Key Factors to Promote a Vulnerable Region as a Competitive Tourist Destination

  • Diego MARÍN-IDÁRRAGA Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Colombia
  • Juan SÁNCHEZ-TORRES Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Colombia
  • Pedro SANABRIA-RANGEL Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Colombia


The aim of this research was to identify the key factors to promote a vulnerable region as a competitive tourist destination. Using Dwyer and Kim´s model as a reference, this was an exploratory research based on a confirmatory factor analysis. The results show that created resources, tourist destination management, situational conditions, competitive performance related to visitors, and competitive performance related to governmental support are determining factors to promote the region as a competitive tourist destination. From the theoretical point of view, it contributes to demonstrate that, although the competitiveness of tourist destinations is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon, it is possible to define a reduced number of factors on which competitiveness performance falls. From the practical point of view, this work offers a relevant input to direct public policies in matters of tourism in a vulnerable region. This research is an exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis.


[1] Abbasi, G.A., Kumaravelu, J., Goh, Y.-N. and Dara Singh, K.S. 2021. Understanding the intention to revisit a destination by expanding the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Spanish Journal of Marketing – ESIC, 25 (2): 282-311. DOI:
[2] Abreu, M., Ruhanen, L. and Arcodia, C. 2018. Destination Competitiveness: A Phenomenographic Study. Tourism Management, 64: 324–34. DOI:
[3] Abreu-Novais, M., Ruhanen, L. and Arcodia, C. 2016. Destination Competitiveness: What We Know, What We Know but Shouldn’t and What We Don’t Know but Should. Current Issues in Tourism, 19 (6): 492–512. DOI:
[4] Aguinis, H., et al. 2020. Conducting Management Research in Latin America: Why and What’s in It for You? Journal of Management, 46 (5): 615–36. DOI:
[5] Aji, R.R., Aviandro, S., Hakim, D.R. and Djabrail, A.F.N. 2020. Environmental Determinants of Destination Competitiveness: A Case Study. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Vol. 830. DOI:
[6] Anderson, J. C., and Gerbing, D. W. 1988. Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-Step Approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103 (3): 411–23. DOI:
[7] Armenski, T., Dwyer, L. and Pavluković, V. 2018. Destination Competitiveness: Public and Private Sector Tourism Management in Serbia. Journal of Travel Research, 57 (3): 384–98. DOI:
[8] Bagozzi, R.P., and Youjae Yi. 1988. On the Evaluation of Structural Equation Models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16 (1): 74–94. DOI:
[9] Bentler, P M. 2006. EQS 6 Structural Equations Program Manual. Encino, CA: Multivariate Software Inc.
[10] Blanco-Cerradelo, L., Gueimonde-Canto, A., Fraiz-Brea, J.A. and Diéguez-Castrillón, M.I. 2018. Dimensions of Destination Competitiveness: Analyses of Protected Areas in Spain. Journal of Cleaner Production, 177: 782–94. DOI:
[11] Boroomand, B., Kazemi, A. and Ranjbarian, B. 2019. Designing a Model for Competitiveness Measurement of Selected Tourism Destinations of Iran (The Model and Rankings). Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism, 20 (4): 491–506. DOI:
[12] Byrne, B. M. 2006. Structural Equation Modeling With EQS: Básic Concepts, Applications, and Programming. 2nd ed. Mahwah, New Yersey, USA.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
[13] Camisón, C. 2020. Competitiveness and Sustainability in Tourist Firms and Destinations. Sustainability (Switzerland), 12 (6). DOI:
[14] Cegarra-Navarro, J. G., Sánchez-Vidal, M. E. and Cegarra-Leiva, D. 2011. Balancing Exploration and Exploitation of Knowledge through an Unlearning Context: An Empirical Investigation in SMEs. Management Decision, 49 (7): 1099–1119. DOI:
[15] Chee-Hua, C., May-Chiun, L., Nair, V. and Songan, P. 2016. Examining the Effects of Environmental Components on Tourism Destination Competitiveness: The Moderating Impact of Community Support. Asian Academy of Management Journal, 21: 75–104. DOI:
[16] Cracolici, M.F., and Nijkamp, P. 2009. The Attractiveness and Competitiveness of Tourist Destinations: A Study of Southern Italian Regions. Tourism Management, 30(3): 336–44. DOI:
