The Online Reputation of Tourism Brands and Their Dependence on Pandemic Scenarios: An Analysis of the "Hospederías De Extremadura" Brand before and during COVID-19

  • Marcelino SÁNCHEZ RIVERO Quantitative Methods, Faculty of Economics and Business Studies, University of Extremadura, Spain
  • Luis MURILLO GONZÁLEZ Quantitative Methods, Faculty of Economics and Business Studies, University of Extremadura, Spain
  • María Cristina RODRÍGUEZ RANGEL Quantitative Methods, Faculty of Economics and Business Studies, University of Extremadura, Spain

Abstract

New technologies are having a decisive influence on the behaviour of tourists. Nowadays, all tourists search information on the internet before enjoying any service offered by tourism companies. Consequently, online reputation is an essential component in the marketing strategy of tourism brands. On the other hand, the Covid-19 pandemic has revolutionized tourism activity since its emergence in March 2020. Its direct effects have been widely studied in the literature, but no studies have yet been conducted on the effects of this pandemic on the online reputation of tourism brands. The aim of this paper is to empirically test whether this effect exists and if so whether it has been positive or negative. For this purpose, the weekly time series between January 2017 and September 2020 of ReviewPro's Global Review Index (GRI) were analyzed for 5 of the 8 accommodation which represent "Hospederías de Extremadura" tourism brand. To achieve the objectives of this paper, a pre-Covid period and a Covid period were considered and both the median values of the GRI and the trends in both periods have been compared. The results obtained demonstrate the disruptive character that the pandemic has had on the online reputation of tourism brands.

