The Effect of Water Depth on the Structure and Allocation of Waterlily (Nymphaea pubescens Willd) Biomass in Lebak Swampland in Kalimantan Selatan
Nymphaea pubescens is found in the swamplands of Kalimantan Selatan, where it lives in the shape of a basin with divergent levels of water. From February to June 2019, the environment and its development were studied in four zones, with depth differences ranging from 28 to 95 meters in the zone I, 28 to 99 meters in zone II, 54 to 112 meters in zone III, and 55 to 124 meters in zone IV. A transect system is used to zone the area, with fluctuating degrees of water depth reflected in each zone as one moves closer to a basin. Geomorphology in a basin has an essential relief, causing different levels of water surface depth in lebak swampland. The GPS was used to determine the distance traveled.
The purposive sampling technique determines the number of observation stations in each zone. In zone I, waterlily growth generated smaller and more frequent leaves than plants in zone II, which produced smaller and fewer leaves than plants in zone III, which produced smaller and fewer leaves than plants in zone IV. However, the area of the leaves expanded greatly with the depth of water, although the number of leaves fell dramatically with water depth. The organization of the percentage of biomass for the development of shoots and roots was different, even though the total biomass was not statistically different. Waterlily growing in shallower water depths had larger biomass allocations for seeds and lower biomass allocations for roots. Root biomass increased significantly as the depth of the water body increased.
This experiment showed that the deeper the water, the lesser the nutrients and the greater the extent the roots must spread to meet their nutritional requirements. Even though the relationship between leaf area and bloom number weakened as water depth increased, the relationship between leaf number and root number was significantly positive concerning biomass and water depth. Groundwater depth has a significant effect on the allocation of underground biomass (A), with the biomass proportion decreasing as water depth increases from 28 to 95 cm in zone I = 53.1 percent to 28–99 cm in zone II = 53.7 percent to 55–124 cm in zone III = 48.6 percent in zone IV = 42.4 percent. Because water depth has a considerable effect on the average aboveground biomass–to–underground biomass ratio, the average root crown ratio decreases as water depth increases. Among the lowest average ratios found are those found at a water depth of 55–124 cm in zone IV (ratio of 0.54 ± 0.2), while the highest average percentage found is that found at a water depth of 28–95 cm in the zone I (ratio of 1.25 ± 0.61).
 Atwell, B.J., Kreidermann, P.E., and Turnbull, C.G.N., 2003. Plants in action: Adaptation in nature, performance in cultivation. Macmillan, South Yarra, Australia.
 Baastrup–Spohr, L., Møller, C.L., and Sand–Jensen, K., 2016. Water–level fluctuations affect sediment properties, carbon flux and growth of the isoetid littorella uniflo rain oligotrophic lakes. Freshw. Biol. 61, 301–315. DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.1111/fwb.127044
 Baastrup–Spohr, L., Sand–Jensen, K., Nicolajsen, S.V., and Bruun, H.H., 2015. From soaking wet to bone dry: Predicting plant community composition along a steep hydrological gradient. J. Veg. Sci. 26, 619–630. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jvs.12280
 Badan Pusat Statistik Kabupaten Hulu Sungai Utara (BPS–HSU), 2020. Kecamatan Sungai Pandan dalam angka. Available at: https://hulusungaiutara.bps.go.id/publication.html. (in Indonesian)
 Bai, X., Chen, K., Zhao, H., and Chen, X., 2015. Impact of water depth and sediment type on root morphology of the submerged plant Vallisneria natans. J. Freshw. Ecol. 30: 75–84. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02705060. 2014.970672
 Balai Penelitian Tanah (BPT–Bogor), 2009. Petunjuk teknis: Analisis kimia tanah, tanaman, air, dan pupuk. Balai Penelitian Tanah, Bogor, Jawa Barat, Indonesia. (in Indonesian)
 Baldwin, D.S, and Mitchell, A.M. 2000. The effects of drying and re–ﬂooding on the sediment and soil nutrient dynamics of lowland river–ﬂoodplain systems: A synthesis. River Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, 16: 457–467.
 Bando, F.M., Michelan, T.S., Cunha, E.R., Figueiredo, B.R.S., and Thomaz, S.M., 2015. Macrophyte species richness and composition are correlated with canopy openness and water depth in tropical ﬂoodplain lakes. Rev. Bras. Bot. 38: 289–294. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40415 –015–0137–y
 Barko, J.W., Gunnison D., and Carpenter S.R. 1991. Sediment interacters with submerged macrophyte growth and community dynamics. Aquat. Bot. 41. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0304–3770(91)90038–7
 Barko, J.W. and Smart, R.M. 1981. Comparative influences of light and temperature on the growth and metabolism of selected submersed freshwater macrophytes. Ecol. Monogr. 51: 219–236. DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.2307/2937264
 Barko, J.W., and Smart, R.M. 1983. Effects of organic matter additions to sediment on the growth of aquatic plants. J. Ecol. 71: 161–175. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2259969
 Bini, L.M., Thomaz, S.M., Murphy, K.J. and Camargo, A.F.M. 1999. Aquatic macrophyte distribution in relation to water and sediment conditions in the Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil. Hydrobiologia, 415: 147–154. Available at: https://repositorio.unesp.br/handle/11449/20426
 Blanch, S.J., Ganf, G.G., and Walker, K.F, 1999. Growth and resource allocation in response to ﬂooding in the emergent sedge Bolboschoenus medianus. Aquat. Bot. 63: 145–160. DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10452–010–9334–8
 Bloom, A.J., Chapin, F.S. and Mooney, H.A., 1985. Resource limitation in plants an economic analogue. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 16: 363–392. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.16.110185.002051
 Boar, R. 2006. Responses of a fringing Cyperus papyrus L. swamp to changes in water level. Aquat. Bot., 84: 85–92. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2005.07.008
 Brock, Th.C.M., Arts, G.H.P., Goossen, L.L.M. Rutenfrans, A.H.M., 1983. Structure and annual biomass production of Nymphoides peltata (Gmel.) O. Kuntze (Menyanthaceae). Aquat. Bot. 17: 167–188. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/0304–3770(83)90056–6
 Brouwer, R. 1963. Some aspects of the equilibrium between overground and underground plant parts. Jaarboek van het instituut voor biologisch en scheikundig onderzoek van landbouwgewassen, Wageningen 31–39. Available at: https://edepot.wur.nl/361707
 Casanova, M.T., and Brock, M.A., 2000. How do depth, duration and frequency of flooding influence the establishment of wetland plant communities?. Plant Ecol. 147: 237–250. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/
 Cazzanelli, M., Warming, T.P., and Christoffersen, K.S., 2008. Emergent and floating–leaved macrophytes as refuge for zooplankton in a eutrophic temperate lake without submerged vegetation. Hydrobiologia 605: 113–122. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750–008–9324–1
 Chapin, F.S. 1980. The mineral nutrition of wild plants. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11: 233–260. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.11.110180.001313
 Chen, F., et al. 2017. Water lilies as emerging models for Darwin’s abominable mystery. Hortic. Res. 4. DOI:10.1038/hortres,2017.51
 Chen, W., et al. 2007. Root growth of wetland plants with different root types. Acta Ecol. Sinica, 27: 450–457. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s1872–2032(07)60017
 Chernova, A.M., 2015. Seasonal dynamics of yellow water lily Nuphur lutea (L.) Smith (Nymphaeaceae) in the small Ild River (Yaroslavl oblast). Inland Water Biol., 8: 157–165. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1134/ S1995082915020042.
 Čížková–Končalová, H., Květ, J., and Thompson, K., 1992. Carbon starvation: A key to reed decline in eutrophic lakes. Aquat. Bot. 43: 105–113. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0304–3770(92)90036–I
 Coops, H., and Hosper, S.H. 2002. Water–Level management as a tool for the restoration of shallow lakes in the Netherlands. Lake Reserv. Manage., 18: 293–298. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/07438140209353935
 Coops, H., van den Brink, F.W.B., and van der Velde, G., 1996. Growth and morphological responses of four Helophytes species in an experimental water–depth gradient. Aquat. Bot., 54: 11–24. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/0304–3770(96)01025–X
 Crawford, R.M.M. 1992. Oxygen availability as an ecological limit to plant distribution. Adv. Ecol. Res., 23: 93–185. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065–2504(08)60147–6
 Cronk, J.K., and Fennessy, M.S. 2001. Wetland plants: Biology and ecology. Washington, New York. Lewis Publishers 462 p.