[17] Cracolici, M.F., Nijkamp, P. and Rietveld, P. 2008. Assessment of Tourism Competitiveness by Analysing Destination Efficiency. Tourism Economics, 14(2): 325–42. DOI:
[18] Crouch, G.I., and Ritchie, J.R. 1999. Tourism, Competitiveness, and Societal Prosperity. Journal of Business Research, 44(3): 137–52. DOI:
[19] Dwyer, L., and Kim, C. 2003. Destination Competitiveness: Determinants and Indicators. Current Issues in Tourism, 6 (5): 369–414. DOI:
[20] Dwyer, L., Cvelbar, L.K. Mihalič, T. and Koman, M. 2014. Integrated Destination Competitiveness Model: Testing Its Validity and Data Accessibility. Tourism Analysis, 19(1): 1–17. DOI:
[21] Dwyer, L., et al. 2004. Attributes of Destination Competitiveness: A Factor Analysis. Tourism Analysis, 9 (1–2): 91–101. DOI:
[22] Ferreira, D., and Perks, S. 2020. A Dimensional Framework of Tourism Indicators Influencing Destination Competitiveness. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 9(3): 1–21. DOI:
[23] Fethi, S., and Senyucel, E. 2021. The role of tourism development on CO2 emission reduction in an extended version of the environmental Kuznets curve: evidence from top 50 tourist destination countries. Environ Dev Sustain, 23: 1499–1524. DOI:
[24] Fornell, C., and Larcker, D.F. 1981. Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18 (1): 39–50. DOI:
[25] Fuentes-Blasco, M., Saura, I. G., Berenguer-Contrí, G. and Moliner-Velázquez, B. 2010. Measuring the Antecedents of E-Loyalty and the Effect of Switching Costs on Website. Service Industries Journal, 30(11): 1837–52. DOI:
[26] Goffi, G., and Cucculelli, M. 2014. Components of Destination Competitiveness. The Case of Small Tourism Destinations in Italy. International Journal of Tourism Policy, 5(4): 296–326. DOI:
[27] Goffi, G., Cucculelli, M. and Masiero, L. 2019. Fostering Tourism Destination Competitiveness in Developing Countries: The Role of Sustainability. Journal of Cleaner Production, 209: 101–15. DOI:
[28] Goodhew, G. W., Cammock, P.A. and Hamilton, R.T. 2005. Managers’ Cognitive Maps and Intra-Organisational Performance Differences. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20(2): 124–36. DOI:
[29] Gooroochurn, Nishaal, and Guntur Sugiyarto. 2005. Competitiveness Indicators in the Travel and Tourism Industry. Tourism Economics, 11 (1): 25–43. DOI:
[30] Gössling, S., and Higham, J. 2021. The Low-Carbon Imperative: Destination Management under Urgent Climate Change. Journal of Travel Research, 60 (6): 1167–1179. DOI:
[31] Hair, J.F., Black, W.C., Babin, B. J. and Anderson, R. E. 2019. Multivariate Data Analysis. 8th ed. Hampshire, UK: Cencage Learning.
[32] Hanafiah, M.H., and M.I. Zulkifly. 2019. Tourism Destination Competitiveness and Tourism Performance: A Secondary Data Approach. Competitiveness Review, 29 (5): 592–621. DOI:
[33] Hanafiah, M.H., Hemdi, M.A. and Ahmad, I. 2016. Tourism Destination Competitiveness: Towards a Performance-Based Approach. Tourism Economics, 22 (3): 629–36. DOI:
[34] Hassan, S.S. 2000. Determinants of Market Competitiveness in an Environmentally Sustainable Tourism Industry. Journal of Travel Research, 38 (3): 239–45. DOI:
[35] Hong, W.-C. 2009. Global Competitiveness Measurement for the Tourism Sector. Current Issues in Tourism, 12 (2): 105–32. DOI:
[36] Hooper, D., Coughlan, J. and Mullen, M.R. 2008. Structural Equation Modelling: Guidelines for Determining Model Fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6 (1): 53–60. DOI:
[37] Khanra, S., Dhir, A., Kaur, P., and Mäntymäki, M. 2021. Bibliometric analysis and literature review of ecotourism: Toward sustainable development. Tourism Management Perspectives, 37: 15p. DOI:
[38] Knežević, L., Dwyer, L., Koman, M. and Mihalič, T. 2016. Drivers of Destination Competitiveness in Tourism: A Global Investigation. Journal of Travel Research, 55(8): 1041–50. DOI:
[39] Kubickova, M. 2019. The Impact of Government Policies on Destination Competitiveness in Developing Economies. Current Issues in Tourism, 22 (6): 619–42. DOI:
[40] Lee, C.-F., and King, B. 2006. Assessing Destination Competitiveness: An Application to the Hot Springs Tourism Sector. Tourism and Hospitality, Planning and Development, 3(3): 179–97. DOI:
[41] Li, T., Liu, F, and Soutar, G. 2021. Experiences, post-trip destination image, satisfaction and loyalty: A study in an ecotourism context. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 19: 10p. DOI:

