial oversight on the administrative contracts in the Jordanian legislation and the comparison: the modern qualitative jurisdiction of the administrative judiciary. Indian Journal of Law and Justice 13 (02): 1 – 28 (September 2022),
[5] Al-Billeh, T. 2022b. The Correction of the Invalidity of the Civil Trials Procedures in Jordanian and Egyptian Legislation: The Modern Judicial Trends. Kutafin Law Review (KULawR) 9, no 3: 486-510. DOI:
[6] Al-Billeh, T. 2022c. The Impact of the Comprehensive Ban Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Quality of Ambient Air in Jordan. Study for 15th March to 15th April of 2020 Period. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 3(59): 802 - 811. DOI:
[7] Al-Billeh, T. 2022d. Freedom of Religious Belief and the Practice of Religious Rites According to the Jordanian Legislation: Difficult Balance between International and Regional Requirements as well as the National Legislative Controls. Balkan Social Science Review 20: 117-137,
[8] Al-Billeh, T., and Abu Issa, H. 2022. The Community Penalties in the Jordanian Criminal Law: What are the Alternatives to Liberty-Depriving Penalties? Pakistan Journal of Criminology, 14(3): 1-18,
[9] Al-Billeh, T., and Abu Issa, H. 2023. The Role of the Environment Committees in the Nineteenth Parliament for the Year 2020 in Studying Matters Related to Environmental Affairs in Jordan. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 1(65): 168 - 175. DOI: 10.14505/jemt.v14.1(65).16
[10] AL-Hammouri, A., Al-Billeh, T., and Alkhseilat, A. 2023. The Extent of Constitutionalizing the Environmental Rights as One of the Anchors to Keep a Healthy, Clean Environment: A Difficult Balance between the International Agreements and the Jordanian Constitution’s Restrictions. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism 1(65): 89 -97. DOI:10.14505/jemt.v14.1(65).09
[11] Al-Hasnawi, H. 2012. Compensation Claim for Environmental Damage. Al al-Bayt Journal 3: 58-95.
[12] Al-Hiti, S. 2011. International Responsibility for Environmental Damage. Syria: Dar Raslan for Printing, Publishing and Distribution.
[13] Al-Khawajah, N., et al. 2022. Criminalization of the Transmission of the Coronavirus COVID-19 and Its Impact on the Right to a Healthy Environment. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism 7(63): 1881 - 1887. DOI:10.14505/jemt.v13.7(63).08
[14] Alkhseilat, A., Al-Billeh, T., Almanasra, M., and Alwerikat, N. 2022. Criminal Behavior as a Basis for Criminal Responsibility for the Crime of Introducing Substances Hazardous to the Environment in Jordanian Legislation. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism 7(63): 1851 - 1858. DOI:10.14505/jemt.v13.7(63).05
[15] Almanasra, M. et al. 2022. Criminal Responsibility for the Crime of Discharging Polluting Substances for Water Sources in Jordanian Legislation. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism 7(63): 1948 - 1954. DOI:10.14505/jemt.v13.7(63).15
[16] Al-Mathan, N., and Al-Mahasnah, M. 2006. Civil Liability for Environmental Damage in Jordanian Law and Comparative Law. PhD Thesis, Amman Arab University, Amman, Jordan.
[17] Al-Mihanna, M. 2018. Civil Responsibility for the Damages of Environmental Pollution. Beirut: Zain Human Rights Publications.
[18] Al-Nasser, A. 2010. Civil Liability for Damage to Pollution of the Marine Environment. Amman: Dar Al-Thaqafa for Publishing and Distribution.
[19] Al-Nawaisa, F. 2020. Civil Liability Arising from Environmental Damage- a Comparative Study. Master Thesis, Mutah University, Jordan.
[20] Al-Rashidi, W. 2012. Civil Liability Arising from Environmental Pollution: A Comparative Study, Master Thesis, Middle East University, Faculty of Law, Amman, Jordan.
[21] Al-Sarayrah, I. 2015. The Adequacy of General Rules in Compensation for Environmental Damage in the Jordanian Civil Law, Journal of Social Sciences and Arts 8 (2): 5-13.
[22] Alshible, M., Abu Issa, H., and Al-Billeh, T. 2023. The Extent of Considering Environmental Crimes as a Manifestation of Economic Crimes. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism 1(65): 23-31. DOI:10.14505/jemt.v14.1(65).03
[23] Al-Ta’i, A. 2013. Environmental Damage and Its Compensation in Civil Liability. Beirut: Al-Halabi human rights publications.
[24] Balmarat, S., and Haddum, K. 2021. The Reflection of the Specificity of Environmental Pollution in Determining the Legal Nature of Civil Liability for Pollution Damage. Journal of Legal Studies, 8 (1): 210-250.
[25] Fahmy, K. 2020. Legal Aspects of Environmental Protection from Pollution. Alexandria: Dar Al-Fikr Al-Jami'i.
[26] Hashmawi, A. 2021. The Legal System for Civil Liability for Environmental Damage. Journal of Jurisprudence and Law 4: 48-63.
[27] Hilal, A. 2005. Environmental Crimes between Theory and Practice. Cairo: Library of Arts.
[28] Manasir, M. 2020. The Adequacy of General Rules in Environmental Reparation in Jordanian and Comparative law, Algerian Journal of Law and Political Science 5 (1): 15-49.
[29] Martin, G. 1992. The Civil Responsibility of the Fait des Chechen Droit Francais. Paris: Societé de Legislation Comparée.
[30] Muhammad, A. 2020. The Extent to Which Civil Liability Rules are Implemented in the Field of Environmental Pollution: A Comparative Study. Journal of the Faculty of Sharia and Law 35 (1): 1074-1133.
[31] Othman, M. 2008. An Extrapolation of Environmental Damage Parameters: a comparative study. Kirkuk University Journal for Human Studies 1 (3).
[32] Qaid, H. 2015. Civil Liability for Environmental Damage in Algerian Law, Journal of Law and Society 5: 163-180.
[33] Sultan, A. 2015. Sources of Obligation in Civil Law. Amman: House of Culture for Publishing and Distribution.
[34] Xua, Q., and Khanb, M. 2023. Reflections on the environmental damage compensation regime in Chinese civil legislations. Heliyon 9(4): e15154. DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e15154
[35] Yusefi, N., and El-Zein, A. 2006. Civil Liability for Environmental Pollution Damage. Master Thesis, University of Kasdi Merbah-Ouargla, Algeria.
[36] Zhai, T. 2022. Double-Faceted Environmental Civil Liability and the Separate-Regulatory Paradigm: An Inspiration for China. Sustainability 14(7): 4369. DOI:
How to Cite
AL-KHALAILEH, Lana et al. Legal Regulation of Civil Liability for Environmental Damage: How Appropriate are Civil Liability Provisions with the Privacy of Environmental Damage?. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 14, n. 5, p. 2174 - 2186, sep. 2023. ISSN 2068-7729. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 01 oct. 2023. doi: