Geopark Rinjani, Sport Tourism, and the Rise of Local Participation Post COVID in Lombok, Indonesia
This study aims to determine the role model of local community participation in the post-pandemic Rinjani geopark sport tourism festival. The pandemic has caused a shift in tourism to focus on Nature, Eco, Wellness, and Adventure (NEWA). For this reason, the local community of Sembalun Village, a key gateway to an arduous trek up Mount Rinjani in West Nusa Tenggara Province, initiated a sport tourism event due to the natural resource potentials. Hence, this qualitative descriptive research unveils several motivations that underlie the festival's implementation, including economic, cultural, and natural environmental factors—a role model for local community participation based on these driving factors with a Bottom-Top approach.
 Anderson, R.M. et al. 2020. How Will Country-Based Mitigation Measures Influence the Course of the COVID-19 Epidemic? The Lancet, 395 (10228): 931–934. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30567-5
 Arnstein, S.R. 1969. A Ladder Citizen Participation. Retrieved 07 November 2021. Available at: http://litgow-schmidt.dk/sherryarnstein/ladder-of-citizenparticipation.html
 Cohen, J. and Uphoff, N.T. 1977. Rural Development Participation: Concept and Measures for Project Design Implementation and Evaluation. New York: Cornell University Press.
 Damanik, J. and Weber, H.F. 2006. Ecotourism Planning: from theory to application. Yogyakarta: ANDI OFFSET.
 Dohlman, L. 2019. Globar Barin Drain: How Can the Maslow Theory of Motivation Improve Our Understanding of Physician Migration. International Journal of Enviromental Research and Public Health, 16(1): 1182-1196. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071182
 Filipova, M. 2008. Challenges before the achievement of a sustainable cultural tourism. Tourism and Hospitality Management, 14(2): 311-322. DOI: https://doi.org/10.20867/thm.14.2.10
 Getz, D. 1991. Festivals, Special Events, and Tourism. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
 Gupta, M. Das. 2003. Fostering community-driven development - What role for the State? Policy Research Working Paper Series. 2969. The World Bank Development Research Group. Retrieved 05 November 2021, from: http://hdl.handle.net/10986/19186
 Hritz, N. and Craig, R. 2010. The Perceived Impacts of Sport Tourism: An Urban Host Community Perspective. Journal of Sport Management. 24 (2): 119–38. DOI: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.24.2.119
 Jaffar Abbas et al. 2021. Exploring the impact of COVID-19 on tourism: transformational potential and implications for a sustainable recovery of the travel and leisure industry. Current Research in Behavioral Sciences, 2(3): 1-11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crbeha.2021.100033
 Joseph Muiruri Njoroge et al. 2017. Sports Tourism and Perceived Socio- Economic Impact in Kenya: The Case of Machakos. Tourism and Hospitality Management, 23(2): 195–217. DOI:https://doi.org/10.20867/thm.23.2.9
 Korten, D.C. 1986. Community Management: Asian Experince and Perspective. Connecticut: Kumarian Press.
 Kotler, P. 2009. Manajemen Pemasaran. Jakarta: Erlangga.
 Maslow, A.H. 1970. Motivation and personality. USA: Harper and Row Publication.
 Mikkelsen, B. 2003. Participatory Research Methods and Empowerment Efforts. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia.
 Moleong, L. J. 2017. Qualitative Research Methods. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya Offset.
 Nagarjuna, G. 2015. Local Community Involvement in Tourism: A Content Analysis of Websites of Wildlife Resorts. Atna - Journal of Tourism Studies, 10(1): 13–21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.12727/ajts.13.2
 Nugroho, M. S. 2019. Sikap masyarakat terhadap pengembangan Pantai Loang Baloq sebagai daya tarik wisata di Kota Mataram. Journal of Enterprise and Development (JED), 1(2): 60–71. DOI:https://doi.org/10.20414/jed.v1i02.979
 O'Sullivan, D., and Jackson, M. J. 2002. Festival tourism: a contributor to sustainable local economic development? Journal of sustainable tourism, 10(4): 325-342. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580208667171
 Peterson, K. I., and Crayton, C. 1995. The effect of an economic impact study on sponsorship development for a festival: A case study. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 2(3-4): 185-190. DOI:https://doi.org/10.3727/106527095792315503
 Pitana, I .G. and Gayatri, P. G. 2005. Tourism Sociology. Yogyakarta: Andi Offset.
 Richelle, C. and Misener, L. 2015. Understanding Urban Development through a Sport Events Portfolio: A Case Study of London, Ontario. Journal of Sport Management, 29 (1): 11–26. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1123/JSM.2013-0259
 Rinjanigeopark 2021. Retrieved July 24, 2021, from: https://rinjanigeopark.com
 Rogerson, C.M. and Baum, T. 2020. COVID-19 and African Tourism Research Agendas. Development Southern Africa, 37(5): 727–41. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0376835X.2020.1818551
 Samaranch, J.A. 2001. Opening Ceremony 1st Sport & Tourism World Confrence. Spain: World Tourism Organization and the International Olympic Committee.
 Singh, K. 2007. Quantitative Social Research Methods. New Delhi: Sage Publication
 Slamet, Y. 1994. Pengembangan Masyarakat Berwawasan Partisipasi. Surakarta: Sebelas Maret University Press.
 Stankova, M., and Vassenska, I. 2015. Raising cultural awareness of local traditions through festival tourism. Tourism & Management Studies, 11(1): 120-127. Available at: https://tmstudies.net/index.php/ectms/article/view/766
 Strydom, A. J., Saayman, M., and Saayman, A. 2006. The economic impact of the Volksblad Arts Festival. Acta Commercii, 6(1): 87-98. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/ac.v6i1.97
 Sudjatmoko 1983. The Human Dimension in Development. Jakarta: Andi Offset.
 Sunarti. 2003. Community Participation in Group Housing Development. Semarang: Planologi UNDIP.
 Timothy, D.J. and Boyd, S.W. 2003. Heritage Tourism. England: Pearson Education.
 Weed, M. 2008. Olympic tourism. United Kingdom: Elsevier Ltd.
 Xavier, R. and Iñaki, A.U. 2021. The Sustainability of Intangible Heritage in the COVID-19 Era Resilience, Reinvention, and Challenges in Spain. Sustainability, 13(5796): 1–25. DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/su13115796
 Villiers 2001. Sport and Tourism Stimulate Development. Spain: World Tourism Organization and the International Olympic Committee.
 World Travel and Tourism Council. 2020. Coronavirus Puts up to 50 million Travel and Tourism Jobs at Risk Says WTTC. Retrieved November 05, 2021 from: https://www.wttc.org
The Copyright Transfer Form to ASERS Publishing (The Publisher)
This form refers to the manuscript, which an author(s) was accepted for publication and was signed by all the authors.
The undersigned Author(s) of the above-mentioned Paper here transfer any and all copyright-rights in and to The Paper to The Publisher. The Author(s) warrants that The Paper is based on their original work and that the undersigned has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment. It is the author's responsibility to obtain written permission to quote material that has been previously published in any form. The Publisher recognizes the retained rights noted below and grants to the above authors and employers for whom the work performed royalty-free permission to reuse their materials below. Authors may reuse all or portions of the above Paper in other works, excepting the publication of the paper in the same form. Authors may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the above Paper for the Author's personal use or for internal company use, provided that the source and The Publisher copyright notice are mentioned, that the copies are not used in any way that implies The Publisher endorsement of a product or service of an employer, and that the copies are not offered for sale as such. Authors are permitted to grant third party requests for reprinting, republishing or other types of reuse. The Authors may make limited distribution of all or portions of the above Paper prior to publication if they inform The Publisher of the nature and extent of such limited distribution prior there to. Authors retain all proprietary rights in any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in The Paper. This agreement becomes null and void if and only if the above paper is not accepted and published by The Publisher, or is with drawn by the author(s) before acceptance by the Publisher.