Social Media and Tourists’ Decision in Bangladesh: An Empirical Study on Travelling Cox’s Bazar
Uses of social media are growing throughout the world. In the previous time, various studies have been directed to discover the necessity of motivational factors behind making decision of tourists. From social media attributes, if tourists have positive insight then they will be inspired to revisit the Cox’s Bazar in future. Also, the tourist industries have given significance to improve their service as part of marketing management to remain competitive. This study identifies the social media attributes and examines the impact of decision making towards travelling Cox’s Bazar. In this study, tourists’ perception of Cox’s Bazar is also found. Foreign tourists (from Asian, European, American, Australian, and African) are considered as sample for this study. Convenience Sampling and questionnaire survey that are taken from various literatures of tourism. Reliability Test and Descriptive Statistics are conducted to see the availability and normality of collected data. Then Demographic Analysis, Spearman’s Rho Correlation Test and finally the Kruskal-Wallis Test have been utilized to find out the relationship among variables. This study discovered that noteworthy impact of social media attributes towards tourists’ choice to travel Cox’s Bazar. These findings will also contribute to the government as the civil aviation and tourism ministry needs to formulate suitable policies and practices considering social media in the existing market for attracting both inbound and outbound tourists.
 Azim A., Abdel, T.S. and Kadir, A.R.A. 2013. Impact of information sources on the decision-making process of travel to the Egyptian tourist destination after January 25, 2011. Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 61(4): 395-423.
 Bieger, T., and Laesser, C. 2004. Information sources for travel decisions: Toward a source process model. Journal of travel research, 42(4): 357-371.
 Burke, L., et al. 2001. Coastal ecosystems. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.
 Cao, Qian, Bin Yu, and Tian, T. X. X. 2017. The Effect of Social Media on Tourism Consumer Adoption Intention: Evidence from Urumqi. Journal of Accounting & Marketing 6(1): 219-229. DOI: 10.4172/2168-9601.1000219
 Cha, S., McCleary, K. W. and Uysal, M. 1995. Travel motivations of Japanese overseas travelers: A factor-cluster segmentation approach. Journal of travel research, 34(1): 33-39. DOI:10.1177/004728759503400104
 Cho, Mi-Hea, and SooCheong Jang. 2008. Information value structure for vacation travel. Journal of Travel Research, 47(1): 72-83. DOI: 10.1177/0047287507312422
 Choi, S., Lehto, X.Y., Morrison, A. M. and Jang, S.C. 2011. Structure of travel planning processes and information use patterns. Journal of travel research, 51(1): 26-40. DOI: 10.1177/0047287510394191
 Cohen, S.A., Prayag, G. and Moital, M. 2014. Consumer behaviour in tourism: Concepts, influences and opportunities. Current issues in Tourism, 17(10): 872-909. DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2013.850064
 Complete, I. 2006. Embracing consumer buzz creates measurement challenges for marketers.
 Cronbach, L.J. 1951. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3): 297-334. DOI: 10.1007/BF02310555
 Dewailly, J.‐M. 1999. Sustainable tourist space: from reality to virtual reality? Tourism Geographies, 1(1): 41-55. DOI: 10.1080/14616689908721293
 El-Said, O., and Aziz, H. 2021. Virtual tours a means to an end: An analysis of virtual tours’ role in tourism recovery post COVID-19. Journal of Travel Research, 61(3): 528-548. DOI: 10.1177/0047287521997567
 Fodness, D. and Murray, B. 1997. Tourist information search. Annals of tourism research, 24(3): 503-523. DOI: 10.1016/S0160-7383(97)00009-1
 Fodness, D. and Murray, B. 1998. A typology of tourist information search strategies. Journal of Travel Research, 37(2): 108-109.
 Gretzel, U. 2006. Consumer generated content–trends and implications for branding. E-review of Tourism Research, 4(3): 9-11.
 Gretzel, U., and Yoo, K.H. 2008. Use and impact of online travel reviews. Information and communication technologies in tourism, 35-46.
 Gursoy, D., and Chen, J. S. 2000. Competitive analysis of cross-cultural information search behavior. Tourism management, 21(6): 583-590. DOI: 10.1016/S0261-5177(00)00005-4
 Gursoy, D., and McCleary, K.W. 2004. Travelers’ prior knowledge and its impact on their information search behavior. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 28(1): 66-94. DOI: 10.1177/1096348003261218
 Hajli, M. N. 2014. A study of the impact of social media on consumers. International journal of market research, 56(3): 387-404. DOI: 10.2501/IJMR-2014-025
 Hamid, Z. A., Wee, H., Hanafiah, M. H. and Asri, N. A. A. 2016. The effect of social media on tourists’ decision to travel to Islamic destination: A case of Malaysia. Heritage, Culture and Society: 501-505.
 Hsu, Tzu-Kuang, Yi-Fan Tsai, and Herg-Huey Wu. 2009. The preference analysis for tourist choice of destination: A case study of Taiwan. Tourism management, 30(2): 288-297. DOI:10.1016/j.tourman.2008.07.011
 Huang, Y.-C., Backman, S.J., Backman, K. F. and DeWayne Moore. 2013. Exploring user acceptance of 3D virtual worlds in travel and tourism marketing. Tourism Management, 36: 490-501. DOI:10.1016/j.tourman.2012.09.009
 Irwan, I., and Novianti, E. 2021. Virtual tour: tourism communication media during the covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Profetik: Jurnal Komunikasi, 14(1): 135-150. DOI: 10.14421/pjk.v14i1.2102
 Jayathilaka, R., Dharmasena, T., Rezahi, N. and Haththotuwegama, S. 2020. The impact of online reviews on inbound travellers’ decision making. Quality & Quantity, 54(3): 1005-1021. DOI: 10.1007/s11135-020-00971-1
 Karim, Z. 2018. The impact of social media on tourism industry growth in Bangladesh. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 6(8): 463-482.
