The Protection of Tourism Sites as Cultural Heritage in Wetlands within the Framework of International Law
The article deals with the protection of cultural heritage in wetlands under international agreements. It highlights the concept of the cultural and natural heritage of wetlands, and then discusses the protection of the world cultural heritage of wetlands within the framework of UNESCO. The article also identifies cultural values under the Ramsar Convention. It focuses on the assessment of international protection of world cultural and natural heritage in wetlands. Finally, the article refers to the World Heritage of the Wilderness Wetlands. The article contributes to clarifying the absence of an independent legal framework for the protection of cultural heritage in wetlands. The Study concluded that international agreements do not establish explicit international obligations on states. Hence the need for an international convention dedicated to the protection of cultural heritage in wetlands. The study also concluded that there is no judicial mechanism to limit the deterioration of cultural heritage in wetlands.
 Al-Hashmi, M. H., Khan, M. M., and Ajmal, M. M. 2021. Implementing Sustainable Procurement Strategy in the Oil and Gas Sector: Analytic Hierarchy Process Approach. International Journal of Service Science, Management, Engineering, and Technology (IJSSMET), 12(2): 59-77.
 Alsamara, T., Farouk, G., and Halima, M. 2021. The role of the European court of justice in the management and protection of wetlands: a European states case study. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 20(2): 1-8.
 Davidson, N., and Coates 2, D. 2011. The Ramsar Convention and Synergies for Operationalizing the Convention on Biological Diversity's Ecosystem Approach for Wetland Conservation and Wise Use. Journal of International Wildlife Law & Policy, 14(3-4): 199-205.
 Dyer, M. I., and Holland, M. M. 1988. UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Program. BioScience, 38(9): 635-641.
 Gunn, J. 2021. Karst groundwater in UNESCO protected areas: a global overview. Hydrogeology Journal, 29(1): 297-314.
 Kotagama, S. W., and Bambaradeniya, C. N. B. 2006. An overview of the wetlands of Sri Lanka and their conservation significance. National Wetland Directory of Sri Lanka, 7-16.
 Laltaika, E. 2022. Indigenous peoples’ participation and the management of wetlands in Africa: a review of the Ramsar Convention. Fundamentals of Tropical Freshwater Wetlands, 711-726.
 McInnes, R., Mariam, K A. and Pritchard, D. 2017. Ramsar Convention Secretariat, Ramsar and World Heritage Conventions: Converging towards success, How cultural values and community participation contribute to positive conservation outcomes for internationally designated wetlands. Ramsar convention secretariat.
 McInnes, R., Ali, M., and Pritchard, D. 2017. Ramsar and World heritage Conventions: Converging towards success. In Ramsar: Ramsar Convention Secretariat.
 Meskic, Z., Albakjaji, M., Omerovic, E., and Alhussein, H. 2022. Transnational Consumer Protection in E-Commerce: Lessons Learned from the European Union and the United States. International Journal of Service Science, Management, Engineering, and Technology (IJSSMET), 13(1): 1-15. DOI:http://doi.org/10.4018/IJSSMET.299972
 Muhammad, T. M., and Salah J A. 2008. International Protection of Cultural Property in International Humanitarian Law, Karbala Scientific Journal, VI(IV).
 Navid, D. 1989. The international law of migratory species: the Ramsar Convention. Nat. Resources J., 29: 1001.
 Nori, N. R., and Gupta, S. K. 2021. The Role of Industrial Ecology in Maximizing the Value of the Organization: A Case Study of Mineral Water Industry Organizations of Duhok City, Iraq. International Journal of Service Science, Management, Engineering, and Technology (IJSSMET), 12(3): 34-53.
 Olivier, A. 2004. Great expectations: the English heritage approach to the management of the historic environment in England's wetlands. Journal of Wetland Archaeology, 4(1): 155-168.
 Papayannis, T. 2008. Action for culture in Mediterranean wetlands. Med-INA, Mediterranean Institute for Nature and Arthropods.
 Papayannis, T., and Pritchard, D. 2012. Wetland cultural and spiritual values, and the Ramsar Convention. In Sacred Natural Sites (pp. 206-213). Routledge.
 Price, M. F. 2017. Managing MIDAs: Harmonising the management of multi-internationally designated areas-ramsar sites, World heritage sites, biosphere reserves and UNESCO Global geoparks. Mountain Research and Development, 37(3): 384-384.
 Reeder-Myers, L. A. 2015. Cultural heritage at risk in the twenty-first century: A vulnerability assessment of coastal archaeological sites in the United States. The Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology, 10(3): 436-445.
 Rouhi, J. 2017. Definition of cultural heritage properties and their valuesby the past. Asian Journal of Science and Technology, 8(12): 7109-7114.
 Salih, M, M, B. 1999. Protection of Cultural and Natural Heritage in International Treaties - International Protection of Antiquities, Artistic Creativity and Holy Places, dar elnahda larabia.
 Scott, D. A. and Jones, T. A. 1995. Classification and inventory of wetlands: A global overview. Vegetatio, 118(1): 3-16.
 Sonnenberg, M., Kühne, S., and Becker, M. 2013. Classification of Technical Operation Services for Renewable Energy Power Plants. International Journal of Service Science, Management, Engineering, and Technology (IJSSMET), 4(2): 92-101.
 Stein, P. L. 2002. Protecting archaeological heritage in wetlands: The muddied waters of international, European, English and Australian law. Environmental Law Review, 4(1): 26-50.
 Tolentino Jr, A. S. 2003. Wetlands: Water, Life, Culture. Envtl. Pol'y & L., 33, 25.
 Tolentino, A. M. E. (2013). Cultural Values of Wetlands. Envtl. Pol'y & L., 43, 87.
 Toman, J. 2017. The protection of cultural property in the event of armed conflict: Commentary on the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and its Protocol, signed on 14 May 1954 in The Hague, and on other instruments of international law concerning such protection. Routledge.
 Verschuuren, B. 2006. Sociocultural importance of wetlands in northern Australia. In Conserving Cultural and Biological Diversity: The Role of Sacred Natural Sites and Cultural Landscapes (pp. 141-150).
 Wieland, H., Polese, F., Vargo, S. L., and Lusch, R. F. 2012. Toward a service (eco) systems perspective on value creation. International Journal of Service Science, Management, Engineering, and Technology (IJSSMET), 3(3): 12-25.
 Executive Decree No. 14-04, 2014. The Basic Law of the National Office of the Cultural Hangar of the Saharan Atlas.
The Copyright Transfer Form to ASERS Publishing (The Publisher)
This form refers to the manuscript, which an author(s) was accepted for publication and was signed by all the authors.
The undersigned Author(s) of the above-mentioned Paper here transfer any and all copyright-rights in and to The Paper to The Publisher. The Author(s) warrants that The Paper is based on their original work and that the undersigned has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment. It is the author's responsibility to obtain written permission to quote material that has been previously published in any form. The Publisher recognizes the retained rights noted below and grants to the above authors and employers for whom the work performed royalty-free permission to reuse their materials below. Authors may reuse all or portions of the above Paper in other works, excepting the publication of the paper in the same form. Authors may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the above Paper for the Author's personal use or for internal company use, provided that the source and The Publisher copyright notice are mentioned, that the copies are not used in any way that implies The Publisher endorsement of a product or service of an employer, and that the copies are not offered for sale as such. Authors are permitted to grant third party requests for reprinting, republishing or other types of reuse. The Authors may make limited distribution of all or portions of the above Paper prior to publication if they inform The Publisher of the nature and extent of such limited distribution prior there to. Authors retain all proprietary rights in any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in The Paper. This agreement becomes null and void if and only if the above paper is not accepted and published by The Publisher, or is with drawn by the author(s) before acceptance by the Publisher.