 Deegan, B.M., White, S.D., and Ganf, G.G. 2007. The influence of water level fluctuations on the growth four emergent macrophyte species. Aquat. Bot. 86: 309–315. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2006.11.006
 Deegan, B.M., White, S.D., and Ganf, G.G. 2012. Nutrients and water level fluctuations: A study of three aquatic plants. River Res. Appl. 28: 359–368. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/rra.14611
 Dong, B., Qin, B., Li, W., and Gao, G., 2017. Growth and community composition of submerged macrophytes in Lake Taihu (China): Assessment of changes in response to sediment characteristics. Wetlands. 37: 233–243. DOI: 10.1007/s13157–016–0861–5
 Duarte, C.M., and Kalff, J., 1986. Littoral slope as a predictor of the maximum biomass of submerged microphyte communities. Limnol. Oceanogr., 31: 1072–1080. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1986. 31.5.1072
 Fares, A.L.B., et al. 2020. Environmental factors affect macrophyte diversity on Amazonian aquatic ecosystems inserted in an anthropogenic landscape. Ecol. Indic., 113: 106–231. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106231.
 Felle, H.H. 2005. pH regulation in anoxic plants. Ann. Bot. 96: 519–532. DOI: 10.1093/aob/mci207.
 Ford, K.A., and Champion, P.D. 2019. Flora of New Zealand: Seed plants Nymphaeales. Manaaki Whenue Press. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7931/b1jh–cp50
 Fossey, M. and Rousseau, A.N. 2016. Can isolated and riparian wetlands mitigate the impact of climate change on watershed hydrology? A case study approach. J. Environ. Manage., 184: 327–339. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.09.043
 Givnish, T.J. 1987. Comparative studies of leaf form: Assessing the relative roles of selective pressures and phylogenetic constraints. New Phytol., 106: 131–160. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469–8137.1987.tb04687.x
 Gopal, B. and Harma, K.P. 1990. Ecology of plant populations. In: Ecology and management of aquatic vegetation in the Indian subcontinent. Edited by B. Gopal. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 79–106 pp.
 Huang, X. et al. 2018. The root structures of 21 aquatic plants in a macrophyte–dominated lake in China. J. Plant Ecol., 11: 39–46. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jpe/rtx018
 Huber, H., et al. 2012. Plasticity as a plastic response: how submergence–induced leaf elongation in Rumex palustris depends on light and nutrient availability in its early life stage. New Phytol. 194: 572–582. DOI:https://doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04075.x
 Ismuhajaroh, B.N., Indradewa, D., Kurniasih, B., and Utami, S.N.H., 2022. Interrelationships of Air Canal Adaptation in the Leaves of Water Lilies and Water Depth of Lebak Swampland in Kalimantan Selatan. JEMT, 1(57): 197-210.
 Jian, Z., Ma, F., Guo, Q., Qin, A., and Xiao, W., 2018. Long–term responses of riparian plant’s composition to water level fluctuation in China’s three gorges reservoir. PLoS ONE. 13: e0207689. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0207689
 Kennedy, M.P., Milne, J.M., and Murphy, K.J., 2003. Experimental growth responses to groundwater level variation and competition in ﬁve British wetland plant species. Wetl. Ecol. Manage. 11: 383–396. DOI:10.1023/b:wetl.0000007194.01073.6b
 Kleindl, P.M., and Steinman, A.D. 2021. Contrasting trajectories in macrophyte community development after shoreline restoration: water level obscures trends. Aquat. Bot. 169, 103327. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.aquabot.2020.103327
 Klok, P.F., and van der Velde, G., 2017. Plant traits and environment: Floating leaf blade production and turnover of waterlilies. PeerJ., DOI:10.7717/peerj.3212
 Kordyum, E., Mosyakin, S., Ivanenko, G., Ovcharenko, Y., and Brykov, V., 2021. Hydropotes of young and mature leaves in Nuphar lutea and Nymphaea alba (Nymphaeaceae): Formation, functions and phylogeny. Aquat. Bot. 169, 103342. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2020.103342
 Kornijów, R., Measey, G.J., and Moss, B., 2016. The structure of the littoral: Effects of waterlily density and perch predation on sediment and plant–associated macroinvertebrate communities. Freshw. Biol. 61: 32–50. DOI: https://.org/10.1111/fwb.12674
 Kunii, H. and Aramaki, M., 1992. Annual net production and life span of floating leaves in Nymphaea tetragona Georgi: a comparison with other floating–leaved macrophytes. Hydrobiologia, 242: 185–193. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00019967
 Kutschker, A.M., Epele, L.B., and Miserendino M.L., 2014. Aquatic plant composition and environmental relationships in grazed Northwest Patagonian wetlands, Argentina. Ecol. Eng. 64: 37–48. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.ecoleng.2013.12.007
 Lacoul, P. and Fredman, B., 2006. Envionmental influences on aquatic plants in freshwater ecosystems. Environ. Rev. 14: 89–136. DOI:10.1139/aO6–001
 Larcher, W. 1995. Photosynthesis as a tool for indicating temperature stress events In: Schulze, E.D., Caldwell, M.M., Ecophysiology of photosynthesis. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 261–277 pp.