[42] Luštický, M., and Bednářová, M. 2018. Tourism Destination Competitiveness Assessment: Research & Planning Practice. Global Business and Finance Review, 23 (3): 49–67. DOI:
[43] Marais, M., du Plessis, E. and Saayman, M. 2017. A Review on Critical Success Factors in Tourism. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 31: 1–12. DOI:
[44] Marques, C., da Silva, R. V., and Antova, S. 2021. Image, satisfaction, destination and product post-visit behaviours: How do they relate in emerging destinations?. Tourism Management, 85: 12p. DOI:
[45] Martínez-López, F.J., Gázquez-Abad, J.C. and Sousa, C.M. 2013. Structural Equation Modelling in Marketing and Business Research: Critical Issues and Practical Recommendations. European Journal of Marketing, 47 (1): 115–52. DOI:
[46] Mutana, S., and Mukwada, G. 2020. Are Policies and Guidelines Shaping Tourism Sustainability in South Africa? Critical Success Factors for Tourism Sustainability Governance in the Drakensberg Region. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 20 (2): 198–209. DOI:
[47] Neto, A.Q., Dimmock, K., Lohmann, G. and Scott, N. 2020. Destination Competitiveness: How Does Travel Experience Influence Choice? Current Issues in Tourism, 23(13): 1673–87. DOI:
[48] Pechlaner, H., Pichler, S. and Herntrei, M. 2012. From Mobility Space towards Experience Space: Implications for the Competitiveness of Destinations. Tourism Review, 67 (2): 34–44. DOI:
[49] Rather, R. A., Hollebeek, L. D., and Rasoolimanesh, S. M. 2022. First-Time versus Repeat Tourism Customer Engagement, Experience, and Value Cocreation: An Empirical Investigation. Journal of Travel Research, 61(3): 549–564. DOI:
[50] Reisinger, Y., Michael, N. and Hayes, J.P. 2019. Destination Competitiveness from a Tourist Perspective: A Case of the United Arab Emirates. International Journal of Tourism Research, 21(2): 259–79. DOI:
[51] Ryglová, K., Rašovská, I. Šácha, J. and Maráková, V. 2018. Building Customer Loyalty in Rural Destinations as a Pre-Condition of Sustainable Competitiveness. Sustainability (Switzerland), 10 (4). DOI:
[52] Salinas-Fernández, J.A., Serdeira-Azevedo, P. Martín-Martín, J.M. and Rodríguez-Martín, J.A. 2020. Determinants of Tourism Destination Competitiveness in the Countries Most Visited by International Tourists: Proposal of a Synthetic Index. Tourism Management Perspectives, 33. DOI:
[53] Shariffuddin, N.S., Zain, W.M. and Azinuddin, M. 2020. Collaborative Challenges among Stakeholders on Tourism Destination Competitiveness. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change, 13 (1): 454–66.
[54] Stylidis, D. 2022. Exploring Resident–Tourist Interaction and its Impact on Tourists’ Destination Image. Journal of Travel Research, 61 (1): 186–201. DOI:
[55] Stylidis, D., Woosnam, K. M., and Tasci, A. D. A. 2022. The effect of resident-tourist interaction quality on destination image and loyalty. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 30(6): 1219-1239. DOI:
[56] Tse, S., and Tung, V. W. S. 2022a. Measuring the Valence and Intensity of Residents’ Behaviors in Host–Tourist Interactions: Implications for Destination Image and Destination Competitiveness. Journal of Travel Research, 61 (3): 565–580. DOI:
[57] Tse, S., and Wing Sun Tung, V. 2022b. Understanding residents’ attitudes towards tourists: Connecting stereotypes, emotions and behaviours. Tourism Management, 89: 10p. DOI:

[58] Wang, C.-Y., Hsu, M.K. and Swanson, S.R. 2012. “Determinants of Tourism Destination Competitiveness in China: (Chinese Source). Journal of China Tourism Research, 8(1): 97–116. DOI:
[59] Wardana, I.M., Sukaatmadja, I.P., Yasa, N.N. and Astawa, I.P. 2019. Cultural Tourism and Ecotourism Empowerment in the Sustainable Tourism Development and Destination Competitiveness Enhancement. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 10(4): 753–62. DOI:
[60] Wu, J. (Snow), Font, X., and Liu, J. 2021. Tourists’ Pro-environmental Behaviors: Moral Obligation or Disengagement? Journal of Travel Research, 60 (4): 735–748. DOI:
[61] Zainuddin, Z., Radzi, S.M. Zahari, M.S. and Ong, M.H. 2017. The Effect of Satisfaction on the Relationship between Perceived Destination Competitiveness and Response Behavior: A Test of Mediation Model. Advanced Science Letters, 23 (8): 7442–45. DOI:
How to Cite
MARÍN-IDÁRRAGA, Diego; SÁNCHEZ-TORRES, Juan; SANABRIA-RANGEL, Pedro. Key Factors to Promote a Vulnerable Region as a Competitive Tourist Destination. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 14, n. 2, p. 347 - 361, mar. 2023. ISSN 2068-7729. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 25 feb. 2024. doi: