Exploring Factors Contributing to Satisfaction and Willingness to Recommend in Scuba Diving Tourism

  • Siti Murni MAT ALI Community College of Tangga Batu, Malaysia
  • Kalsitinoor SET SET Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia
  • Abdul Hafaz NGAH NGAH Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia


Satisfaction has become a major concern for the tourism businesses as it contributed to the willingness to recommend. This paper explores factors that contributed to satisfaction and willingness to recommend scuba diving tourism. The purposive sampling method was used to select the respondent for the survey which used questionnaires in Redang Island, Malaysia. By using SmartPLS, the study analysis confirms the importance of services, facilities, and destination image towards satisfaction and willingness to recommend scuba divers. Perceived crowdedness was found to have moderating effects on the proposed relationship. The study also highlights the unsupported relationship between lodging and satisfaction. These findings lead to further discussion on the theoretical and managerial implications for scuba diving tourism.



[1] Abukhalifeh A. N. and Wondirad, A. 2019. Contributions of community-based tourism to the socio-economic well-being of local communities: the case of Pulau Redang Island, Malaysia. Int. J. Tour. Sci., 19(2): 80–97. DOI: 10.1080/15980634.2019.1621521
[2] Agyeman, P. A. and Yaw Boakye 2022. Visitor satisfaction of Zoo tourism in Ghana. Tour. Plan. Dev., pp. 1–20. DOI: 10.1080/21568316.2021.2023207
[3] Ahrholdt, D. C. Gudergan, S. P. and Ringle, C. M. 2016. Enhancing Service Loyalty: The Roles of Delight, Satisfaction, and Service Quality. J. Travel Res., 56(4): 436–450. DOI: 10.1177/0047287516649058
[4] Anderson J. C. and Gerbing, D. W. 1988. Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-Step Approach. Psychol. Bull., 103(3): 411–423. DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.411
[5] Asmelash, A. G. and Kumar, S. 2020. Tourist satisfaction-loyalty Nexus in Tigrai, Ethiopia: Implication for sustainable tourism development. Cogent Bus. Manag., 7(1). DOI: 10.1080/23311975.2020.1836750
[6] Baloglu, S. and McCleary, K. W. 1999. A model of destination image formation. Ann. Tour. Res. DOI:10.1016/S0160-7383(99)00030-4
[7] Bayih, B. E. and Singh, A. 2020. Modeling domestic tourism: motivations, satisfaction and tourist behavioral intentions,” Heliyon, 6(9): e04839. DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04839
[8] Biswas, C. and Deb, S. K. 2020. Mediating effect of tourists ’ emotional involvement on the relationship between destination attributes and tourist satisfaction. J. Hosp. Tour. Insights, no. 2019. DOI: 10.1108/JHTI-05-2020-0075
[9] Cachero-Martínez, S. and Vázquez-Casielles, R. 2017. Living positive experiences in store: how it influences shopping experience value and satisfaction? J. Bus. Econ. Manag., 18(3): 537–553. DOI:10.3846/16111699.2017.1292311
[10] Carvache-Franco, M. et al. 2022. Satisfaction Factors That Predict Loyalty in Ecotourism : A Study of Foreign Tourism in Costa Rica. pp. 1–14.
