The Amount of Tourist Waste in the Altai Mountains. Mongolia and Kazakhstan Cases
The article presents information about the result of the experiment that determined the amount of tourist waste in the Altai Mountains of Kazakhstan and the Altai Mountains of Mongolia. During the pandemic, traveling to the Altai Mountains became a trend for domestic tourism in both countries. Due to the low development of the infrastructure in this region, tourist vehicles drive on unpaved roads, build new branch roads, cross clay swamps to approach high mountains, damage the soil cover, and dump garbage into nature. The authors conducted a special experiment on the main tourist routes in the Altai Mountains and determined the amount of waste per tourist. Based
 Badarch.M., Jaeyoung.С., Kachur.А., and Zhong.L.S.,. 2001. "Ecotourism Opportunities and their Impacts on Transboundary Biodiversity and International Water Resources." Available at: www.neir.go.kr/nierdepart/e_tumennet/imglist/0705011.doc
 Braden, K.A., and Prudnikova, N.B. 2008. The challenge of ecotourism development in the Altay Region of Russia. Tourism Geographies, 10 (1): 1-21. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616680701825107
 Chlachula J.A., et al. 2021. Territorial assessment of the East Kazakhstan geo/ecotourism: Sustainable travel prospects in the Southern Аltai area. Geosciences (Switzerland) (MDPI AG), 11 (4): 5. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11040156
 Erdavletov, S.R. 1989. Tourism of Kazakhstan. Alma ata: Khainar. p.27
 Erdavletov, S.R. 2015. Tourism of Kazakhstan: textbook. Alma ata: Bastau. p.28
 Sofya, P. 2011. Conditions for the development of tourism in the Mongolian Altai. 15th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM2015. Albena, BULGARIA. ISBN: 978-1-5108-1002-0. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.5593/SGEM2015/B51/S20.019
 Stacker. 2022. How long it takes 50 common items to decompose. Available at: www.stacker.com https://stacker.com/stories/2682/how-long-it-takes-50-common-items-decompose
 Victoria Allen. 2016. Wet wipes could take 100 years to break down: Products contain plastic that is 'virtually indestructible'. Available at: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3911606/Wet-wipes-100-years-break-Products-contain-plastic-virtually-indestructible.html
 Asia Foundation, Office of the Mayor of Ulaanbaatar. 2020. Waste structure of Ulaanbaatar city-2019. PDF, Office of the Mayor of Ulaanbaatar, Ulaanbaatar: The Asia Foundation, 32. shorturl.at/acz06
 Converse Energy Future. 2021. Interesting Facts About Aluminum Recycling., Converse Energy Future LLC. Available at: https://www.conserve-energy-future.com/interesting-facts-aluminum-recycling.php
 Ecology Center. 2021. "Adverse Health Effects of Plastics." Available at: https://ecologycenter.org/factsheets/adverse-health-effects-of-plastics/
 EPA. 2016. Volume to Weight Conversion Factors for Solid Waste, "Measuring Recycling: A Guide for State and Local Governments.". PDF, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). Available at: https://www.epa.gov/sites/default/files/2016-04/documents/volume_to_weight_conversion_factors_memorandum_04192016_508fnl.pdf
 Government of Mongolia. 1996. "The Master plan of tourism development in Mongolia. 1995-2005, Resolution of the Government of Mongolia, No. 167 of 1996 year." Ulaanbaatar. Available at: https://legalinfo.mn/mn/detail?lawId=200886&showType=1
 JICA&Mongolian Tourism Department. 1999. "The Master Plan on National Tourism Development in Mongolia." Padeco Co., Ltd. Nippon Koei Co., Ltd, Ulaanbaatar: JICA, 192.
 Mongolian Border Department, "Monthly report of Border Zone, Report of tourist, transport to travel to the Border Altai Besbogda Nature Reserve." By letter. No 2a/2518 of 12, June 2022
 National Park Service. 1998. "How Long Until It’s Gone? Here’s a reminder of how long an item takes to decompose." Edited by Sarasota, Mote Marine Lab. Audubon magazine (U.S. National Park Service;). Available at: https://wastetocharity.org/how-long-until-its-gone-heres-a-reminder-of-how-long-an-item-takes-to-decompose/
 National Statistic Bureau of the Republic of Kazakhstan. 2022. Report of domestic tourism in regions of Kazakhstan (sum of 4 tourism regions). National Statistic Bureau of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Agency of Strategic Planning and Reforms of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Available at: https://stat.gov.kz/official/industry/22/statistic/6
 Parlament of Mongolia. 2016. "Concept of sustainable development of Mongolia-2030." No 19 of 2016 year, Ulaanbaatar. Available at: https://legalinfo.mn/mn/detail?lawId=207105&showType=1
 Parlament of Mongolia. 2020. "Vision-2050" Long term Development Policy of Mongolia. No. 52 of 2020 year, Ulaanbaatar: Great Khural of Mongolia.
 Reddit.com. 2021. Neat chart of gas canister weights and % fuel remaining Available at: https://www.reddit.com/r/Ultralight/comments/o75fhg/neat_chart_of_gas_canister_weights_and_fuel/ https://external-preview.redd.it/fNhS4arpgyfqXlsf1aWKYaWfItkKhgv4xFyf3IQgKdQ.png?width=640&crop=smart&auto=webp&s=160621ff9c4bfe9a4b9fb5ee240da043a39d950f
 System LLC. 2012. How many grams does one-liter tetra pak weigh?. Available at: https://qa.answers.com/health/How_many_grams_does_one-liter_tetra_pak_weigh
 Toiletseek. 2022. Toilet Paper Math: How Long, Wide, Tall & Lasts, Toiletseek. Available at: https://toiletseek.com/toilet-paper-dimension-weight-last-period/
 UNDP & GEFG of Russian Federation. 2011. Biodiversity Conservation in the Russian Portion of the Altai‐Sayan Ecoregion. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) of the Russian Federation, PDF fail, 14.
 WWF. 2019. "No Plastic in Nature: Assessing Plastic Ingestion from Nature to People." World Wildlife Fund. Available at: https://d2ouvy59p0dg6k.cloudfront.net/downloads/plastic_ingestion_web_spreads.pdf
The Copyright Transfer Form to ASERS Publishing (The Publisher)
This form refers to the manuscript, which an author(s) was accepted for publication and was signed by all the authors.
The undersigned Author(s) of the above-mentioned Paper here transfer any and all copyright-rights in and to The Paper to The Publisher. The Author(s) warrants that The Paper is based on their original work and that the undersigned has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment. It is the author's responsibility to obtain written permission to quote material that has been previously published in any form. The Publisher recognizes the retained rights noted below and grants to the above authors and employers for whom the work performed royalty-free permission to reuse their materials below. Authors may reuse all or portions of the above Paper in other works, excepting the publication of the paper in the same form. Authors may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the above Paper for the Author's personal use or for internal company use, provided that the source and The Publisher copyright notice are mentioned, that the copies are not used in any way that implies The Publisher endorsement of a product or service of an employer, and that the copies are not offered for sale as such. Authors are permitted to grant third party requests for reprinting, republishing or other types of reuse. The Authors may make limited distribution of all or portions of the above Paper prior to publication if they inform The Publisher of the nature and extent of such limited distribution prior there to. Authors retain all proprietary rights in any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in The Paper. This agreement becomes null and void if and only if the above paper is not accepted and published by The Publisher, or is with drawn by the author(s) before acceptance by the Publisher.