 Les, D.H. 2018. Aquatic Dicotyledons of North America: Ecology, life history and systematics, CRC Press. 1351p.
 Li, Q., Zeng, Y., and Zha, W. 2020. Velocity distribution and turbulence structure of open channel flow with floating–leaved vegetation. J. Hydrol. 590, 125298. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2020.125298
 Liu, Y.L., and Kumar, M. 2016. Role of meteorological controls on interannual variations in wet–period characteristics of wetlands. Water Resour. Res. 52: 5056–5074. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/2015WR018493
 Long, S.P., Farage, P.K., Nie, G.Y., and Osborne, C.P. 1995. Photosynthesis and rising CO2 concentration. In: Mathis P. Photosynthesis: from light to biosphere. Kluwer Amsterdam V, 729– 736.
 Lu, J., Bunn, S.E. and Burford, M.A. 2018. Nutrient release and uptake by littoral macrophytes during water level fluctuations. Sci. Total Environ., 622: 29–40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.11.199
 Lu, X.M., and Chen, J.J., 2012. Effects of the diurnal variation of sunlight on water quality and the physiology of Nymphaea tetragona. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 94: 294–309. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/02772248.2011.648939
 Lynn, D.E. and Waldren, S. 2003. Survival of Ranunculus repens L. (Creeping Buttercup) in an amphibious habitat. Ann. Bot. 91: 75–84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcg011
 Macek, P., Rejmánková, E. and Houdková, K. 2006. The effect of long–term submergence on functional properties of Eleocharis cellulosa Torr. Aquat. Bot. 84: 251–258. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/0.1016/j.aquabot.2005.11.003
 Madsen, T., and Brix, H. 1997. Growth, photosynthesis and acclimation by two submerged macrophytes in relation to temperature. Oecologia, 110: 320–327. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s004420050165
 Magee, T.K., Ernst, T.L., Kentula, M.E., and Dwire, K.A. 1999. Floristic comparison of freshwater wetlands in an urbanizing environment. Wetlands, 19: 477–489. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03161690
 Maurer, D.A., and Zedler, J.B. 2002. Differential invasion of a wetland grass explained by tests of nutrients and light availability on the establishment and clonal growth. Oecologia, 131: 279–288. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442–002–0886–8
 Miao, S.L., Newman, S., and Sklar, F.H., 2000. Effects of habitat nutrients and seed sources on growth and expansion of Typha domingensis. Aquat. Bot. 68: 297–311. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304–3770(00)00127–3
 Molles, M.C.Jr., and Sher, A.A. 2019. Ecology: Concepts and applications. 8th Edition. Mc. Grow Hill.
 Mommer, L. et al. 2005. Submergence–induced morphological, anatomical, and biochemical responses in a terrestrial species affect gas diffusion resistance and photosynthetic performance. Plant Physiol. 139: 497–508. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.105.064725
 Müller, I., Schmid, B., and Weiner, J. 2000. The effect of nutrient availability on biomass allocation patterns in 27 species of herbaceous plants. Perspect. Plant Ecol. Evol. Syst., 3: 115–127. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1078/1433–8319–00007
 Neill, C. 1990. Effects of nutrient and water levels on emergent macrophyte biomass in a prairie marsh. Can. J. Bot. 68: 1007–1014.