[11] Chan, W. et al. 2021. Controllable drivers that influence tourists ’ satisfaction and revisit intention to Semenggoh Nature Reserve : the moderating impact of destination image Controllable drivers that in fl uence tourists ’ satisfaction and moderating impact of destination. J. Ecotourism, 1–19. DOI: 10.1080/14724049.2021.1925288
[12] Chang, C. H., Shu, S. and King, B. 2014. Novelty in Theme Park Physical Surroundings: An Application of the Stimulus-Organism-Response Paradigm. Asia Pacific J. Tour. Res. DOI: 10.1080/10941665.2013.779589
[13] Chen, G., So, K. K. F., Hu, X. and Poomchaisuwan, M. 2021. Travel for Affection: A Stimulus-Organism-Response Model of Honeymoon Tourism Experiences. J. Hosp. Tour. Res., pp. 1–33. DOI:10.1177/10963480211011720
[14] Chen, Y. et al. 2022. Exploring Bidirectional Performance of Hotel Attributes through Online Reviews Based on Sentiment Analysis and Kano-IPA Model. Appl. Sci., 12(2). DOI: 10.3390/app12020692
[15] Chitturi, R. Raghunathan, R. and Mahajan, V. 2008. Delight by design: The role of hedonic versus utilitarian benefits. J. Mark. DOI: 10.1509/jmkg.72.3.48

[16] Daldeniz, B. and Hampton, M. P. 2012. Dive Tourism and Local Communities: Active Participation or Subject to Impacts? Case Studies from Malaysia. Int. J. Tour. Res., 15(5): 507–520. DOI: 10.1002/jtr
[17] De Brauwer, M. et al. 2017. The economic contribution of the muck dive industry to tourism in Southeast Asia. Mar. Policy, 83(May): 92–99. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2017.05.033
[18] Diamantopoulos A. and Siguaw, J. A. 2006. Formative versus reflective indicators in organizational measure development: A comparison and empirical illustration. Br. J. Manag. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8551.2006.00500.x
[19] Emang, D. Lundhede, T. H. and Thorsen, B. J. 2020. The role of divers’ experience for their valuation of diving site conservation: The case of Sipadan, Borneo. J. Outdoor Recreat. Tour., 32(July): 100237. DOI:10.1016/j.jort.2019.100237
[20] Eusébio, C. and Vieira, A. L. 2013. Destination Attributes’ Evaluation, Satisfaction and Behavioural Intentions: A Structural Modelling Approach. Int. J. Tour. Res. DOI: 10.1002/jtr.877
[21] Forgas-Coll, S., Palau-Saumell, R., Matute, J. and Tárrega, S. 2017. How Do Service Quality, Experiences and Enduring Involvement Influence Tourists’ Behavior? An Empirical Study in the Picasso and Miró Museums in Barcelona. Int. J. Tour. Res., 19(2): 246–256. DOI: 10.1002/jtr.2107
[22] Franke, G. and Sarstedt, M. 2019. Heuristics versus statistics in discriminant validity testing : a comparison of four procedures. DOI: 10.1108/IntR-12-2017-0515
[23] Gefen, D., Rigdon, E. E. and Straub, D. 2011. EDITOR’S COMMENTS An Update and Extension to SEM Guidelines for Administrative and Social Science Research Appendix A: Modeling Interaction Effects in CBSEM, 35(2): 1–7. DOI: 10.2307/23044042
[24] Gerungan, A.and Chia, K. W. 2020. Scuba diving operators’ perspective of scuba diving tourism business in Nusa Penida, Indonesia. J. Outdoor Recreat. Tour. DOI: 10.1016/j.jort.2020.100328
[25] Ghaderi, Z., Hatamifar, P. and Khalilzadeh, J. 2018. Analysis of tourist satisfaction in tourism supply chain management. Anatolia, 29(3): 433–444. DOI: 10.1080/13032917.2018.1439074
[26] Gregory S. F. and Dimmock, K. 2019. Alive and kicking: the benefits of scuba diving leisure for older Australian women. Ann. Leis. Res. DOI: 10.1080/11745398.2019.1605914
[27] Hair Jr., J.F., Matthews, L. M., Matthews, R. L. and Sarstedt, M. 2017. PLS-SEM or CB-SEM: updated guidelines on which method to use. Int. J. Multivar. Data Anal., 1(2): 107. DOI: 10.1504/ijmda.2017.10008574
[28] Hair, F. J. Sarstedt, M. Hopkins, L. and Kuppelwieser, V. G. 2014. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM.ur. Bus. Rev., 26(2): 106–121. DOI: 10.1108/ebr-10-2013-0128
[29] Hair, J. F. et al. 2018. When to use and how to report the results of PLS-SEM. Eur. Bus. Rev.. DOI:10.1108/ebr-11-2018-0203
[30] Hair, J. F. et al. 2019. When to use and how to report the results of PLS-SEM. DOI: 10.1108/EBR-11-2018-0203
[31] Halimi, M. F. et al. 2021. Modelling Muslims’ revisit intention of non-halal certified restaurants in Malaysia. J. Islam. Mark., vol. Preprint. DOI: 10.1108/JIMA-01-2021-0014
[32] Hasan, M. K. Abdullah, S. K. Lew, T. Y. and Islam, M. F. 2020. Determining factors of tourists’ loyalty to beach tourism destinations: a structural model. Asia Pacific J. Mark. Logist. DOI: 10.1108/APJML-08-2018-0334
[33] Hasan, M. K., Abdullah, S. K., Lew, T. Y. and Islam, M. F. 2020. Determining factors of tourists ’ loyalty to beach tourism destinations : a structural model. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 32(1): 169–187. DOI: 10.1108/APJML-08-2018-0334
[34] Henseler, J. 2015. Discriminant Validity : Check Out How To Use The New HTMT Criterion ! A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM).
