Developing Nature Interpretation and Alternative Management Strategies to Promote Pro-Environmental Behaviors among Visitors to Thailand's National Parks
The purpose of this study was to recommend nature interpretation and alternative management strategies to enhance pro-environmental behaviors among visitors by studying the factors that influence these behaviors. The samples were 1400 Thai visitors and 20 national park officers. Questionnaire data was analyzed using path analysis and content analysis. Taking into account research findings, the 11 of interpretive messages were created to promote the behaviors in national parks across the country. The message that is deemed most appropriate for encouraging visitor behaviors was: "A national park is a treasure for everyone, and it is important that we all do our part to protect it. If you see any activities that have the potential to destroy natural resources or harm the environment, please inform the park officers immediately." Besides, developing effective nature interpretation and preparing public facilities have been recommended as major alternative management strategies. The most appropriate high-level strategy for developing effective nature interpretation was found to be "utilizing new technologies to support nature interpretation." The survey respondents identified "setting up different colored garbage bins" and "installing fences to preserve fragile areas" as the most effective strategies for preparing public facilities and managing visitor behaviors in Thailand's national parks.
 Amornwitthawat, P., and Phongkheio, N.T. 2019. Pro-environmental behaviours of visitors to Thailand’s national parks and factors discriminating the behaviours. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 24(10): 993-1004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2019.1653337
 Asilsoy, B. 2012. A survey study on environmental consciousness in Famagusta. Social and Behavioral Science, 35(2012): 675-681. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.02.136
 Cao, X., Qiu, J., Wang, L., and Zhou, G. 2022. An integrative model of tourists’ pro-environmental behavior based on the dual path of rational planning and embodied emotion. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(13): 7910. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137910
 Carmi, N., Arnon, S., and Orion, N. 2015. Transforming environmental knowledge into behavior: the mediating role of environmental emotions. Journal of Environmental Education, 46(3): 183-201. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/00958964.2015.1028517
 Chen, H.S. 2015. The study of the relationship among environmental cognition, attitude, sensitivity, and behavior: the case of an eco-resort island. Journal of Safety and Security, 5(4): 352-358. DOI:https://doi.org/10.2495/SAFE-V5-N4-352-358
 Chiappa, D.G., and Romero, L.C. 2014. Environmental issues to profile the consumers’ attitude: A latent segmentation approach. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Management, 13(10): 2449-2457. DOI:https://doi.org/10.30638/EEMJ.2014.274
 Cochran, W. G. 1977. Sampling techniques (3rd ed.). New York: John Wiley and Sons.
 Debicka, O., and Jastrzabek, A.O. 2014. Responsible tourism in Poland. Tourism and Hospitality Industry 2014, Congress Proceedings, 2014: 189-202.
 Diamantopoulos, A., and Siguaw, J.A. 2000. Introducing LISREL. London: Sage Publications.
 Dolnicar, S, and Grun, B. 2009. Environmentally friendly behavior – can heterogeneity among individuals and contexts/environments be harvested for improved sustainable management? Environment and Behavior, 41(5): 693-714. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916508319448
 Dolnicar, S., Crouch, G.I., and Long, P. 2008. Environmental-friendly tourist: what do we really know about them? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16(2): 197-210. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2167/jost738.0
 Duncan, G.S., and Martin, S.R. 2002. Comparing the effectiveness of interpretive and sanction message for influencing wilderness visitors’ intended behavior. International Journal of Wilderness, 8(2): 20-25.
 Duzgunes, E., and Demirel, O. 2016. Importance of visitor management in national park planning. Journal of Environmental Protection and Ecology, 17(2): 675-680.
 Fishbein, M.A., and Ajzen, I. 1975. Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading: Addison-Wesley.
 Hoshyar, V., Behboodi, O., and Saeed, S.F.A. 2022. The impact of personal values on pro-environmental behavior. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/1528008X.2022.2151548
 Jamaliah, M., Mgonja, J., Alazaizeh, M.M., and Powell, R. 2021. How does interpretive tour guiding promote tourists’ pro-environmental behaviour? Evidence from Tanzania. Tourism Recreation Research, DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2021.1992953
 Kasworm, C.E., Amy, D.R., and Jovita, M.R. 2010. Handbook of Adult and Continuing Education. Los Angeles: SAGE.
 Kim, M.S., Kim, J., and Thapa, B. 2018. Influence of environmental knowledge on affect, nature affiliation and pro-environmental behaviors among tourists. Sustainability, 10(9): 3109. DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/su10093109
 Kollmuss, A., Agyeman, J. 2002. Mind the gap: Why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior. Environmental Education Research, 8(3): 239-260. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/13504620220145401
 Milman, A. 2019. Visitor management in highly-visited attraction. In Lessons that practitioners can learn from the U.S. theme park industry and the national parks, edited by Ady Milman, pp. 104-124. England: Routledge.
 Mosquera, N.L. 2016. Gender difference, theory of planned behavior and willingness to pay. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 45(2016): 165-175. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2016.01.006
 Phongkheio, N.T. 2012. Parks, recreation, and tourism. Bangkok: Kasetsart University.
 Phongkheio, N.T., and Sangchoey, T. 2018. Regulation compliance model of national park visitors. Humanities, Art and Social Sciences Studies, 18(3): 695-716.
 Robert, J.A. 1996. Green consumer in the 1990s: profile and implications for advertising. Journal of Business Research, 36: 217-231. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-2963(95)00150-6
 Sanchez, M.J., and Lafuente, R. 2010. Defining and measuring environmental consciousness. Revista Internacional de Sociología, 68(3): 731-755. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3989/ris.2008.11.03
 Sharma, R., and Gupta, A. 2020. Pro-environmental behaviour among tourists visiting national parks: application of value-belief-norm theory in an emerging economy context. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 25(8): 829-840. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2020.1774784
 Stern, P.C., Dietz, T., and Kalof, L. 1993. Value orientations, gender, and environmental concern. Environment and Behavior, 25: 322-348. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916593255002
 Steven, P. 2005. The Lagoon of the conscious, subconscious, unconscious: a better metaphor for understanding these terms. Retrieved November 1: 2017. Available at: http://theemergencesite.com/Theory/Consciousness-Subconsciousness.htm
 Sun, H., Zhang, Q., Guo, W., and Lin, K. 2022. Hikers’ pro-environmental behavior in national park: Integrating theory of planned behavior and norm activation theory. Frontiers in Forest and Global Change, 5: 1068960. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/ffgc.2022.1068960
 Tang, H., Ma, Y., and Ren, J. 2022. Influencing factors and mechanism of tourists’ pro-environmental behavior-Empirical analysis of the CAC-MOA integration model. Frontiers in Psychology, 13-2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.1060404
 Tartaglia, S., and Grosbois, D.D. 2009. Comparison of tourists’ environmental beliefs and environmental behaviour. Retrieved August 12: 2017. Available at: http://ojs.acadiau.ca/index.php/ASAC/article/view/629/538
 Ting, D. H., and Cheng, F. C. 2014. Experiential learning and pro-environmental behavior. Retrieved January 1: 2021. Available at: http://www.inase.org/library/2014/interlaken/bypaper/EDU/EDU-09.pdf
 van Riper, C., et al. 2019. Integrating multi-level values and pro-environmental behavior in a U.S. protected area. Sustainability Science, 14: 1395-1408. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-019-00677-w
 Wheaton, M., et al. 2015. Using web and mobile technology to motivate pro-environmental action after a nature-based tourism experience. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 24(4): 594-615. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2015.1081600
 Zarei, I., Ehsani, M.D., Moghimehfar, F., and Aroufzad, S. 2021. Predicting mountain hikers’ pro-environmental behavioral intention: an extension to the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 39(3): 70-90. DOI: http://doi.org/10.18666/JPRA-2020-10347
 *** DEQP. 2015. Green National Park. Retrieved August 21: 2022. Available at: https://datacenter.deqp.go.th/service-portal/g-green/greennationalparks/aboutgreennationalparks/
 *** DNP. 2012. Nature Interpretation. Bangkok: National Parks of Thailand.
 ***DNP.2021. Annual Report 2021. Retrieved January 1: 2021. Available at: http://portal.dnp.go.th/Content/Info_section4?contentId=30293
 *** IUCN. 2008. Protected Areas. Retrieved September 30: 2017. Available at: https://www.iucn.org/our-work/protected-areas-and-land-use
 *** Ministry of Tourism and Sport. 2017. National tourism development plan vol.2 (2017-2021). Retrieved September 30: 2017. Available at: https://www.dpe.go.th/strategic-preview-392791791799
 *** NPCA. 2016. What’s in national parks’ trash cans – and what you can do. Retrieved December 1: 2022. Available at: https://www.npca.org/articles/1289-what-s-in-national-parks-trash-cans-and-what-you-can-do
 *** Queensland Government. 2020. Best practice ecotourism development guidelines. Retrieved January 19: 2023. Available at: https://parks.des.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0022/160177/eoi-best-practice-ecotourism.pdf
 *** SCNI. 2022. Nature interpretation – a definition. Retrieved January 1: 2022. Available at: https://www.slu.se/en/Collaborative-Centres-and-Projects/swedish-centre-for-nature-interpretation/nature-interpretation-in-sweden/definition/
 *** UNDP. 2009. The catalyzing the sustainability of Thailand’s protected area system. Retrieved November 1: 2017. Available at: https://www.thegef.org/projects-operations/projects/3517
The Copyright Transfer Form to ASERS Publishing (The Publisher)
This form refers to the manuscript, which an author(s) was accepted for publication and was signed by all the authors.
The undersigned Author(s) of the above-mentioned Paper here transfer any and all copyright-rights in and to The Paper to The Publisher. The Author(s) warrants that The Paper is based on their original work and that the undersigned has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment. It is the author's responsibility to obtain written permission to quote material that has been previously published in any form. The Publisher recognizes the retained rights noted below and grants to the above authors and employers for whom the work performed royalty-free permission to reuse their materials below. Authors may reuse all or portions of the above Paper in other works, excepting the publication of the paper in the same form. Authors may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the above Paper for the Author's personal use or for internal company use, provided that the source and The Publisher copyright notice are mentioned, that the copies are not used in any way that implies The Publisher endorsement of a product or service of an employer, and that the copies are not offered for sale as such. Authors are permitted to grant third party requests for reprinting, republishing or other types of reuse. The Authors may make limited distribution of all or portions of the above Paper prior to publication if they inform The Publisher of the nature and extent of such limited distribution prior there to. Authors retain all proprietary rights in any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in The Paper. This agreement becomes null and void if and only if the above paper is not accepted and published by The Publisher, or is with drawn by the author(s) before acceptance by the Publisher.