Motives to Visit Urban Ecotourism Sites: A Study of a Botanical Garden in South Africa
Botanical gardens are a global phenomenon. Historically developed with the intention of maintaining a living collection of plants (under scientific management) for the purpose of research and education, botanical gardens have evolved to provide an accessible urban alternative for ecotourism experiences. Given that many botanical gardens are publically funded, income secured from tourist visitation can help supplement (limited) government funds. The purpose of this study was determining the motives of visitors to a botanical garden in South Africa. Employing a quantitative methodology, an onsite intercept survey by means of convenience sampling yielded 304 usable responses. An exploratory factor analysis revealed six distinct visitor motivations. The results inform the marketing of botanical gardens with a view to promoting their financial sustainability as visitor attractions, and ultimately their continued role as centres of scientific research, conservation and education.
 Ballantyne, R, Packer, J. and Hughes, K.2008. Environmental awareness, interests and motives of botanic gardens visitors: Implications for interpretive practice. Tourism management, 29(3): 439-444. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2007.05.006
 Boo, Soyoung, and Jones, D.L. 2009. Using a validation process to develop market segmentation based on travel motivation for major metropolitan areas. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 26(1): 60-79. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/10548400802656801
 Bouwer, S., et al. 2022. Values for an Undergraduate Ecotourism Management Curriculum in South Africa: A Mixed-methods Study. Journal of teaching in travel & tourism, 22(4): 337-359. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/15313220.2021.2004573
 Catahan, N. and Woodruffe-Burton, H. 2017. The view, brew and loo: perceptions of botanic gardens? Journal of Place Management and Development, 12(1). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JPMD-12-2017-0127
 Ching, G.H., and Noratiqah, M. 2016. The user’s perceptions of Perdana Botanical Garden in Kuala Lumpur. Journal of Design and Built Environment, 16(1). DOI: https://doi.org/10.22452/jdbe.vol16no1.3
 Cohen, E. 1972. Towards a Sociology of International Tourism. Social Research, 39(1). Available at: https://www.jstor.org/stable/40970087
 Crompton, J. 1979. Motivation for pleasure travel. Annals of Tourism Research, 1(4). DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(79)90004-5
 Cudjoe, E., and Gbedemah, S. F. 2020. The new roles of Legon Botanical Garden as visitor destination in Ghana. Journal of Sustainable Tourism and Entrepreneurship, 1(1). DOI:https://doi.org/10.35912/joste.v1i1.160
 Fletcher, J., Fyall, A., Gilbert, D. and Wanhill, S. 2013. Tourism: principles and practice. 5th edition. Pearson Education.
 Fox, D. and Edwards, J. 2008. Managing gardens. In A. Fyall, B. Garrod, A. Leask, and S. Wanhill (Eds.), Managing visitor attractions. 2nd Edition. Butterworth and Heinemann, 2008.
 Geldenhuys, S. and Saayman, M. 2009. Ecotourism: getting back to basics. Potchefstroom: Leisure publications, 26-42
 Graham, D.MS. 1981. Tourist motivation an appraisal. Annals of tourism research, 8(2): 187-219. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(81)90082-7
 Grobbelaar, L., Bouwer, S., and. Hermann, U. P. 2019. An Exploratory Investigation of Visitor Motivations to the Barberton-Makhonjwa Geotrail, South Africa. Geo Journal of Tourism and Geosites, 25(2): 283-292. DOI:https://doi.org/10.30892/gtg.25101-359
 He, He, and Jin Chen. 2012. Educational and enjoyment benefits of visitor education centers at botanical gardens. Biological Conservation, 149(1):, 103-112. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.01.048
 Hermann, U. P., and Liezel Du Plessis. 2014. Travel motives of visitors to the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa and leisure. African journal for physical health education, recreation and dance, 20(3): 1162-1172. DOI: https://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC166031
 Hermann, U. P., et al. 2016. A visitor motivational typology at Mapungubwe National Park and World Heritage Site. Acta Commercii, 16(1): 1-7. Available at: https://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC189611
 Higham, J., and Lück, M. 2002. Urban ecotourism: a contradiction in terms? Journal of ecotourism, 1(1): 36-51. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14724040208668111
 Karaşah, Banu, and Mustafa Var. 2013. Recreational functions of botanical gardens and examining sample of Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanical Garden. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Banu-Karasah/publication/312173011_Recreational_Functions_of_Botanical_Gardens_And_Examining_Sample_of_Nezahat_Gokyigit_Botanical_Garden/links/58863068aca272b7b44cc90e/Recreational-Functions-of-Botanical-Gardens-And-Examining-Sample-of-Nezahat-Goekyigit-Botanical-Garden.pdf
 Kruger, M., and Saayman, M. 2010. Travel motivation of tourists to Kruger and Tsitsikamma National Parks: A comparative study. South African Journal of Wildlife Research-24-month delayed open access, 40(1): 93-102. Available at: https://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC117327
 Kruger, M., Saayman, M. and. Hermann, U. P. 2014. First-time versus repeat visitors at the Kruger National Park. Acta Commercii, 14(1): 1-9. Available at: https://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC156069
 Machnik, A. ‘Ecotourism as a Core of Sustainability in Tourism’. In: Lubowiecki-Vikuk, A., de Sousa, B.M.B., Đerčan, B.M., Leal Filho, W. (Eds), Handbook of Sustainable Development and Leisure Services. World Sustainability Series. Springer, Cham. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59820-4_15
 Mamoon, A., Dowling, R. K. and Sanders D. 2015. The motivations for visiting geosites: the case of Crystal Cave, Western Australia. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 16(2): 141-152.