[35] Hsu, F. C. Agyeiwaah, E. and Chen, L. I. L. 2021. Examining food festival attendees’ existential authenticity and experiential value on affective factors and loyalty: An application of stimulus-organism-response paradigm. J. Hosp. Tour. Manag., 48(June): 264–274. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhtm.2021.06.014
[36] Hulland, J. Baumgartner, H. and Smith, K. M. 2017. Marketing survey research best practices: evidence and recommendations from a review of JAMS articles. J. Acad. Mark. Sci., 46(1): 92–108. DOI: 10.1007/s11747-017-0532-y
[37] Jaafar M. and Maideen, S. A. 2012. Ecotourism-related products and activities, and the economic sustainability of small and medium island chalets. Tour. Manag., 33(3): 683–691. DOI:10.1016/j.tourman.2011.07.011
[38] Jani D. and Han, H. 2015. Influence of environmental stimuli on hotel customer emotional loyalty response: Testing the moderating effect of the big five personality factors. Int. J. Hosp. Manag., 44: 48–57. DOI:10.1016/j.ijhm.2014.10.006
[39] Kim, A. K. and Brown, G. 2012. Understanding the relationships between perceived travel experiences, overall satisfaction, and destination loyalty. Anatolia, 23(3): 328–347. DOI: 10.1080/13032917.2012.696272
[40] Kim, J. H. 2017. The Impact of Memorable Tourism Experiences on Loyalty Behaviors: The Mediating Effects of Destination Image and Satisfaction. J. Travel Res. DOI: 10.1177/0047287517721369
[41] Kim, S. Park, J. and Kim, W. 2015. The Mediating Effect of Destination Image on the Relationship Between Spectator Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions at an International Sporting Event. Asia Pacific J. Tour. Res., May: 37–41. DOI: 10.1080/10941665.2015.1048262
[42] Kock, N. 2015. Common method bias in PLS-SEM: A full collinearity assessment approach. Int. J. e-Collaboration. DOI: 10.4018/ijec.2015100101
[43] Lee, C. F. 2015. Tourist satisfaction with factory tour experience. Int. J. Cult. Tour. Hosp. Res., 9(3): 261–277. DOI: 10.1108/IJCTHR-02-2015-0005
[44] Lee, C. F. 2015. Tourist satisfaction with forest recreation experience: a segment-based approach. Anatolia. DOI: 10.1080/13032917.2014.997768
[45] Lee, S., Chua, B. and Han, H. 2016. Role of service encounter and physical environment performances , novelty, satisfaction, and affective commitment in generating cruise passenger loyalty. Asia Pacific J. Tour. Res., 1665(May). DOI: 10.1080/10941665.2016.1182039
[46] MacCarthy, M., O’Neill, M. and Williams, P. 2006. Customer satisfaction and scuba-diving: Some insights from the deep. Serv. Ind. J., 26(5): 537–555. DOI: 10.1080/02642060600722841
[47] Maghsoodi Tilaki, M. J. Hedayati Marzbali, M. Abdullah, A. and Bahauddin, A. 2016. Examining the Influence of International Tourists’ Destination Image and Satisfaction on Their Behavioral Intention in Penang, Malaysia. J. Qual. Assur. Hosp. Tour., 17(4): 425–452. DOI: 10.1080/1528008X.2015.1096756
[48] Marconi, M., Giglio, V. J., Pereira Filho, G. H. and Motta, F. S. 2020. Does quality of scuba diving experience vary according to the context and management regime of marine protected areas? Ocean Coast. Manag., 194(February): 105246. DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2020.105246
[49] McDowall, S. 2010. International tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: Bangkok, Thailand. Asia Pacific J. Tour. Res., 15(1): 21–42. DOI: 10.1080/10941660903510040
[50] Mohamad, D., Bahauddin, A. and Mohamed, B. 2016. Tourism development progress of two islands of Malaysia: The locals’ perspective towards climate change. Worldw. Hosp. Tour. Themes, 8(5): 534–548. DOI:10.1108/WHATT-06-2016-0030
[51] Moon, H. and Han, H. 2019. Tourist experience quality and loyalty to an island destination: the moderating impact of destination image. J. Travel Tour. Mark., 36(1): 43–59. DOI: 10.1080/10548408.2018.1494083
[52] Moore, S. A. Rodger, K. and Taplin, R. 2013. Moving beyond visitor satisfaction to loyalty in nature-based tourism: a review and research agenda. Curr. Issues Tour., 18(7): 667–683. DOI:10.1080/13683500.2013.790346
[53] Musa, G., Kadir, S. L. S. A. and Lee, L. 2006. Layang Layang: An Empirical Study on Scuba Divers’ Satisfaction. Tour. Mar. Environ., 2(2): 89–102. DOI: 10.3727/154427306779436273
[54] Navarro Jurado, E. Damian, I. M. and Fernández-Morales, A. 2013. Carrying capacity model applied in coastal destinations. Ann. Tour. Res. DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2013.03.005
[55] Needham, M. D. et al. 2018. Snorkeling and scuba diving with manta rays: encounters, norms, crowding, satisfaction, and displacement. Hum. Dimens. Wildl., 23(5): 461–473. DOI: 10.1080/10871209.2018.1461962
[56] Ngah, A. H. et al. 2019. Modelling the adoption of halal warehousing services among halal pharmaceutical and cosmetic manufacturers. J. Sustain. Sci. Manag., 14(6): 103–116.

[57] Ngah, A. H. et al. 2021. Fostering voluntourism satisfaction and future behaviour in island destinations. Sustain., 13(5): 1–17. DOI: 10.3390/su13052767
[58] Ngah, A. H. et al. 2021. Intention to purchase halal cosmetics: Do males and females differ? a multigroup analysis. Cosmetics, 8(1): 1–14. DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics8010019
[59] Ngah, A. H. et al. 2021. Online sellers’ reuse behaviour for third-party logistics services: An innovative model development and E-Commerce. Sustain., 13(14): 1–15. DOI: 10.3390/su13147679
[60] Ngah, A. H. et al. 2021. To pay or not to pay: Measuring the effect of religiosity in the ABC theory. Manag. Sci. Lett., 11: 795–806. DOI: 10.5267/j.msl.2020.10.026
[61] Ngah, A. H. et al. 2021. Voluntourism sustainability: a case of Malaysian east coast island destinations. Asia Pacific J. Tour. Res., 26(12): 1364–1385. DOI: 10.1080/10941665.2021.1983622
[62] Ngah, A. H. Gabarre, S. Eneizan, B. and Asri, N. 2020. Mediated and moderated model of the willingness to pay for halal transportation. J. Islam. Mark. DOI: 10.1108/JIMA-10-2019-0199
[63] Nguyen, Q. N. Nguyen, H. L. and Le, T. D. H. 2020. Relationships among novelty seeking, satisfaction, return intention, and willingness to recommend of foreign tourists in Vietnam. Manag. Sci. Lett. DOI:10.5267/j.msl.2020.3.010
[64] O’Neill, M. A. Williams, P. Maccarthy, M. and Groves, R. 2000. Diving into service quality – the dive tour operator perspective. Manag. Serv. Qual. An Int. J., 10(3): 131–140. DOI: 10.1108/09604520010336650
[65] Ogucha, E. B. Riungu, G. K. Kiama, F. K. and Mukolwe, E. 2015. The influence of homestay facilities on tourist satisfaction in the Lake Victoria Kenya Tourism Circuit. J. Ecotourism, 14(2–3): 278–287. DOI:10.1080/14724049.2015.1105811
[66] Ozdemir, B. Beykan, Ç. and Bato Cize, R. 2012. Satisfaction With All-Inclusive Tourism Resorts: The Effects of Satisfaction With Destination and Destination Loyalty. Int. J. Hosp. Tour. Adm., 13(2): 109–130. DOI:10.1080/15256480.2012.669313