 Nohara, S. and Tsuchiya, T. 1990. Effects of water level fluctuation on the growth of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. In lake Kasmigaura, Japan. Ecol. Res. 5: 237–252. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1139/b90–127
 Paillisson, J.M. and Marion, L. 2011. Water level fluctuations for managing excessive plant biomass in shallow lakes. Ecol. Eng. 37: 241–247. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2010.11.017
 Phillips, G., Willby, N. and Moss, B. 2016. Submerged macrophyte decline in shallow lakes: What have we learnt in the last forty years?. Aquat. Bot. 135: 37–45. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2016.04.004
 Pinay, G., Clément, J.C., and Naiman, R.J., 2002. Basic principles and ecological consequences of changing water regims on nitrogen sycling in fluvial systems. Environ. Manage. 30: 481–491. DOI: 10.1007/s00267–002–2736–1
 Pip, E. 1989. Water temperature and freshwater macrophyte distribution. Aquat. Bot. 34: 367–373. DOI:https://doi.org/10. 1016/0304–3770(89)90079–X
 Poorter, H., and Nagel, O. 2000. The role of biomass allocation in the growth response of plants to different levels of light, CO2, nutrients and water: A quantitative review. Aust. J. Plant Physiol., 27: 595–607. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1071/pp99173_co
 Poorter, H., et al. 2012. Biomass allocation to leaves, stems and roots: Meta–analyses of interspecific variation and environmental control. New Phytol. 193: 30–50. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469–8137.2011.03952.x
 Puijalon, S., et al. 2008. Phenotypic plasticity in response to mechanical stress: hydrodynamic performance and fitness of four aquatic plant species. New Phytol., 177: 907–917. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469–8137.2007.02314.x
 Raulings, E.J., Morris, K., Roache, M.C. and Boon, P.I. 2010. The importance of water regimes operating at small spatial scales for the diversity and structure of wetland vegetation. Freshwater Biol., 55: 701–715. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365–2427.2009.02311.x
 Ribaudo, C., et al. 2012. CO2 and CH4 fluxesa crossa Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm. stand. J. Limnol., 71: 200–210. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4081/mnol.2012.e21
 Richards, J.F., Troxler, T.G., Lee, D.W., and Zimmerman, M.S. 2011. Experimental determination of effects of water depth on Nymphaea odorata growth, morphology and biomass allocation. Aqua. Bot., 95: 9–16. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2011.03.002
 Richards, J.H., and Cao, C., 2012. Germination and early growth of Nymphaea odorata at different water depths. Aquat. Bot., 98: 12–19. DOI:10.1016/j.aquabot.2011.12.003
 Riis, T., and Hawes, I. 2002. Relationships between water level ﬂuctuations and vegetation diversity in shallow water of New Zealand lakes. Aquat. Bot., 74: 133–148. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304–3770(02)00074–8
 Riis, T., et al. 2012. Growth and morphology in relation to temperature and light availability during the establishment of three invasive aquatic plant species. Aquat. Bot., 102: 56–64. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2012.05.002
 Ritchie, R.J. 2012. Photosynthesis in the blue waterlily (Nymphaea caerulea Saligny) using pulse amplitude modulation fluoromentry. Int. J. Plant Sci., 173: 124–136. DOI:10.1086/663168
 Rossenberry, D.O., and Hayashi, M., 2013. Assessing and measuring wetland hydrology in: Anderson, J.T., Davis, C.A., Wetland techniques: Volume I: Foundations. DOI: 10.1007/978–94–007–6860–4_3
 Sasidharan, R., et al. 2018. Signal dynamics and interactions during flooding stress. Plant Physiol., 176: 1106–1117. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.17.01232
 Scheffer, M. 2004. Ecology of shallow lakes, Population and community biology series. Champman and Hall. London. 378p.
