Trends and Development of Tourism Product Diversification in Botswana: Lessons Learned

  • Tonderai VUMBUNU North-West University, South Africa
  • Pierre-Andre VIVIERS North-West University, South Africa
  • Engelina DU PLESSIS North-West University, South Africa

Abstract

Diversifying tourism products is a vital contemporary business strategy for maintaining a competitive advantage in the face of rapid technological, economic and social changes. Tourism in Botswana is largely dependent on wildlife and international tourists and consistent calls to diversify over the past four decades have greatly been amplified by the colossal impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. A semi-systematic literature review analyzed progress and research trends related to tourism product diversification in Botswana. Findings revealed that research on diversification is largely qualitative and supply-side focused. It mostly explains reasons for diversification and identifies potential development sites and optional products that could be introduced such as activities related to cultural, heritage and community-based tourism. Tourism product diversification has largely been stalled over the past four decades and is characterized by a deficiency in empirical demand-side research, precise strategies to adopt as well as theoretical and conceptual analyses of diversification that should form the basis for crafting time-specific effective strategies.

References

[1] Alonso, A. D. 2017. Exploring a developing tourism industry: A resource-based view approach. Tourism Recreation Research, 42(1):45-58. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2016.1239332
[2] Alonso, A. D. and Kok, S. 2018. A resource-based view and dynamic capabilities approach in the context of a region’s international attractiveness: The recent case of Western Australia. Local Economy: The Journal of the Local Economy Policy Unit, 33(3): 307-328. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0269094218765167
[3] Alonso, A. D., Kok, S. and O’Brien, S. 2018. “We are only scratching the surface” – a resource-based and dynamic capabilities approach in the context of culinary tourism development. Tourism Recreation Research, 43(4): 511-526. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2018.1473196
[4] Ansoff, H. I. 1957. Review of Strategies for diversification. Harvard business review 35 (5): 113-124. https://www.casrilanka.com/casl/images/stories/2017/2017_pdfs/sab_portal/course_material/strategies_for_diversification.pdf
[5] Barney, J. 1991. Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1): 99-120.
[6] Barney, J. B. 1986. Organizational Culture: Can It Be a Source of Sustained Competitive Advantage? The Academy of Management Review, 11(3): 656-665. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/258317
[7] Basupi, B., Pansiri, J. and Lenao, M. 2017. Botswana tourism policy Landscape – successes and challenges. Botswana Journal of Business, 10(1): 83-96.
[8] Beaulier, S. A. 2003. Explaining Botswana’s success: The critical role of post-colonial policy. Cato Journal, 23(2): 227-239.
[9] Benur, A. M. and Bramwell, B. 2015. Tourism product development and product diversification in destinations. Tourism Management, 50: 213-224. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2015.02.005
[10] Besada, H. and O’Bright, B. 2019. Policy Impacts on Africa’s Extractive Sector: Botswana, Diamond Dependence, and Diversification in the Post-Diamond Period. Revue Gouvernance, 15(2): 86-105. DOI:https://doi.org/10.7202/1058089ar
[11] Bolaane, M. M. and Kanduza, A. M. 2008. Critical factors in cultural tourism in Botswana. Botswana Notes and Records: Tourism as a Sustainable Development Factor, 39: 54-61.
[12] Booth, A., Papaioannou, D. and Sutton, A. 2016. Systematic approaches to a successful literature review. London: Sage.
[13] Bresler, N. C. 2011. On Safari in Botswana: Describing the Product. Tourism Analysis, 16(1): 67-75. DOI:https://doi.org/10.3727/108354211x12988225900126
[14] Canovi, M. 2019. Resistance to agritourism diversification: An analysis of winery owners’ identities. Tourism Management Perspectives, 32:1-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2019.100566
[15] Carboni, M., Perelli, C. and Sistu, G. 2016. Developing tourism products in line with Islamic beliefs: some insights from Nabeul–Hammamet. The Journal of North African Studies, 22(1): 87-108. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/13629387.2016.1239078
[16] Cassidy, L. 2020. Power dynamics and new directions in the recent evolution of CBNRM in Botswana. Conservation Science and Practice, 3(1):1-8. DOI: https://doi.org/https://doi.org/ 10.1111/csp2.205
[17] Chamakiotis, P., Panteli, N. and Davison, R. M. 2021. Reimagining e-leadership for reconfigured virtual teams due to COVID-19. International Journal of Information Management, 60: 102-381. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2021.102381
[18] Chatibura, D. 2015. The development of a strategic framework for the promotion of local cuisine in Botswana (PhD Thesis; pp. 1–302). Available at: https://repository.nwu.ac.za/handle/10394/14486
[19] Chatibura, D. M. 2020. Travellers’ top comments during the COVID-19 pandemic in Botswana. Research in Hospitality Management, 10(2):123-130. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/22243534.2020.1869462
[20] Chipfuva, T. “Cuisine Heritage for Sustainable Tourism Product Diversification.” In Botswana Cultural Heritage and Sustainable Tourism Development: A Hand Book of Theory and Practice:, edited by B. A Brown, L. L Mokgalo, and T Chipfuva, 344–59. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2020.
[21] Cook, A. and Sarkin, J. 2010. Is Botswana the miracle of Africa? Democracy, the rule of law, and human rights versus economic development. Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems, 19(2): 453-489.
[22] Cooper, C. and Hall, C. M. 2019. Contemporary tourism: an international approach. Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers Limited.
[23] Cronjé, D. F. and du Plessis, E. 2020. A review on tourism destination competitiveness. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 45: 256-265. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2020.06.012
[24] Dewah, J. T. 2014. Gaborone a stop not a stop-over: a heritage and cultural tourism destination. (Masters thesis). Available at: repository.up.ac.za/handle/2263/50877
[25] Ehlers, T., et al. 2019. Strategic management: southern African concepts and cases. Hatfield, Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.
[26] Evans, N. 2020. Strategic management for tourism, hospitality and events. New York: Routledge.
[27] Fletcher, J., Fyall, A., Gilbert, D. and Wanhill, S. 2018. Tourism: principles and practice (6th ed.). Harlow, United Kingdom: Pearson Education Limited.
[28] Gössling, S., Scott, D. and Hall, C. M. 2021. Pandemics, tourism and global change: a rapid assessment of COVID-19. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29(1): 1-20. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2020.1758708
[29] Grant, R. M. 1991. The Resource-Based Theory of Competitive Advantage: Implications for Strategy Formulation. California Management Review, 33(3): 114-135. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/41166664
[30] Gyan, A. K., Brahmana, R. and Bakri, A. K. 2017. Diversification strategy, efficiency, and firm performance: Insight from emerging market. Research in International Business and Finance, 42: 1103-1114. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ribaf.2017.07.045
[31] Hall, C. M., Scott, D. and Gössling, S. 2020. Pandemics, transformations and tourism: be careful what you wish for. Tourism Geographies, 22(3): 577-598. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1759131
[32] Hall, J., Gaved, M. and Sargent, J. 2021. Participatory Research Approaches in Times of COVID-19: A Narrative Literature Review. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 20: 160940692110100. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/16094069211010087
[33] Hambira, W. L., Saarinen, J. and Moses, O. 2020. Climate change policy in a world of uncertainty: changing environment, knowledge, and tourism in Botswana. African Geographical Review, 39(3): 252-266. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/19376812.2020.1719366
[34] Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D. and Hoskisson, R. E. 2017. Strategic management: competitiveness and globalization: concepts and cases. Singapore: Cengage Learning Asia Pty Ltd.
[35] Hlavac, M. 2010. Economic development in pre-independence Botswana, 1820-1966: historical trends, contributing and countervailing factors. MPRA Paper No. 26026:1-28. Available at: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/26026/
[36] Hoskisson, R. E., and Hitt, M. A. 1990. Antecedents and Performance Outcomes of Diversification: A Review and Critique of Theoretical Perspectives. Journal of Management, 16(2): 461-509. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/014920639001600210
[37] Kaynak, E. and Marandu, E. E. 2006. Tourism Market Potential Analysis in Botswana: A Delphi Study. Journal of Travel Research, 45(2): 227-237. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287506291595
[38] Keitumetse, S. O. 2009. The Eco‐tourism of Cultural Heritage Management (ECT‐CHM): Linking Heritage and “Environment” in the Okavango Delta Regions of Botswana. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 15(2-3): 223-244. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13527250902890811
[39] Keitumetse, S. O. 2016. African cultural heritage conservation and management: theory and practice from southern Africa. Switzerland: Springer.
[40] Kgathi, D. L., and Ngwenya, B. N. 2005. Community based natural resource management and social sustainability in Ngamiland, Botswana. Botswana Notes and Records, 37: 61-79.
[41] Knecht, M. 2014. Diversification, Industry Dynamism, and Economic Performance The Impact of Dynamic-related Diversification on the Multi-business Firm. Wiesbaden Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Imprint: Springer Gabler.
[42] Leechor, C. and Fabricius, M. 2004. Developing tourism in Botswana: progress and challenges. In Botswana documents (pp. 1–100). https://library.wur.nl/ojs/index.php/Botswana_documents/article/view/16029
[43] Lenao, M. 2015. Challenges facing community-based cultural tourism development at Lekhubu Island, Botswana: a comparative analysis. Current Issues in Tourism, 18(6): 579-594. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2013.827158
[44] Lenao, M. and Basupi, B. 2016. Ecotourism development and female empowerment in Botswana: A review. Tourism Management Perspectives, 18: 51–58. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2015.12.021
[45] Lenao, M. and Saarinen, J. 2015. Integrated rural tourism as a tool for community tourism development: exploring culture and heritage projects in the North-East District of Botswana. South African Geographical Journal, 97(2): 203–216. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03736245.2015.1028985
[46] Lepper, C. M. and Goebel, J. S. 2010. Community-based natural resource management, poverty alleviation and livelihood diversification: A case study from northern Botswana. Development Southern Africa, 27(5): 725–739. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0376835x.2010.522834
[47] Ljubownikow, G. and Ang, S. H. 2020. Competition, diversification and performance. Journal of Business Research, 112: 81-94. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.03.002
[48] Mahachi, D. and Ketsabile, L. S. 2013. Diamond mining as a possible strategy for tourism product diversification in Botswana. Journal for Development and Leadership, 2(2): 35-50.
[49] Mahachi-Chatibura, D. 2016. Local Cuisine as a Potential Tourism Attractor and Marker of National Identity in Botswana. Journal of Gastronomy and Tourism, 2(2): 117-134. DOI:https://doi.org/10.3727/216929716x14720551277880
[50] Mahachi-Chatibura, D. and Saayman, M. 2015. Local cuisine promotion: case study perspectives from key tourism stakeholders in Botswana. Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies, 3(3): 50-61.
[51] Manwa, H., Chipfuva, T. and Mahachi, D. 2011. Tourism education in Botswana: a contested issue. Journal of Tourism, 12(1): 17-38.
[52] Mbaiwa, J. E. 2003. The socio-economic and environmental impacts of tourism development on the Okavango Delta, north-western Botswana. Journal of Arid Environments, 54(2): 447-467. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/jare.2002.1101
[53] Mbaiwa, J. E. 2005a. Enclave tourism and its socio-economic impacts in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Tourism Management, 26(2): 157-172. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2003.11.005
[54] Mbaiwa, J. E. 2005b. The Problems and Prospects of Sustainable Tourism Development in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 13(3): 203-227. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/01434630508668554
[55] Mbaiwa, J. E. 2008. The realities of ecotourism development in Botswana. In A. Spenceley (Ed.), Responsible tourism: critical issues for conservation and development. (pp. 205-224). London: Earthscan.
[56] Mbaiwa, J. E. 2013. Community-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) in Botswana: CBNRM status report of 2011-2012. Gaborone: Kalahari Conservation Society.
[57] Mbaiwa, J. E. 2015. Ecotourism in Botswana: 30 years later. Journal of Ecotourism, 14(2-3): 204–222. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2015.1071378
[58] Mbaiwa, J. E. 2017. Poverty or riches: who benefits from the booming tourism industry in Botswana? Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 35(1): 93112. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02589001.2016.1270424
[59] Mbaiwa, J. E. and Darkoh, M. B. K. 2008. The socio-economic and environmental effects of the implementation of the tourism policy of 1990 in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Botswana Notes and Records: Tourism as a Sustainable Development Factor, 39: 138-155.
[60] Mbaiwa, J. E. and Hambira, W. L. 2020. Enclaves and Shadow State tourism in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. South African Geographical Journal, 102(1): 1-21. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/03736245.2019.1601592
[61] Mbaiwa, J. E. and Sakuze, L. K. 2009. Cultural tourism and livelihood diversification: The case of Gcwihaba Caves and XaiXai village in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 7(1): 61-75. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14766820902829551
[62] Mbaiwa, J. E. and Stronza, A. L. 2011. Changes in resident attitudes towards tourism development and conservation in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Journal of Environmental Management, 92(8): 1950-1959. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.03.009
[63] Mbaiwa, J. E., Magole, L. I. and Kgathi, D. L. 2011. Prospects and Challenges for Tourism Certification in Botswana. Tourism Recreation Research, 36(3): 259-270. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2011.11081671
[64] Mbaiwa, J. E., Ngwenya, B. N. and Kgathi, D. L. 2008. Contending with unequal and privileged access to natural resources and land in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 29(2): 155-172. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9493.2008.00332.x
[65] Mbaiwa, J. E., Thakadu, O. T. and Darkoh, M. K. B. 2005. Sustainable development and natural resource competition and conflicts in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Botswana Notes and Records - Special Edition on Human Interactions and Natural Resource Dynamics in the Okavango Delta and Ngamiland, 37:40-60.
[66] Mbaiwa, J. E., Thakadu, O. T. and Darkoh, M. K. B. 2008. Indigenous knowledge and ecotourism-based livelihoods in the Okavango Delta in Botswana. Botswana Notes and Records - Tourism as a Sustainable Development Factor, 39: 62-64.
[67] Mbaiwa, J. E., Toteng, E. N. and Moswete, N. 2007. Problems and prospects for the development of urban tourism in Gaborone and Maun, Botswana. Development Southern Africa, 24(5): 725-740. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/03768350701650793
[68] Mbayi, L. 2016. Technological Innovation and Export Diversification through the development of Diamond-Processing Capabilities in Botswana’s Diamond Cutting and Polishing Industry. In A. Gutowski, T. Knedlik, P. N. Osakwe, I. Ramdoo, and K. Wohlmuth (Eds.), Africa’s Progress in Regional and Global Economic Integration - Towards Transformative Regional Integration (pp. 299-335). Zurich: LIT Verlag Münster.
[69] McKercher, B. 2016. Towards a taxonomy of tourism products. Tourism Management, 54: 196-208. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2015.11.008
[70] Middleton, V. T. C., and Hawkins, R. 2016. Sustainable tourism: a marketing perspective. London Routledge.
[71] Mladenov, N., et al. 2007. The value of wildlife-viewing tourism as an incentive for conservation of biodiversity in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Development Southern Africa, 24(3): 409-423. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/03768350701445525
[72] Mmopelwa, G. and Blignaut, J. 2014. The Okavango Delta: The value of tourism. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 9(1):113-127. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/sajems.v9i1.1161
[73] Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., and Altman, D. G. 2009. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement. PLoS Medicine, 6(7), e1000097. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097
[74] Morgan, D. L. 2014. Pragmatism as a paradigm for social research. Qualitative Inquiry, 20(8): 1045-1053. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1077800413513733
[75] Morupisi, P. and Mokgalo, L. 2017. Domestic tourism challenges in Botswana: A stakeholders’ perspective. Cogent Social Sciences, 3(1): 1-12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/23311886.2017.1298171
[76] Moswete, N. and Dube, P. O. 2013. Wildlife-based tourism and climate: potential opportunities and challenges for Botswana. In L. D. More and P. Kalifungwa (Eds.), Meeting the challenges of climate change to tourism: case studies of best practice. (pp. 395–416). London: Cambridge Scholars Publications.
[77] Moswete, N. and Lacey, G. 2015. “Women cannot lead”: empowering women through cultural tourism in Botswana. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 23(4): 600-617. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2014.986488
[78] Moswete, N. and Mavondo, F. T. 2003. Problems facing the tourism industry of Botswana. Botswana Notes and Records, 35: 69-77.
[79] Moswete, N. and Thapa, B. 2015. Factors that influence support for community-based ecotourism in the rural communities adjacent to the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, Botswana. Journal of Ecotourism, 14(2-3): 243-263. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14724049.2015.1051537
[80] Moswete, N. and Thapa, B. 2018. Local Communities, CBOs/Trusts, and People-Park Relationships: A Case Study of the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, Botswana. The George Wright Forum, 35(1): 96-108.
[81] Moswete, N., Saarinen, J. and Monare, M. J. 2015. Perspectives on cultural tourism: a case study of Bahurutshe cultural village for tourism in Botswana. Nordic Journal of African Studies, 24(3 and 4): 279-300.
[82] Moswete, N., Thapa, B. and Darley, W. 2020. Local Communities’ Attitudes and Support towards the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in Southwest Botswana. Sustainability, 12(4): 1524. DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/su12041524
[83] Motsaathebe, M. 2020. Story of Lepokole Nature Reserve. Daily News. Available at: http://www.dailynews.gov.bw/news-details.php?nid=53653
[84] Moutinho, L., Rate, S. and Ballantyne, R. 2011. Strategic planning and performance management. In L. Moutinho (Ed.), Strategic management in tourism (pp. 1–14). Oxfordshire: CABI publishing.
[85] Mutenheri, F. 2019. Primary-Resource Dependence: An Examen of Economic Diversification Policy and Poverty Eradication strategy in Botswana. Texila International Journal of Academic Research, 130-138. DOI:https://doi.org/10.21522/tijar.2014.se.19.01.art014
[86] Nare, A. T., Musikavanhu, G. M. and Chiutsi, S. 2017. Tourism diversification in Botswana - a stakeholder perspective. African Journal of Hospitality, 6(3): 1-14.
[87] Penrose, E. T. 2009. The theory of the growth of the firm: the legacy of Edith Penrose. Oxford (England); New York: Oxford University Press.
[88] Presenza, A., Minguzzi, A. and Petrilla, C. 2010. Managing wine tourism in Italy. Journal of Tourism Consumption and Practice, 2(1): 46-61.
[89] Purkayastha, S. 2013. Diversification Strategy and Firm Performance: Evidence from Indian Manufacturing Firms. Global Business Review, 14(1): 1-23. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0972150912466363
[90] Ramanujam, V. and Varadarajan, P. 1989. Research on corporate diversification: A synthesis. Strategic Management Journal, 10(6): 523-551. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250100603
[91] Romão, J., Machino, K. and Nijkamp, P. 2018. Integrative diversification of wellness tourism services in rural areas – an operational framework model applied to east Hokkaido (Japan). Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 23(7): 734-746. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2018.1488752
[92] Rumelt, R. P. 1974. Strategy, structure, and economic performance. Boston: Harvard University Press.
[93] Rylance, A. and Spenceley, A. 2017. Reducing economic leakages from tourism: A value chain assessment of the tourism industry in Kasane, Botswana. Development Southern Africa, 34(3): 295-313. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0376835x.2017.1308855
[94] Saarinen, J., Moswete, N. and Monare, M. J. 2014. Cultural tourism: new opportunities for diversifying the tourism industry in Botswana. Bulletin of Geography. Socio-Economic Series, 26(26): 7-18. DOI:https://doi.org/10.2478/bog-2014-0041
[95] Santos, M. C., Ferreira, A., Costa, C. and Santos, J. A. C. 2020. A Model for the Development of Innovative Tourism Products: From Service to Transformation. Sustainability, 12(11):1-20. DOI:https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114362
[96] Sebele, L. S. 2010. Community-based tourism ventures, benefits and challenges: Khama Rhino Sanctuary Trust, Central District, Botswana. Tourism Management, 31(1): 136-146. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2009.01.005
[97] Sebudubudu, D. 2010. The impact of good governance on development and poverty in Africa: Botswana - a relatively successful African initiative. African Journal of Political Science and International Relations, 4(7): 249-262.
[98] Seidler, V. 2010. Why Did Botswana End Up with Good Institutions: The Role of Culture and Colonial Rule. SSRN Electronic Journal, 1–33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3051011
[99] Sekwati, L. 2017. Economic Diversification: the case of Botswana (pp. 1–22). Available at: https://resourcegovernance.org/sites/default/files/RWI_Econ_Diversification_Botswana.pdf
[100] Sharpley, R. and Vass, A. 2006. Tourism, farming and diversification: An attitudinal study. Tourism Management, 27(5): 1040-1052. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2005.10.025
[101] Šiljeg, A., et al. 2019. Land suitability zoning for ecotourism planning and development of Dikgatlhong Dam, Botswana. Geographica Pannonica, 23(2): 76–86. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5937/gp23-20633
[102] Slater, A. M. 2012. Ecotourism in Botswana: Land Use Ethics and Right to Livelihood for the Kalahari People. SSRN Electronic Journal. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2182621
[103] Snyder, H. 2019. Literature review as a research methodology: An overview and guidelines. Journal of Business Research, 104(104): 333–339. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.07.039
[104] Stephens, S. (n.d.). Digging for Diversification in Botswana. Available at: https://resourcegovernance.org/sites/default/files/documents/digging-for-diversification-in-botswana.pdf
[105] Stevens, P. W., and Jansen, R. 2002. Botswana National Ecotourism Strategy (pp. 1–73). Available at: http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/bot179068.pdf
[106] Stone, L. S. and Nyaupane, G. P. 2019. The Tourist Gaze: Domestic versus International Tourists. Journal of Travel Research, 58(5):877-891. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287518781890
[107] Stone, L. S., Stone, M. T. and Mbaiwa, J. E. 2017. Tourism in Botswana in the last 50 years: a review. Botswana Notes and Records: Special Issue on Environment, Tourism and Contemporary Socio-Economic Issues in the Okavango Delta and Other Ecosystems, 49: 57-72.
[108] Stone, L. S., Stone, M. T., Mogomotsi, G. E. J. and Mogomotsi, P. K. 2021. The Impacts of COVID-19 on nature-based tourism in Botswana: Implications for community development. Tourism Review International, 25(2-3): 263-278. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/154427221x16098837279958
[109] Stone, M. T., and Stone, L. S. 2020. Challenges of community-based tourism in Botswana: a review of literature. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 75(2): 181-193. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/0035919x.2020.1715510
[110] Twyman, C. 2001. Natural resource use and livelihoods in Botswana’s Wildlife Management Areas. Applied Geography, 21(1): 45–68. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0143-6228(00)00016-3
[111] Van Zyl, H. 2019. Botswana Protected Areas fees review (pp. 1–82). Retrieved from Ministry of Environment, Natural Resources Conservation and Tourism (MENT), Biodiversity Finance Initiative (BIOFIN) and United Nations Development Programme website: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/343254303_Botswana_Protected_Areas_Review_of_Entrance_and_Other_Fees
[112] Vu, H. T. and Ha, N. M. 2021. A Study on the Relationship between Diversification and Firm Performance Using the GSEM Method. Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, 57(1): 85–107. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/1540496x.2019.1582413
[113] Vumbunu, T. 2020. A diversification framework for eco-tourism products of Botswana (PhD Thesis; pp. 1–332). Available at: https://repository.nwu.ac.za/handle/10394/34912
[114] Vumbunu, T., Viviers, P. A. and du Plessis, E. 2021. A Demand-Based Analysis of Ecotourism Product Diversification in Botswana. African Journal of Wildlife Research, 51(1). DOI:https://doi.org/10.3957/056.051.0019
[115] Wang, Y. 2016. More important than ever: measuring tourist satisfaction. Gold Coast, Qld.: Griffith Institute for Tourism, Griffith University.
[116] Washington, M. and Hacker, S. 2009. Leaps in performance: Botswana’s transformation story. International Journal of Business Research, 9: 1-22.