[67] Pabel A. and Coghlan, A. 2011. Dive market segments and destination competitiveness: A case study of the great barrier reef in view of changing reef ecosystem health. Tour. Mar. Environ. DOI:10.3727/154427311X13038402065785
[68] Palau-Saumell, R., Forgas-Coll, S. Sánchez-García, J. and Prats-Planagumà, L. 2014. Managing dive centres: SCUBA divers’ behavioural intentions. Eur. Sport Manag. Q., 14(4): 422–443. DOI:10.1080/16184742.2014.926378
[69] Palau-Saumell, R., Forgas-Coll, S., Amaya-Molinar, C. M. and Sánchez-García, J. 2015. Examining How Country Image Influences Destination Image in a Behavioral Intentions Model: The Cases of Lloret De Mar (Spain) and Cancun (Mexico). J. Travel Tour. Mark., 33(7): 949–965. DOI: 10.1080/10548408.2015.1075456
[70] Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y. and Podsakoff, N. P. 2003. Common Method Biases in Behavioral Research: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommended Remedies. J. Appl. Psychol., 88(5): 879–903. DOI: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879
[71] Preko, A., Edem, L., Ameyibor, K. and Mohammed, I. 2020. Examining tour services , satisfaction , and loyalty of international tourists in Cape Coast, Ghana. Tourism Review Internationa 23(3): 115–131.
[72] Queiroz Neto, A., Lohmann, G., Scott, N. and Dimmock, K. 2017. Rethinking competitiveness: important attributes for a successful scuba diving destination. Tour. Recreat. Res., 42(3): 356–366. DOI:10.1080/02508281.2017.1308086
[73] Ragab, H. Mahrous, A. A. and Ghoneim, A. 2019. Egypt’s perceived destination image and its impact on tourist’s future behavioral intentions. Int. J. Tour. Cities, 6(2): 449–466. DOI: 10.1108/IJTC-12-2018-0105
[74] Rangel, M. O. et al. 2014. Developing self-guided scuba dive routes in the Algarve (Portugal) and analysing visitors’ perceptions. Mar. Policy, 45: 194–203. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2013.10.011
[75] Reichheld, F. F. 1996. Learning from Customer Defections. Harv. Bus. Rev.
[76] Reza Jalilvand, M., Samiei, N., Dini, B. and Yaghoubi Manzari, P. 2012. Examining the structural relationships of electronic word of mouth, destination image, tourist attitude toward destination and travel intention: An integrated approach. J. Destin. Mark. Manag., 1(1–2): 134–143. DOI:10.1016/j.jdmm.2012.10.001
[77] Russell, J. A. and Mehrabian, A. 1974. Distinguishing anger and anxiety in terms of emotional response factors. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. DOI: 10.1037/h0035915
[78] Salim, N. Bahauddin, A. and Mohamed, B. 2013. Influence of scuba divers’ specialization on their underwater behavior. Worldw. Hosp. Tour. Themes, 5(4): 388–397. DOI: 10.1108/WHATT-03-2013-0015
[79] Sangpikul, A. 2018. The effects of travel experience dimensions on tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: the case of an island destination. Int. J. Cult. Tour. Hosp. Res. DOI: 10.1108/IJCTHR-06-2017-0067
[80] Schuhmann, P. W. Casey, J. F. Horrocks, J. A. and Oxenford, H. A. 2013. Recreational SCUBA divers’ willingness to pay for marine biodiversity in Barbados. J. Environ. Manage., 121: 29–36. DOI:10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.02.019
[81] Shmueli, G.et al. 2016. The elephant in the room: Predictive performance of PLS models. J. Bus. Res., 69(10): 4552–4564. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.03.049
[82] Stolk, P. Markwell, K. and Jenkins, J. 2013. Perceptions of Artificial Reefs as Australian Recreational Scuba Divers. Ann. Leis. Res., May: 37–41.
[83] Su, L., Hsu, M. K. and Boostrom, R. E. 2020. From recreation to responsibility: Increasing environmentally responsible behavior in tourism. J. Bus. Res., 109(December 2018): 557–573. DOI:10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.12.055
[84] Sun, X. Geng-Qing Chi, C. and Xu, H. 2013. Developing destination loyalty: The case of hainan island. Ann. Tour. Res. DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2013.04.006
[85] Tabata, R. S. 1992. Scuba Diving Holidays, in Special Interest Tourism.
[86] Thirumoorthi, T. Wong, B. Mun, K. and Musa, G. 2013. Diving Satisfaction . In G . Musa & K Dimmock (Eds.), SCUBA Diving Tourism , no. December 2014.
[87] Triantafillidou, A. and Petala, Z. 2016. The Role Of Sea-Based Adventure Experiences In Tourists’ Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions. J. Travel Tour. Mark., 33(May): S67–S87. DOI:10.1080/10548408.2015.1008667
[88] Tuan Mansor, T. M., Mohamad Ariff, A., Hashim, H. A. and Ngah, A. H. 2021. External whistleblowing intentions of auditors: a perspective based on stimulus–organism–response theory. Corp. Gov. Int. J. Bus. Soc., vol. ahead-of-p, no. ahead-of-print, Dec. 2021, DOI: 10.1108/cg-03-2021-0116
[89] Vieira, J. C. Jordan, E. and Santos, C. 2021. The effect of nationality on visitor satisfaction and willingness to recommend a destination: A joint modeling approach. Tour. Manag. Perspect., 39(June). DOI:10.1016/j.tmp.2021.100850
[90] Wardi, Y. Abror, A. and Trinanda, O. 2018. Halal tourism: antecedent of tourist’s satisfaction and word of mouth (WOM). Asia Pacific J. Tour. Res., 23(5): 463–472. DOI: 10.1080/10941665.2018.1466816
[91] Wu, H. C. 2014. The effects of customer satisfaction, perceived value, corporate image and service quality on behavioral intentions in gaming establishments. Asia Pacific J. Mark. Logist. DOI: 10.1108/APJML-03-2014-0049
[92] Yasami, M. Promsivapallop, P. and Kannaovakun, P. 2020. Food Image and Loyalty Intentions: Chinese Tourists’ Destination Food Satisfaction. J. China Tour. Res. DOI: 10.1080/19388160.2020.1784814
[93] Zehrer A. and Raich, F. 2016. The impact of perceived crowding on customer satisfaction. J. Hosp. Tour. Manag., 29: 88–98. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhtm.2016.06.007
[94] Zimmerhackel, J. S. et al. 2018. How shark conservation in the Maldives affects demand for dive tourism. Tour. Manag. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2018.06.009
[95] Marine Park Malaysia, “Total Economic Value of Marine Biodiversity,” p. 16, 2015.
[96] PADI, “2019 Worldwide Corporate Statistic. Data for 2013-2018,” 2019. [Online]. Available at: https://www.padi.com/sites/default/files/documents/2019-02/2019PADIWorldwide Statistics.pdf
[97] Terengganu State Tourism Department, “TERENGGANU TOURISM DATA 2019,” 2019.
How to Cite
MAT ALI, Siti Murni; SET, Kalsitinoor; NGAH, Abdul Hafaz. Exploring Factors Contributing to Satisfaction and Willingness to Recommend in Scuba Diving Tourism. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 13, n. 4, p. 1178 - 1191, june 2022. ISSN 2068-7729. Available at: <https://journals.aserspublishing.eu/jemt/article/view/7071>. Date accessed: 14 aug. 2022. doi: https://doi.org/10.14505/jemt.v13.4(60).23.