References

[1] Anagnostopoulou, S.C., et al. 2020. The impact of online reputation on hotel profitability. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality, 32(1): 20-39.
[2] Anderson, C. 2012. The impact of Social Media on Lodging performance. Cornell Hospitality Report, 12: 1–12.
[3] Aras, Ajit., Xu, Xin., and Peñaloza L. 2022. Deciphering B2B marketers' concerns in marketing ‘with’clients: Further insights into how B2B characteristics foster and inhibit UGC generation and its leverage. Industrial Marketing Management, 101:71-81.
[4] Batti, A., et al. 2020. E-commerce trends during COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking, 13:1449-1452.
[5] Becker, R.A, Chambers, J.M. and Wilks, A. R. 1988. The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.
[6] Bhuiyan, K. H., et al. 2022. Smart Tourism Ecosystem: A New Dimension toward Sustainable Value Co-Creation. Sustainability, 14: 15043.
[7] Bromley, D. 2000. Relationships between personal and corporate reputation. European Journal of Marketing, 35(3-4): 316-334.
[8] Buhalis, D., and Foerste, M. 2015. SoCoMo marketing for travel and tourism: empowering co-creation of value. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 4:151-161.
[9] Buhalis, D., and Park, S. 2021. Brand management and cocreation lessons from tourism and hospitality: introduction to the special issue. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 30(1):1-11.
[10] Buhalis, D. 2019. Technology in tourism-from information communication technologies to eTourism and smart tourism towards ambient intelligence tourism: a perspective article. Tourism Review, 75(1): 267-272.
[11] Carrasco-Santos, M. J., Ciruela-Lorenzo, A. M., Méndez-Pavón, J.G. and Cristófol-Rodríguez, C. 2021. An online reputation analysis of the tourism industry in Marbella: a preliminary study on open innovation. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 7(2): 111.
[12] Casidy, R., Wymer, W. and O’Cass, A. 2018. Enhancing hotel brand performance through fostering brand relationship orientation in the minds of consumers. Tourism Management, 66:72-84.
[13] Conejo, F., and Wooliscroft, B. 2014. Brands defined as semiotic marketing systems. Journal of Macromarketing, 35(3):287-301.
[14] De Chernatony, L., and McDonald, M.1994. Creating powerful brands. Butterworth-Heninemann, Oxford.
[15] Dellarocas, C. 2005. Reputation mechanism design in online trading environments with pure moral hazard. Information Systems Research, 16(2): 209-230.
[16] Ding, J. 2022. Social Media Utilisation in Tourism Industry: An Updated Review. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 15(5): 84-96.
[17] Duverger, P. 2013. Curvilinear effects of user-generated content on hotels market share: a dynamic panel-data analysis. Journal of Travel Research, 52(4): 465-478.
[18] Ejarque, J. 2016. Marketing y Gestión de Destinos Turísticos. Grupo Anaya, S.A. Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain).
[19] Extremera, N. 2020. Copying with the stress caused by the Covid-19 pandemic: future research agenda based on emotional intelligence. International Journal of Social Psychology, 35:631-638.
[20] Faraway, J. 2016. Extending the Linear Model with R (2nd ed.). CRC Press. R.
[21] Gower, J.C. 1985. Properties of Euclidean and non-Euclidean distance matrices. Linear Algebra and its Applications, 67: 81-97.
[22] Gutiérrez, R., González, A., Torres, F. and Gallardo. J. J. 1994. Técnicas de análisis de datos multivariable. Tratamiento computacional. Universidad de Granada.
[23] Harvey, A. 1990. ARIMA Models. In: Eatwell, J., Milgate, M., Newman, P. (eds) Time Series and Statistics. The New Palgrave. Palgrave Macmillan, London.
[24] Heever van der, J. J. 2018. Investigating social media conversations: towards designing an online reputation management framework for NPOs. PhD Thesis, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
[25] Hilligoss, B., and Rieh, S. Y. 2008. Developing a unifying framework of credibility assessment: construct, heuristics, and interaction in context. Information Processing and Management, 44(4): 1467-1484.
[26] Hudson, S., and Thal, K. 2013. The impact of social media on the consumer decision process: implications for tourism marketing. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 30(1-2): 156-160.
[27] Inversini, A., and Masiero, L. 2014. Selling rooms online: the use of social media and online travel agents. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 26(2): 272-292.
[28] Jakic, A., Maximilian, O. and Meyer, A. 2017. The impact of language style accommodation during social media interactions on brand trust. Journal of Service Management, 28(3): 418-444.
[29] Jarque, C. M., and Bera, A.K. 1987. A test for normality of observations and regression residuals. International Statistical Review, 55(2): 163–172.
[30] Jeacle, I., and Carter, C. 2011. In TripAdvisor we trust: rankings, calculative regimes and abstract systems. Accounting Organizations and Society, 36(4-5): 293-309.
[31] Khwaja, M. G., and Zaman, U. 2020. Configuring the evolving role of ewom on the consumers information adoption. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 6(4):125.
[32] Kim, W.G., Lim., H. and Brymer, R. A. 2015. The effectiveness of managing social media on hotel performance. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 44:165-171.
[33] Kwok, L., and Xie, K. L. 2016. Factors contributing to the helpfulness of online hotel reviews: does manager response play a role? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(10): 2156-2177.
[34] Ladhari, R., and Michaud, M. 2015. eWOM effects on hotel booking intentions, attitudes, trust, and website perceptions. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 46: 36-45.
[35] Lawton, L.J., and Weaver, D. B. 2009. Travel agency threats and opportunities: the perspective of successful owners. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 10(1): 68-92.
[36] Leung, D., Law, R., Van Hoof, H. and Buhalis, D. 2013. Social media in tourism and hospitality: a literature review. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 30(1-2): 3-22.
[37] Litvin, S., Goldsmith, R.E. and Pan, B. 2008. Electronic word-of-mouth in hospitality and tourism management. Tourism Management, 29: 458-468.