[117] Weidenfeld, A. 2018. Tourism Diversification and Its Implications for Smart Specialisation. Sustainability, 10(2): 1-24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020319
[118] Wernerfelt, B. 1984. A resource-based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 5(2):171-180. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250050207
[119] Winterbach, C. W., Whitesell, C. and Somers, M. J. 2015. Wildlife Abundance and Diversity as Indicators of Tourism Potential in Northern Botswana. PLOS ONE, 10(8):1-14. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135595
[120] Yurco, K., King, B., Young, K. R. and Crews, K. A. 2017. Human-Wildlife Interactions and Environmental Dynamics in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Society and Natural Resources, 30(9): 1112-1126. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920.2017.1315655
[121] Zheng, C., and Tsai, H. 2019. The moderating effect of board size on the relationship between diversification and tourism firm performance. Tourism Economics, 25(7): 1084–1104. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/1354816618823427
[122] Centre for Applied Research. 2016. 2016 Review of Community-based Natural Resource Management in Botswana (pp. 1-43). Available at: https://www.car.org.bw/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Botswana-CBNRM-2016-Review.pdf
[123] Department of Tourism (DOT). Research and Statistics Division, and World Tourism Organization. 2018. Updating the tourism satellite account for Botswana: tourism satellite account 2016. Madrid: UNWTO.
[124] Government Implementation Coordination Office (GICO). 2008. Botswana Excellence – Strategy for Economic Diversification and Sustainable Growth (pp. 1–39). Available at: https://www.botswanalmo.org.bw/sites/default/files/Botswana%20Excellence%20Strategy%20Nov2008.pdf
[125] Government of Botswana. 1990. Botswana tourism policy. Gaborone: Government Printers.
[126] Government of Botswana. 2000. Botswana tourism master plan. Available at: https://library.wur.nl/ojs/index.php/Botswana_documents/article/download/16030/15503
[127] Government of Botswana. 2008. National Development Plan 10 2009 - 2016. Available at: https://www.finance.gov.bw/images/NDP-TEN/NDP_TEN_final.pdf on 10 July 2017.
[128] Government of Botswana. 2009. Botswana Tourism Organisation Act (pp. 1–15). Available at: https://botswanalaws.com/StatutesActpdf/2009Actpdf/BOTSWANA%20TOURISM%20ORGANISATION%20ACT,%2014%20OF%202009.pdf
[129] Government of Botswana. 2016. National Development Plan 11: April 2017-March 2023. Available at: https://www.finance.gov.bw/images/NDP_11_2017-2023.pdf
[130] Human Resources Development Council. (2014). Tourism sector human resources development plan. Gaborone: Human Resources Development Council (HRDC).
[131] United Nations, Botswana. 2020. Socio-economic impact analysis of COVID-19 in Botswana analysis, Brief no. 1 (pp. 1–29). Available at: https://www.undp.org/content/dam/rba/docs/COVID-19-CO-Response/UN%20Botswana%20Socio-Economic%20Impact%20Analysis,%20Analysis%20Brief%20No.1%2006052020.pdf
[132] Wong, G., Greenhalgh, T., Westhorp, G., Buckingham, J., and Pawson, R. 2013. RAMESES publication standards: meta-narrative reviews. BMC Medicine, 11(1). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-11-20
[133] World Travel and Tourism Council. 2007. Botswana: the impact of travel and tourism. New York: World Travel and Tourism Council.
[134] World Travel and Tourism Council. 2018. Travel and tourism economic impact 2018: Botswana. New York: World Travel and Tourism Council.
Published
2022-06-28
How to Cite
VUMBUNU, Tonderai; VIVIERS, Pierre-Andre; DU PLESSIS, Engelina. Trends and Development of Tourism Product Diversification in Botswana: Lessons Learned. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 13, n. 4, p. 1016 - 1035, june 2022. ISSN 2068-7729. Available at: <https://journals.aserspublishing.eu/jemt/article/view/7057>. Date accessed: 14 aug. 2022. doi: https://doi.org/10.14505/jemt.v13.4(60).09.