 Scheffer, M., Hosper, S.H., Meijer, M.L., Moss, B., and Jeppesen, E. 1993. Alternative equilibria in shallow lakes. Trends Ecol. Evol., 8: 275–279. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0169–5347(93)90254–M
 Shipley, B., and Meziane, D. 2002. The balanced–growth hypothesis and the allometry of leaf and root biomass allocation. Funct. Ecol., 16: 326–331. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365–2435.2002.00626.x
 Smith, R.G.B., and Brock, M.A. 2007. The ups and downs of life on the edge: The influence of water level fluctuation on biomass allocation in two contrasting aquatic plants. Plant Ecol., 188: 103–116. DOI:10.1007/sl 1258–006–9151–2
 Snir, A., Gurevitz, M., and Marcus, Y. 2006 Alterations in Rubisco activity and in stomatal behavior induce a daily rhythm in photosynthesis of aerial leaves in the amphibious–plant Nuphar lutea. Photosynth. Res., 90: 233–242. DOI: 10.1007/s11120–007–9142–8
 Solórzano, J.V., Gallardo–Cruz, J.A., Peralta–Carreta, C., Martínez–Camilo, R., and de Oca, A.F.M. 2020. Plant community composition patterns in relation to microtopography and distance to water bodies in a tropical forested wetland. Aquat. Bot. 167: 103295. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2020.103295
 Sudiarto, S.I.A., Renggaman, A., and Choi, H.L. 2019. Floating aquatic plants for total nitrogen and phosphorus removal from treated swine wastewater and their biomass characteristics. J. Environ. Manage., 231: 763–769. DOI: 10.1016/ j.jenvman.2018.10.070
 Torres–Fernández del Campo, J., Olvera–Vargas, M., Figueroa–Rangel, B.L., Cuevas–Guzmán, R., and Iñiguez–Dávalos, L.I., 2018. Patterns of spatial diversity and structure of mangrove vegetation in pacific West–Central Mexico. Wetlands. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13157–018–1041–6
 Tsuchiya, T. 1991. Leaf life span of floating–leaved plants. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Belgium. Vegetation 97: 149–160. DOI: 10.1007/BF00035388
 Twilley, R.R., Blanton, L.R., Brinson, M.M., and Davis, G.J. 1985. Biomass production and nutrient cycling in aquatic macrophyte communities of the Chowan River, North Carolina. Aquat. Bot., 22: 231–252. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/0304–3770(85)90002–6
 van der Valk, A., and Mushet, D.M. 2016. Interannual water–level fluctuations and the vegetation of Prairie Potholes: Potential impacts of climate change. Wetlands, 36: 397–406. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13157–016–0850–8
 van der Valk, A.G. 2005. Water–level ﬂuctuations in North American prairie wetlands. Hydrobiologia, 539: 171–188. DOI: 10.1007/s10750–004–4866–3
 van Geest, G.J., et al. 2005. Water–level fluctuations affect macrophyte richness in floodplain lakes. Hydrobiologia, 539: 239–248. DOI: 10.1007/s10750–004–4879–y
 van Wijk, M.T., Williams, M., Gough, L., Hobbie, S.E., and Shaver, G.R., 2003. Luxury consumption of soil nutrients: A possible competitive strategy in above–ground and below–ground biomass allocation and root morphology for slow–growing arctic vegetation?. J. Ecol., 91: 664–676. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365–2745.2003.00788.x
 Vartapetian, B.B., and Jackson, M.B. 1997. Plant adaptations to anaerobic stress. Ann. Bot., 79: 3–20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aob.a010303
 Voesenek, E.J.W., et al. 2003. Interaction between plant hormones regulate submergence–induced shoot elongation in the flooding–tolerant dicot Rumex palustris. Ann. Bot., 91: 205–211.
 Vymazal, J., and Kröpfelová, L. 2008. Wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands with horizontal sub–surface flow. Springer. 579p.