[38] Mauri, A.G., and Minazzi, R. 2013. Web reviews influence on expectations and purchasing intentions of hotel potential customers. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 34: 99-107.
[39] McCornack, R. L. 1965. Extended Tables of the Wilcoxon Matched Pair Signed Rank Statistic. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 60: 864-871.
[40] McKinsey and Company. 2020. “How COVID-19 has pushed companies over the technology tipping point and transformed business forever”. Available online at https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/strategy-and-corporate-finance/our-insights/how-covid-19-has-pushed-companies-over-the-technology-tipping-point-and-transformed-business-forever.
[41] Moffat, I., and Akpan, E. 2019. White Noise Analysis: A Measure of Time Series Model Adequacy. Applied Mathematics, 10: 989-1003.
[42] Pollák, F., and Markoviˇc, P. 2022. Challenges for Corporate Reputation – Online Reputation Management in Times of Global Pandemic. Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 15: 250.
[43] Portmann, E., Meier, A., Cudré-Mauroux, P. and Pedrycz, W. 2015. Fora-a fuzzy set based framework for online reputation management. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 269: 90-114.
[44] Prahalad, C.K. and Ramaswamy, V. 2004. Co-creation experiences: the next practice in value creation. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18(3): 5-14.
[45] Rey, D., and Neuhäuser, M. 2011. Wilcoxon-Signed-Rank Test. In: Lovric M. (eds) International Encyclopedia of Statistical Science. Springer.
[46] Ruiz-Real, J. L., Uribe-Toril, J. and Vázquez-Abad, J. C. 2020. Destination branding: opportunities and new challenges. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 17:100453.
[47] Sánchez Fernández, M.D., Álvarez Bassi, D. and Cardona. J. R. 2020. Management of tourist destinations: The expectations of guests on eWOM generation in Maldonado (Uruguay). Sustainability, 12(17): 6825.
[48] Shapiro, S.S., and Wilk, M.B 1965. An Analysis of Variance Test for Normality (Complete Samples). Biometrika, 52: 591-611.
[49] Shier, R. 2004. Statistics 2.2, The Wilcoxon Signed Rank Sum Test. Mathematics Learning Support Centre Available at https://www.statstutor.ac.uk/resources/uploaded/wilcoxonsignedranktest.pdf
[50] Shumway, R. H., and Stoffer, D. S. 2006. Time series analysis and its applications: With R examples. Springer
[51] Siegel, S., and Castellan, Jr. N. J. 1988. Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Mcgraw-Hill Book Company.
[52] Sparks, B. A., and Browning, V. 2010. Complaining in cyberspace: the motives and forms of hotel guests’ complaints online. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 19(7): 797-818.
[53] Sparks, B.A., So, K. K. F. and Bradley, G. 2016. Responding to negative online reviews: the effects of hotel responses on customer inferences of trust and concern. Tourism Management, 53: 74-85.
[54] Su, Na., Mariadoss, B.J. and Reynolds, D. 2015. Friendship on social networking sites: improving relationships between hotel brands and consumer. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 51: 76-86.
[55] Torres, E. N., Singh, D. and Robertson-Ring, A. 2015. Consumer reviews and the creation of booking transaction value: lessons from the hotel industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 50: 77-83.
[56] Toubes, D. R., Araujo-Vila, N. and Fraiz-Brea, J. A. 2021. Changes in consumption patterns and tourist promotion after the Covid-19 pandemic. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, 16(5): 1332-1352.
[57] Trapletti, A., and Hornik, K. 2021. tseries: Time Series Analysis and Computational Finance. R package. Available online at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/tseries/tseries.pdf
[58] Vartiak, L. 2015. Benefits of online reputation management for organizations operating in various industries. TransCom Conference, 11: 270 – 276.
[59] Villardón, J. L. V. 2007. Introducción al análisis de clúster. Departamento de Estadística, Universidad de Salamanca. Available online at https://www.academia.edu/download/32334872/cluster.pdf
[60] Watanabe, T., and Omori, Y. 2020. Online consumption during the covid-19 crisis: evidence from Japan. Covid Economics, 38: 218-252.
[61] Williamson, D. F., Parker, R.A. and Kendrick, J. S. 1989. The box plot: A simple visual method to interpret data. Annals of internal medicine, 110(11): 916-21.
[62] Wood, L. 2000. Brands and brand equity: definition and management. Management Decision, 38(9): 662-669.
[63] Xiang, Z., and Gretzel, U. 2010. Role of social media in online travel information search. Tourism Management, 31(2): 179-188.
[64] Xie, K.L., So, K. K. F. and Wang, W. 2017. Joint effects of management responses and online reviews on hotel financial performance: a data-analytics approach. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 62: 101-110.
[65] Yang, Y., Jing, F. and Nguyen, B. 2016. China’s outbound tourism: investigating word-of-mouth and its effect on perceived value, satisfaction and loyalty. Journal of China Tourism Research, 12(2): 159-178.
[66] Zeileis, A., and Grothendieck, G. 2005. Zoo: S3 Infrastructure for Regular and Irregular Time Series. Journal of Statistical Software, 14(6): 1-27.
[67] Zhang, Ye., et al. 2021. How the spread of user-generated contents (UGC) shapes international tourism distribution: Using agent-based modeling to inform strategic UGC marketing. Journal of Travel Research, 60(7): 1469-1491.
[68] American Marketing Association. 1948. Report of the definitions committee. Journal of Marketing, 13: 202-217.
Published
2022-12-31
How to Cite
SÁNCHEZ RIVERO, Marcelino; MURILLO GONZÁLEZ, Luis; RODRÍGUEZ RANGEL, María Cristina. The Online Reputation of Tourism Brands and Their Dependence on Pandemic Scenarios: An Analysis of the "Hospederías De Extremadura" Brand before and during COVID-19. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 13, n. 8, p. 2333 - 2347, dec. 2022. ISSN 2068-7729. Available at: <https://journals.aserspublishing.eu/jemt/article/view/7511>. Date accessed: 08 feb. 2023. doi: https://doi.org/10.14505/jemt.v13.8(64).25.