Methods of Combating Offenses in the Field of Ecology
Environmental crime is dangerous in terms of the scale of the implications and the impact area. The resonance and specifics of environmental crimes require a special approach to the prevention and investigation of these crimes. The aim of the article was to systematize measures to prevent (counteract to) environmental crimes. The aim involved the following methods: statistical analysis, correlation analysis, generalization and analogy, hypothetico-deductive model and system-structural approach. Fundamental measures to prevent (counteract to) environmental crimes are defined. The countries with the largest and smallest number of environmental crimes were identified, including China, India, Vietnam, Belgium, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Poland, and Germany. The relationship between the number of environmental crimes for 2015 to 2019 and the environmental tax relative to GDP for the period, as well as the number of environmental crimes for 2015 to 2019 and environmental protection expenditures was determined. Measures aimed at the prevention (counteraction) of environmental crimes are systematized, which consist of three interrelated levels: national, international cooperation and cooperation with the public, public organizations. The prospect of further research is to determine the organizational aspects of criminal law counteraction to cross-border environmental crime.
 Bahadar, A., Ur, R.A. and Parveen, G. 2022. The use of criminal jurisprudence for combating environmental issues in Pakitan. Pakistan Journal of International Affairs, 5(2). DOI: https://doi.org/10.52337/pjia.v5i2.428
 Brisman, A. and South, N. 2019. Green Criminology and Environmental Crimes and Harms. Social Compass, 13: e12650. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/soc4.12650
 Davoodi, G. H., Goldoozian, I. and Tolooi, M. A. 2020. The Role of National and International Ngos in the Prevention of Environmental Crimes. Environment and interdisciplinary development, 5(68). Available at: https://www.sid.ir/en/Journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=841706
 Fa, L N. 2018. Environmental legislation of criminal responsibility of international comparison and reference – Based on the Perspective of Law and Economic. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 188: 012014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/188/1/012014
 Faure, M., Smedt, K. and Vagliasindi, G. 2018. Guidance on strategies for combating 4 environmental crimes and other un5 lawful conduct, Eco Logic.
 Golubev, S. I., et al. 2020. Environmental crimes: Law enforcement issues. Environmental Aspects of Economic and Social Sustainable Development, 18(5): 533-540. DOI: 10.22124/CJES.2020.4483
 Iriotis, I. Th. 2022. Criminal protection of the environment under Greek law, Lexology, Available at: https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=544b197a-556c-4b3a-b70b-4294cb1c6c44
 Morganti, M., Favarin, S. and Andreatta, D. 2020. Illicit waste trafficking and loopholes in the European and Italian legislation. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 26(1): 105–133.
 Park, S. and Kramarz, T. 2019. Global Environmental Governance and the Accountability Trap. The MIT Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/11709.001.0001
 Sahramäki, I. P. and Kankaanranta, T. T. 2021. Regulatory voids in the prevention of environmental crime in Finland. European Journal of Criminology, June 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/14773708211020634
 Shohani, A., Ataei, E. and Norouzi, N. 2021. Prevention and Suppression of Environmental Crimes in the Light of the Actions of Non-Governmental Organizations in the Iranian Legal System. Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 1(1). Available at: https://www.scipublications.com/journal/index.php/rjees/article/view/97
 Turlova, Y. A. 2017a. Combating environmental crime: concept, objective and goals. Aktualni problemy vitchyznianoi yurysprudentsii, 6. Available at: http://apnl.dnu.in.ua/6_tom_1_2017/6_tom_1_2017.pdf#page=143
 Turlova, Y. A. 2017b. Certain aspects of criminal law impact on environmental crime. Ensuring law and order in Ukraine by means of criminal justice, by Olha Kostenko, Ed., National Academy of the Prosecutor's Office of Ukraine, 249-285.
 Turlova, Y. А. 2018. Combating Environmental Crime in Ukraine: Criminological and Criminal Legal Fundamentals, Doctor’s thesis, V. M. Koretskyi Institute of State and Law of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
 Van U., Daan, P. and Nijman, R. C. C. 2020. The convergence of environmental crime with other serious crimes: Subtypes within the environmental crime continuum. European Journal of Criminology, DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/1477370820904585
 Virt, A. O. 2019. Criminal policy to combat crimes in the use of natural resources. Subcarpathian Law Herald, 1(26). Available at: http://pyuv.onua.edu.ua/index.php/pyuv/article/view/785/1120
 Virt, A. O. 2021. Criminal law counteraction to crimes related to illegal use of minerals, Extended abstract of candidate’s thesis, Nаtіоnаl Unіvеrsіty “Оdеssа Lаw Аcаdеmy”.
 White, R. 2016. Reparative justice, environmental crime and penalties for the powerful. Crime. Law and Social Change, 67(2). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10611-016-9635-5
 Wikström, Per-Olof H. and Kyle Treiber. 2016. Beyond Risk Factors: An Analytical Approach to Crime Prevention. Preventing Crime and Violence. Advances in Prevention Science (pp. 73–87), eds. Teasdale, Brent and Mindy S. Bradley. Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-44124-5_8
 Zakalyuk, A. 2007. Course of modern Ukrainian criminology: theory and practice. Vidavnichiy Dim “In Yure”.