 Wang, P., Zhang, Q., Xu, Y.S., and Yu, F.H., 2016. Effects of water level ﬂuctuation on the growth of submerged macrophyte communities. Flora–Morphol. Distrib. Funct. Ecol. Plants., 223: 83–89. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j/flora.2016.05.005
 Wang, Q., Chen, I., Liu, F., and Li, W., 2014. Morphological changes and resource allocation of Zizania latifolia (Griseb.) Stapf in response to different submergence depth and duration. Flora, 209: 279–284. DOI:10.1016/j.flora.2014.03.006
 Webb, M.A., Ott, R.A.Jr., and Bonds, C.C. 2012. Propagation and establishment of native aquatic plants in reservoirs. Management data series, No. 273. Inland fisheries division, Austin, Texas 78744. Available at: https://tpwd.texas.gov/publications/pwdpubs/media/pwd_rp_t3200_1770.pdf
 Webb, R.H., and Leake, S.A. 2006. Ground–watersurface–waterinteractions and long–term change in riverine riparian vegetation in the southwestern United States. J. Hydrol., 320: 302–323. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.07.022
 Wei, G.W., et al. 2019. Growth responses of eight wetland species to water level fluctuation with different ranges and frequencies. PLOS ONE., 14, e0220231. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0220231
 Wetsel, R.G., and Likens, G.E. 2000. Limnological analyses. San Diego, California. Academic Press 3rd Edition.
 White, M.S., et al. 2008. Natural lake level ﬂuctuation and associated concordance with water quality and aquatic communities within small lakes of the Laurentian Great Lakes region. Hydrobiologia, 613: 21 –31. DOI:10.1007/s10750–008–9469–y
 Wu, J., Zhao, H–B., Yu, D. and Xu, X., 2017. Transcriptome profiling of the floating leaved aquatic plant Nymphoides peltata in response to flooding stress. BMC Genom. 18. DOI:10.1186/s12864–017–3515–y
 Yamamoto, I., Tsuchiya, T., and Ikusima, I. 1999. Relationship between net photosynthetic rate and leaf life span of six submerged plants in experimental ponds. Japanase J. Limnologi, 60: 257–263. DOI:https://doi.org/10.3739/rikusui.60.257
 Yang, F., and Guo, Z. 2015. Characterization of micro–morphology and wettability of lotus leaf, waterlily leaf and biomimetic ZnO surface. J. Bionic Eng., 12: 88–97. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1672–6529(14)60103–7
 Yu, H., Niu, Y., Hu, Y., and Du, D. 2014. Photosynthetic response of the floating–leaved macrophyte Nymphoides peltata to a temporary terrestrial habitat and its implications for ecological recovery of lake side zones. Knowl. Managt. Aquatic Ecosyst. 412, 08. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/kmae/2013090
 Zhang, A.Y., et al. 2019. Dam effect on soil nutrients and potentially toxic metals in a reservoir riparian zone. Clean–Soil Air Water. 47, 1700497. DOI: https://doi.org/10. 1002/clen.201700497
 Zhonghua, W., Dan, Y., Manghui, T., Qiang, W., and Wen, X. 2007. Interference between two floating–leaved aquatic plants: Nymphoides peltata and Trapa bispinosa. Aquat. Bot., 86: 316–320. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot. 2006.11.008
 Zhu, J., et al. 2017. Modeling the potential impacts of climate change on the water table level of selected forested wetlands in the southeastern United States. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21: 6289–6305. DOI:https://doi.org/10.5194/hess–21–6289–2017
The Copyright Transfer Form to ASERS Publishing (The Publisher)
This form refers to the manuscript, which an author(s) was accepted for publication and was signed by all the authors.
The undersigned Author(s) of the above-mentioned Paper here transfer any and all copyright-rights in and to The Paper to The Publisher. The Author(s) warrants that The Paper is based on their original work and that the undersigned has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment. It is the author's responsibility to obtain written permission to quote material that has been previously published in any form. The Publisher recognizes the retained rights noted below and grants to the above authors and employers for whom the work performed royalty-free permission to reuse their materials below. Authors may reuse all or portions of the above Paper in other works, excepting the publication of the paper in the same form. Authors may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the above Paper for the Author's personal use or for internal company use, provided that the source and The Publisher copyright notice are mentioned, that the copies are not used in any way that implies The Publisher endorsement of a product or service of an employer, and that the copies are not offered for sale as such. Authors are permitted to grant third party requests for reprinting, republishing or other types of reuse. The Authors may make limited distribution of all or portions of the above Paper prior to publication if they inform The Publisher of the nature and extent of such limited distribution prior there to. Authors retain all proprietary rights in any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in The Paper. This agreement becomes null and void if and only if the above paper is not accepted and published by The Publisher, or is with drawn by the author(s) before acceptance by the Publisher.