 Masina, Nontsikelelo O., Liezel Boshoff, and Portia Pearl Siyanda Sifolo. 2021. Wildlife Tourism Motivation: A Case for Manyeleti Nature Reserve, Mpumalanga. (2021). DOI: 10.46222/ajhtl.19770720-170
 Maslow, A. 1970. Motivation and Personality. 2nd.(ed.) Harper and Row. New York
 McIntosh, R. W., Goeldner, C. R. and Ritchie, JR B. 1995. Tourism: principles, practices, philosophies. No. Ed. 7. John Wiley and Sons.
 McKercher, B. 2002. Towards a classification of cultural tourists. International journal of tourism research, 4(1): 29-38. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.346
 Metaxas, T. and Kechagia, P. 2016. Foreign Direct Investment in Latin America: The Case of Peru. Theoretical and Practical Research in the Economic Fields, Volume 7, Issue 2(14). DOI: https://doi.org/10.14505/tpref.v7.2(14).05
 Mutanga, C.N. et al. 2017. Travel motivation and tourist satisfaction with wildlife tourism experiences in Gonarezhou and Matusadona National Parks, Zimbabwe. Journal of outdoor recreation and tourism, 20: 1-18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jort.2017.08.001
 Park, D.-B., and Yoon, Y.-S. 2009. Segmentation by motivation in rural tourism: A Korean case study. Tourism management, 30(1): 99-108. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2008.03.011
 Plog, S. C. 1973. Why destination areas rise and fall in popularity. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 13-16.
 Rahatmawati, I., et al. 2020. The Intention to Repeat Visit Tourist on the Geotourism Object of Cave Bentar, Tanjungsari, Yogyakarta. Journal of Environmental Management & Tourism, 11(8): 1931-1937
 Ryan, R. M., and Deci, E. L. 2000. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary educational psychology, 25(1): 54-67. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1999.1020
 Saghir, J., and Santoro, J. 2018. Urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Meeting Challenges by Bridging Stakeholders. Washington, DC, USA: Center for Strategic & International Studies. Available at: https://www.csis.org/analysis/urbanization-sub-saharan-africa#:~:text=Sub%2DSaharan%20Africa%20(SSA),to%2020.2%20percent%20by%202050
 Salvarci, S., and Kubra F. A. 2021. Comments about Botanic Parks and Gardens in the Context of Botanical Tourism. Journal of Tourism Management Research, 8(2): 173-183. DOI:https://doi.org/10.18488/journal.31.2021.82.173.183
 Sample, I. 2015. Kew Gardens Funding is ‘recipe for failure’, warn MPs. The Guardian, 4. Available at: www.theguardian.com/science/2015/mar/04/kew-funding-is-recipe-for-disasterwarn-mps
 Šimková, E., and Holzner, J. 2014. Motivation of tourism participants. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 159: 660-664. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.12.455
 Slabbert, E., and Viviers, P. 2012. Push and pull factors of national parks in South Africa. Journal of contemporary management, 9(1): 66-88. DOI: https://hdl.handle.net/10520/EJC51123
 Snepenger, D., King, J. Marshall, E. and Uysal, M. 2006. Modeling Iso-Ahola’s motivation theory in the tourism context. Journal of travel research, 45(2): 140-149. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/00472875062915
 Van der Merwe, P., Slabbert, E. and Saayman, M. 2011. Travel motivations of tourists to selected marine destinations. International journal of tourism research, 13(5): 457-467. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.820
 Ward, C. D., Parker, C.M. and Shackleton, C. M. 2010. The use and appreciation of botanical gardens as urban green spaces in South Africa. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 9(1): 49-55 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2009.11.001
 Wassenberg, C.L., Goldenberg, M. A. and Soule, K. E. 2015. Benefits of botanical garden visitation: A means-end study. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 14(1): 148-155. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2015.01.002
 Weaver, D. B. 2005. Mass and urban ecotourism: new manifestions of an old concept. Tourism Recreation Research, 30(1): 19-26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2005.11081230
 Botanic Gardens Conservation International. ‘About botanic gardens’. (2020) Available at: https://www.bgci.org/about/about-botanic-garden/
 National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act 10 of 2004. Available at: https://www.gov.za/documents/national-environmental-management-biodiversity-act-0
 South Africa. Department of Forestry, Fisheries and Environment. South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI). Available at: https://www.dffe.gov.za/statutorybodies/sanbi
 The International Ecotourism Society. (2018). What is ecotourism? Retrieved from https://www.ecotourism.org/what-is-ecotourism
The Copyright Transfer Form to ASERS Publishing (The Publisher)
This form refers to the manuscript, which an author(s) was accepted for publication and was signed by all the authors.
The undersigned Author(s) of the above-mentioned Paper here transfer any and all copyright-rights in and to The Paper to The Publisher. The Author(s) warrants that The Paper is based on their original work and that the undersigned has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment. It is the author's responsibility to obtain written permission to quote material that has been previously published in any form. The Publisher recognizes the retained rights noted below and grants to the above authors and employers for whom the work performed royalty-free permission to reuse their materials below. Authors may reuse all or portions of the above Paper in other works, excepting the publication of the paper in the same form. Authors may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the above Paper for the Author's personal use or for internal company use, provided that the source and The Publisher copyright notice are mentioned, that the copies are not used in any way that implies The Publisher endorsement of a product or service of an employer, and that the copies are not offered for sale as such. Authors are permitted to grant third party requests for reprinting, republishing or other types of reuse. The Authors may make limited distribution of all or portions of the above Paper prior to publication if they inform The Publisher of the nature and extent of such limited distribution prior there to. Authors retain all proprietary rights in any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in The Paper. This agreement becomes null and void if and only if the above paper is not accepted and published by The Publisher, or is with drawn by the author(s) before acceptance by the Publisher.