The Amount of Tourist Waste in the Altai Mountains. Mongolia and Kazakhstan Cases

  • Badyelgajy YERBAKHYT L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Kazakhstan
  • Bauyrzhan KAPSALYAMOV Faculty of Natural Sciences, L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Kazakhstan
  • Gulnur SASPUGAYEVA Faculty of Natural Sciences, L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Kazakhstan
  • Amarjargal MUNKH-ERDENE Department of Tourism Management, International University of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
  • Zhazgul TUSSUPOVA Faculty of Natural Sciences, L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Kazakhstan


The article presents information about the result of the experiment that determined the amount of tourist waste in the Altai Mountains of Kazakhstan and the Altai Mountains of Mongolia. During the pandemic, traveling to the Altai Mountains became a trend for domestic tourism in both countries. Due to the low development of the infrastructure in this region, tourist vehicles drive on unpaved roads, build new branch roads, cross clay swamps to approach high mountains, damage the soil cover, and dump garbage into nature. The authors conducted a special experiment on the main tourist routes in the Altai Mountains and determined the amount of waste per tourist. Based


[1] Aizen E.M., et al. 2001. Precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns at mid-latitudes of Asia. Journal of Climatology, 21 (5): 535–556. DOI:
[2] Badarch.M., Jaeyoung.С., Kachur.А., and Zhong.L.S.,. 2001. "Ecotourism Opportunities and their Impacts on Transboundary Biodiversity and International Water Resources." Available at:
[3] Braden, K.A., and Prudnikova, N.B. 2008. The challenge of ecotourism development in the Altay Region of Russia. Tourism Geographies, 10 (1): 1-21. DOI:
[4] Chlachula J.A., et al. 2021. Territorial assessment of the East Kazakhstan geo/ecotourism: Sustainable travel prospects in the Southern Аltai area. Geosciences (Switzerland) (MDPI AG), 11 (4): 5. DOI:
[5] Erdavletov, S.R. 1989. Tourism of Kazakhstan. Alma ata: Khainar. p.27
[6] Erdavletov, S.R. 2015. Tourism of Kazakhstan: textbook. Alma ata: Bastau. p.28
[7] Sofya, P. 2011. Conditions for the development of tourism in the Mongolian Altai. 15th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM2015. Albena, BULGARIA. ISBN: 978-1-5108-1002-0. DOI:
[8] Stacker. 2022. How long it takes 50 common items to decompose. Available at:
[9] Victoria Allen. 2016. Wet wipes could take 100 years to break down: Products contain plastic that is 'virtually indestructible'. Available at:
[10] Asia Foundation, Office of the Mayor of Ulaanbaatar. 2020. Waste structure of Ulaanbaatar city-2019. PDF, Office of the Mayor of Ulaanbaatar, Ulaanbaatar: The Asia Foundation, 32.
[11] Converse Energy Future. 2021. Interesting Facts About Aluminum Recycling., Converse Energy Future LLC. Available at:
[12] Ecology Center. 2021. "Adverse Health Effects of Plastics." Available at:
[13] EPA. 2016. Volume to Weight Conversion Factors for Solid Waste, "Measuring Recycling: A Guide for State and Local Governments.". PDF, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). Available at:
[14] Government of Mongolia. 1996. "The Master plan of tourism development in Mongolia. 1995-2005, Resolution of the Government of Mongolia, No. 167 of 1996 year." Ulaanbaatar. Available at:
[15] JICA&Mongolian Tourism Department. 1999. "The Master Plan on National Tourism Development in Mongolia." Padeco Co., Ltd. Nippon Koei Co., Ltd, Ulaanbaatar: JICA, 192.
[16] Mongolian Border Department, "Monthly report of Border Zone, Report of tourist, transport to travel to the Border Altai Besbogda Nature Reserve." By letter. No 2a/2518 of 12, June 2022
[17] National Park Service. 1998. "How Long Until It’s Gone? Here’s a reminder of how long an item takes to decompose." Edited by Sarasota, Mote Marine Lab. Audubon magazine (U.S. National Park Service;). Available at:
[18] National Statistic Bureau of the Republic of Kazakhstan. 2022. Report of domestic tourism in regions of Kazakhstan (sum of 4 tourism regions). National Statistic Bureau of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Agency of Strategic Planning and Reforms of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Available at:
[19] Parlament of Mongolia. 2016. "Concept of sustainable development of Mongolia-2030." No 19 of 2016 year, Ulaanbaatar. Available at:
[20] Parlament of Mongolia. 2020. "Vision-2050" Long term Development Policy of Mongolia. No. 52 of 2020 year, Ulaanbaatar: Great Khural of Mongolia.
[21] 2021. Neat chart of gas canister weights and % fuel remaining Available at:
[22] System LLC. 2012. How many grams does one-liter tetra pak weigh?. Available at:
[23] Toiletseek. 2022. Toilet Paper Math: How Long, Wide, Tall & Lasts, Toiletseek. Available at:
[24] UNDP & GEFG of Russian Federation. 2011. Biodiversity Conservation in the Russian Portion of the Altai‐Sayan Ecoregion. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) of the Russian Federation, PDF fail, 14.
[25] WWF. 2019. "No Plastic in Nature: Assessing Plastic Ingestion from Nature to People." World Wildlife Fund. Available at:
How to Cite
YERBAKHYT, Badyelgajy et al. The Amount of Tourist Waste in the Altai Mountains. Mongolia and Kazakhstan Cases. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 14, n. 1, p. 283 - 292, mar. 2023. ISSN 2068-7729. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 06 dec. 2023. doi: