Wali Pitu, Bali Province as Tourism Innovation for the Indonesian Halal Tourism Destinations

  • Khairuddin KHAIRUDIN Fatmawati Sukarno State Islamic University Bengkulu, Indonesia

Abstract

This research paper discusses Bali as a halal tourist destination, which is contradictory as a “City of Guardians” amid the brand of Bali as a Hindu City in Indonesia. This article is strongly based on the findings of “Wali Pitu” (seven sainthood) on the island of Bali, in particular that it has not been widely promoted as a halal tourist destination by the local government.


The iconic Bali as a Hindu City currently has a double image as a “Wali City” because Wali Pitu tombs were found which differ from those of Wali Songo. Wali Pitu is unique because of its existence at the heart of Hindu civilization in Bali and through a unique process from the cult of Wali Songo. As a new site, Wali Pitu is a new prospect for halal tourism, where several important aspects can invite many pilgrims. Wali Pitu is considered a new halal tourism opportunity to build an image of Muslim holiness amid the hegemony of Hindu society in Indonesia, which serves as the creation of modern religious moderation.

References

[1] Adhika, I.M. and Putra, I.D.G.A.D. 2021. Reinvigorating cultural landscapes for planning cultural tourism in Bali, Geoj. Tour. Geosites, 33(4): 1462–1469. DOI: 10.30892/gtg.334spl03-594
[2] Aini, N., Utomo, A., and McDonald, P. 2019. Interreligious Marriage in Indonesia, J. Relig. Demogr., 6(1): 189–214. DOI: 10.1163/2589742x-00601005
[3] Ambary, H. 1985. Mesjid Kampung Gelgel, Kabupaten Klungkung (Bali), Archipel, 30(1): 39–41. DOI:10.3406/arch.1985.2238 (in Indonesian)
[4] Arifin. 2012. Sejarah wujudnya makam sab’atul auliya’ wali pitu di Bali: sejarah perkembangan & pengembangan. Sidoarjo: Zifatama.
[5] Arjawa, I,G,P,B,S, and Zulkifli, Z. 2021. The Social Integration of Hindu and Muslim Communities: The Practice of ‘Menyama-Braya’ in Contemporary Bali, Stud. Islam., 28(1): 149–178. DOI:10.36712/sdi.v28i1.10914
[6] Barth, F. 1998. Ethnic Groups and Boundaries. United States of America: Waveland Press, 153p. ISBN-13: ‎ 978-0881339796
[7] Brookes, J., Pooley, A., and Earnest, J. 2014. Terrorism, Trauma and Psychology A multilevel victim perspective of the Bali bombings, 1st Edition. Routledge.
[8] Castro, M. Quisimalin, C., de Pablos, V., Gancino, and Jerez. J. 2017. Tourism Marketing: Measuring Tourist Satisfaction, J. Serv. Sci. Manag., 10(3): 280–308. DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2017.103023
[9] Chambert-Loir, H. and Reid, A. (eds.) 2002. The Potent Dead Ancestors, Saints and Heroes In Contemporary Indonesia, Crows Nest (NSW): Allen & Unwin, & Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press (Asian Studies Association of Australia, Southeast Asia Publications Series), 243 p.
[10] de Jonge, H. 2014. Pilgrimages and Local Islam on Java, Stud. Islam., Volume 5, Issue 2. DOI:10.15408/sdi.v5i2.751
[11] Dibia, I.W. 1985. Odalan of Hindu Bali: A Religious Festival, a Social Occasion, and a Theatrical Event, Asian Theatr. J., 2(1): 61. DOI: 10.2307/1124507
[12] Dunbar-Hall, P. 2001. Culture, tourism and cultural tourism: Boundaries and frontiers in performances of balinese music and dance, J. Intercult. Stud., 22(2): 173–187. DOI: 10.1080/07256860120069594
[13] El-Gohary, H. 2016. Halal tourism, is it really Halal? Tour. Manag. Perspect., Volume 19 Part B, September, pp. 124–130. DOI: 10.1016/j.tmp.2015.12.013
[14] Fagertun, A. 2017. Labour in paradise: Gender, class and social mobility in the informal tourism economy of urban Bali, Indonesia, J. Dev. Stud., 53(3): 331–345. DOI: 10.1080/00220388.2016.1184248
[15] Fournié, P. 2019. Rediscovering the Walisongo, Indonesia: A potential new destination for international ilgrimage, Int. J. Relig. Tour. Pilgr., 7(4): 77–86.
[16] Handriana, T., Yulianti, P. and Kurniawati, M. 2020. Exploration of pilgrimage tourism in Indonesia, J. Islam. Mark., 11(3): 783–795. DOI: 10.1108/JIMA-10-2018-0188
[17] Hasyim, A.W. 2021. Demak Sultanate: The Fortress of Islamic Greatness in the Middle Ages Java Island, Bul. Al-Turas, 27(1): 1–16. DOI: 10.15408/bat.v27i1.16400
[18] Hobart, M. 1977. [Review of Kinship in Bali, by H. Geertz & C. Geertz]. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, 40(1): 195–197. DOI: http://www.jstor.org/stable/615880
[19] Howe, L. 2005. The Changing World of Bali: Religion, society and tourism, 176 p. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415546744
[20] Hutchison, E. 2010. Trauma and the politics of emotions: Constituting identity, security and community after the Bali bombing, Int. Relations, 24(1): 65–86. DOI: 10.1177/0047117809348712
[21] Kasdi, M. Farida, U., and Cahyadi, I.F. 2018. Wali city branding: Marketing strategy in promoting halal tourism destinations Demak Indonesia, Geoj. Tour. Geosites, 25(2): 463–473. DOI: 10.30892/gtg.25215-373
[22] Kasdi, M., Nashirudin, Farida, U. and Praatmana, N.D. 2021. Potential of Kudus as a new international pilgrimage destination in Indonesia: Halal tourism optimising local wisdom, Int. J. Relig. Tour. Pilgr., 9(1): 96–105. DOI: 10.21427/6a93-zn19
[23] Korstanje, M.E. 2011. Tourism, development, and terrorism in Bali, e-Review Tour. Res., 9(2): 1–13.
[24] Kruglanski, A.W. 2013. Psychological insights into Indonesian Islamic terrorism: The what, the how and the why of violent extremism, Asian J. Soc. Psychol., 16(2): 112–116. DOI: 10.1111/ajsp.12019
[25] Lemy, A. Nursiana, and Pramono, R. 2020. Destination Loyalty Towards Bali, J. Asian Financ. Econ. Bus., 7(12): 501–508. DOI: 10.13106/JAFEB.2020.VOL7.NO12.501
[26] Lewis, J. 2006. Paradise defiled: The Bali bombings and the terror of national identity, Eur. J. Cult. Stud., 9(2): 223–242. DOI: 10.1177/1367549406063165
[27] Lorenzen, R.P. and Roth, D. 2015. Paradise Contested: Culture, Politics and Changing Land and Water Use in Bali, Asia Pacific J. Anthropol., 16(2): 99–105. DOI: 10.1080/14442213.2015.1006667
[28] Luz, N. 2020. Pilgrimage and religious tourism in Islam, Ann. Tour. Res., Volume 82, 102915, DOI:10.1016/j.annals.2020.102915
[29] Mandal. 1997. Natural Leaders of Native Muslims: Arab Ethnicity and Politics in Java Under Dutch Rule,” in Hadhrami Traders, Scholars and Statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s-1960s, BRILL, pp. 185–198.
[30] Masduki, A. 2018. Ziarah Wali: An Inquiry of Contemporary Religious Tourism Development in Indonesia, Travelling Muslims, volume 4, Issue 2. NISIS Autumn School Faculty of Theology & Religious Studies, University of Groningen, Netherlands, pp. 254–276. Available at: https://www.rug.nl/ggw/news/events/2018/nisis-autumn-school-2018
[31] Mastika, I.K., and Nimran, U. 2020. Destination Estination Branding Model of An Ecological Tourism Village In Bali, Indonesia, Geoj. Tour. Geosites, 31(3): 1068–1074. DOI: 10.30892/gtg.31319-542
[32] McKean, P.F. 1976. Tourism, Culture Change, and Culture Conservation in Bali, in Changing Identities in Modern Southeast Asia, De Gruyter Mouton, pp. 237–248. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110809930.237
[33] Milla, M.N. Faturochman, Ancok, D. 2013. The impact of leader-follower interactions on the radicalization of terrorists: A case study of the Bali bombers, Asian J. Soc. Psychol., 16(2): 92–100. DOI: 10.1111/ajsp.12007
[34] Mohsin, A. 2017. Lighting ‘Paradise’: A Sociopolitical History of Electrification in Bali, East Asian Sci. Technol. Soc. An Int. J., volume 11, January, pp. 9–34. DOI: 10.1215/18752160-3489218
[35] Mufid and Suharto, Y. 2011. Perjuangan Wali Pitu & Wali Enam di Pulau Bali. Surabaya: Menara Madinah.
[36] Pamungkas, E.T., Sujatna, S., Darsono, H., and Haron, R. 2020. Geotourism branding through the names of tourism destinations in UNESCO global geopark Batur Bali: Morphological and toponymic studies, Geoj. Tour. Geosites, 31(3): 966–971. DOI: 10.30892/gtg.31305-528
[37] Pedersen, L. 2014. “6 Keeping the Peace: Interdependence and Narratives of Tolerance in Hindu-Muslim Relationships in Eastern Bali,” in Between Harmony and Discrimination: Negotiating Religious Identities within Majority-Minority Relationships in Bali and Lombok, BRILL, pp. 165–196. E-Book ISBN: 9789004271494. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004271494_008
[38] Picard, M. 2008. Balinese identity as tourist attraction: From ‘cultural tourism’ (pariwisata budaya) to ‘Bali erect’ (ajeg Bali), Tour. Stud., 8(2): 155–173. DOI: 10.1177/1468797608099246

[39] Picard, M. 2011. Balinese religion in search of recognition: From Agama Hindu Bali to Agama Hindu (1945-1965), Bijdr. tot Taal-, Land- en Volkenkd., 167(4): 482–510. DOI: 10.1163/22134379-90003581
[40] Ramstedt, M. 1999. Muslim- Hindu Indonesiain Contemporary Relations, Isim Newsl., 4(1): 14-24. Available at: https://hdl.handle.net/1887/17342
[41] Slama, M. 2012. Wisata Religi – Religiöser Tourismus: Spirituelle Ökonomien und islamische Machtkämpfe in Indonesien, Asien, volume 123, April, pp. 77–94.
[42] Sobocinska, A. 2011. Innocence lost and paradise regained Tourism to Bali and Australian perceptions of Asia, Hist. Aust., 8(2): 199–222. DOI: 10.1080/14490854.2011.11668380
[43] Stauth, G., and Schileke, S. (eds.) 2008. Yearbook of the Sociology of Islam. Muslim Saint their place and space, Dimensions of Locality, 196p. ISBN: 978-3-89942-968-8
[44] Stevens, G.J. et al. 2013. Long-term health and wellbeing of people affected by the 2002 bali bombing, Med. J. Aust., 198(5): 273–277. DOI: 10.5694/mja12.11480
[45] Stevens, G.J., Dunsmore, K.E., Agho, M.R., Taylor, A., Jones, L., and Raphael, B. 2013. Coping support factors among Australians affected by terrorism: 2002 Bali bombing survivors speak, Med. J. Aust., 199(11): 772–775. DOI: 10.5694/mja13.10540
[46] Suryani, A., Page, C.B.J., Lesmana, M., Jennaway, I.D.G., Basudewa, and Taylor, R. 2009. Suicide in paradise: Aftermath of the Bali bombings, Psychol. Med., 39(8): 1317–1323. DOI:10.1017/S0033291708004893
[47] Thimm, V. 2018. Embodying and consuming modernity on Muslim pilgrimage: gendered shopping and clothing practices by Malaysian women on ‘umrah and ziarah Dubai, Asian Anthropol., 17(3): 185–203. DOI:10.1080/1683478X.2018.1483477
[48] Tohari, A. and Raya, M.K.F. 2021. The Meaning of Religious Moderation on the Resilience of Muslim Minority in Balinese Hindus, J. Contemp. Islam Muslim Soc., 5(1): 77. DOI: 10.30821/jcims.v5i1.8686
[49] Van Doorn-harder, N. and de Jong, K. 2020. The Pilgrimage to Tembayat: Tradition and Revival in Indonesian Islam, The Muslim World, 91(3-4): 325-354. DOI: 10.1111/j.1478-1913.2001.tb03720.x
[50] Widjaja, G., Khalifa, S.A. and Abuelhassan, A.E. 2020. The effect of Islamic attributes and destination affective image on the reputation of the Halal tourism destination of Jakarta, Journal of Environental Management and Tourism, Volume XI, Spring, 2(42): 299–313. DOI: 10.14505/jemt.v11.2(42).08
[51] BPS. 2010. Penduduk Provinsi Bali Menurut Agama yang Dianut Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2010, Badan Pusat Statistik Provinsi Bali. (in Indonesian)
[52] Deputi Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kebijakan Kepariwisataan, Kajian Pengembangan Wisata Syariah. Jakarta, 2015. (in Indonesian)
Published
2022-06-28
How to Cite
KHAIRUDIN, Khairuddin. Wali Pitu, Bali Province as Tourism Innovation for the Indonesian Halal Tourism Destinations. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 13, n. 4, p. 1113 - 1124, june 2022. ISSN 2068-7729. Available at: <https://journals.aserspublishing.eu/jemt/article/view/7065>. Date accessed: 14 aug. 2022. doi: https://doi.org/10.14505/jemt.v13.4(60).17.