 CEIC. 2018. Vietnam State Budget: Hanoi: LE: Current: Environment Protection. Available at: https://www.ceicdata.com/en/vietnam/state-government-budgetary-account-hanoi/state-budget-hanoi-le-current-environment-protection
 CEIC. 2021. China Government Expenditure: Local: Environment Protection. Available at: https://www.ceicdata.com/en/china/local-government-revenue-and-expenditure/government-expenditure-local-environment-protection
 Criminal Code of Vietnam. 2022. Available at: https://www.policinglaw.info/assets/downloads/2015_Criminal_Code_of_Vietnam_(English_translation).pdf
 Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China. 2022. Available at: https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/5375/108071/F-78796243/CHN5375%20Eng3.pdf
 Environmental investigation agency. 2022a. Wildlife and incident around the world, Available at: https://app.powerbi.com/view?r=eyJrIjoiZGJmNGIwODgtMTgyMS00NmVlLWJmNWUtZTAzZDBlMmQ1ODI2IiwidCI6IjBiMzNkZjAwLTYzNGMtNDBlYy1iOGQ5LTZhMGI2MjYyNmU1ZCJ9&pageName=ReportSection3a4afc2758f1f77c3f32
 Environmental investigation agency. 2022b. Refrigerant Gas Seizures. Available at: https://app.powerbi.com/view?r=eyJrIjoiNWVkZjAyMDEtMGIxNi00NmU5LWFmMWQtY2IwODc5Mj
 European Commission. 2021a. The Environmental Crime Directive. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/info/policies/justice-and-fundamental-rights/criminal-justice/environmental-crime_en
 European Commission. 2021b. Combating Environmental Crime Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/environment/legal/crime/
 Europol. 2022. Environmental Crime Threat assessment 2022 in the age of climate change. Available at: https://www.europol.europa.eu/cms/sites/default/files/documents/Environmental%20Crime%20in%20the%20Age%20of%20Climate%20Change%20-%20Public%20report_5.pdf
 Indian Penal Code. 2022. Available at: https://legislative.gov.in/sites/default/files/A1860-45.pdf
 Interpol. 2015. Environmental Crime and Its Convergence with Other Serious Crimes. Interpol. Available at: file:///C:/Users/Lenovo/Downloads/INTERPOL%20Strategic%20Report%20-%20Environmental%20Crime%20and%20its%20Convergence%20with%20other%20Serious%20Crimes.pdf
 LEGISLATIONLINE. 2022. Criminal codes. Available at: https://www.legislationline.org/documents/section/criminal-codes
 NationMaster. 2021. Top Countries in Total Expenditures on Environmental Protection. Available at: https://www.nationmaster.com/nmx/ranking/total-expenditures-on-environmental-protection
 OECD Data. 2021. Environmental tax. Available at: https://data.oecd.org/envpolicy/environmental-tax.htm
 Statista. 2021. Share of government spending on environmental protection in India from financial year 2016 to 2019. Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/1170547/india-share-of-government-spending-on-environmental-protection/
 The Global Economy. 2021. India: Government spending, in dollars, Available at: https://www.theglobaleconomy.com/India/government_spending_dollars/
 World Health Organization. 2016. An estimated 12.6 million deaths each year are attributable to unhealthy environments. Available at: https://www.who.int/news/item/15-03-2016-an-estimated-12-6-million-deaths-each-year-are-attributable-to-unhealthy-environments
The Copyright Transfer Form to ASERS Publishing (The Publisher)
This form refers to the manuscript, which an author(s) was accepted for publication and was signed by all the authors.
The undersigned Author(s) of the above-mentioned Paper here transfer any and all copyright-rights in and to The Paper to The Publisher. The Author(s) warrants that The Paper is based on their original work and that the undersigned has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment. It is the author's responsibility to obtain written permission to quote material that has been previously published in any form. The Publisher recognizes the retained rights noted below and grants to the above authors and employers for whom the work performed royalty-free permission to reuse their materials below. Authors may reuse all or portions of the above Paper in other works, excepting the publication of the paper in the same form. Authors may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the above Paper for the Author's personal use or for internal company use, provided that the source and The Publisher copyright notice are mentioned, that the copies are not used in any way that implies The Publisher endorsement of a product or service of an employer, and that the copies are not offered for sale as such. Authors are permitted to grant third party requests for reprinting, republishing or other types of reuse. The Authors may make limited distribution of all or portions of the above Paper prior to publication if they inform The Publisher of the nature and extent of such limited distribution prior there to. Authors retain all proprietary rights in any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in The Paper. This agreement becomes null and void if and only if the above paper is not accepted and published by The Publisher, or is with drawn by the author(s) before acceptance by the Publisher.