 Khan, Md Y. H., and Abir, T. 2022. The Role of Social Media Marketing in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: A Conceptual Study on Bangladesh. In ICT as Innovator between Tourism and Culture, pp. 213-229. IGI Global, 2022.
 Koeva, M., Luleva, M. and Maldjanski, P. 2017. Integrating spherical panoramas and maps for visualization of cultural heritage objects using virtual reality technology. Sensors, 17(4): 829. DOI: 10.3390/s17040829
 Liu, X., Mehraliyev, F., Liu, C. and Schuckert, M. 2019. The roles of social media in tourists’ choices of travel components. Tourist Studies 20(1): 27-48. DOI: 10.1177/1468797619873107
 Majeed, S., Zhou, Z., Lu, C. and Ramkissoon, H. 2020. Online tourism information and tourist behavior: a structural equation modeling analysis based on a self-administered survey. Frontiers in Psychology, 11: 1-15. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00599
 Maser, B., and Weiermair, K. 1998. Travel decision-making: From the vantage point of perceived risk and information preferences. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 7(4): 107-121. DOI:10.1300/J073v07n04_06
 Molina, A., Gómez, M. and Martín-Consuegra, D. 2010. Tourism marketing information and destination image management. African journal of Business management, 4(5): 722-728, DOI: 10.5897/AJBM.9000651
 Mossberg, L. 2007. A marketing approach to the tourist experience. Scandinavian journal of hospitality and tourism, 7(1): 59-74. DOI: 10.1080/15022250701231915
 Murphy, L., Mascardo, G. and Benckendorff, P. 2007. Exploring word‐of‐mouth influences on travel decisions: friends and relatives vs. other travellers. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 31(5): 517-527. DOI: 10.1111/j.1470-6431.2007.00608.x
 Naushin, S., and Yuwanond, P. 2016. The Study of Motivation Factors of Tourists in Visiting Cox's Bazar Sea Beach, Bangladesh. PSAKU International Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (PSAKUIJIR), 5(1): 43-52.
 Nishimura, S., Waryszak, R. and King, B. 2007. The use of guidebooks by Japanese overseas tourists: A quantitative approach. Journal of Travel Research, 45(3): 275-284. DOI: 10.1177/0047287506295907
 Nowreen, S., and Hossain, K. F. 2021. The Role of Social Media as an Element of Tourist Motivation in Bangladesh. In Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry of Bangladesh, pp. 229-241. Springer, Singapore.
 Park, Do-Hyung, Jumin Lee, and Ingoo Han. 2007. The effect of on-line consumer reviews on consumer purchasing intention: The moderating role of involvement. International journal of electronic commerce 11(4): 125-148. DOI: 10.2753/JEC1086-4415110405
 Parra-López, E., Gutiérrez-Taño, D., Diaz-Armas, R.J. and Bulchand-Gidumal, J. 2012. Travellers 2.0: Motivation, opportunity and ability to use social media. Social media in travel, tourism and hospitality: Theory, practice and cases: 171-187.
 Qu, H., and Lee, H. 2011. Travelers’ social identification and membership behaviors in online travel community. Tourism management, 32(6): 1262-1270. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2010.12.002
 Rahman, N. N., and Begum, M. 2020. Impact of Social Media on Youths to Enhance the Tourism in Bangladesh. International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews, 7(4): 937-953.
 Roberts, R. R., and Kraynak, J. 2008. Walk like a Giant, Sell like a Madman: America's #1 Salesman Shows You How to Sell Anything. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
 Schroeder, R. 1996. Possible worlds: the social dynamic of virtual reality technology. Westview Press, Inc.
 Smallman, C., and Moore, K. 2010. Process studies of tourists’decision-making. Annals of tourism research, 37(2): 397-422. DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2009.10.014
 Stepchenkova, S., and Eales, J.S. 2011. Destination image as quantified media messages: The effect of news on tourism demand. Journal of Travel Research, 50(2): 198-212. DOI: 10.1177/0047287510362780
 Tarannum, T. 2020. Effectiveness of social media in promoting tourism in Bangladesh. PhD diss., KDI School,
 Tsai, L.-L. 2022. Factors That Influence Virtual Tourism Holistic Image: The Moderating Role of Sense of Presence. Sustainability, 14(1): 467. DOI: 10.3390/su14010467
 Vogt, C.A., and Fesenmaier, D.R. 1998. Expanding the functional information search model. Annals of Tourism Research, 25(3): 551-578. DOI: 10.1016/S0160-7383(98)00010-3
 Wang, Y., and Fesenmaier, D.R. 2007. Collaborative destination marketing: A case study of Elkhart County, Indiana. Tourism management 28(3): 863-875. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2006.02.007
 Werthner, H., and Klein, S. 1999.Information technology and tourism: a challenging ralationship. Springer-Verlag Wien.
 Wrang and Fesenmair. 2013. Social Media and Tourism Industry Statistics. Available at: http://www.stikkyMedia.com/blog/2012-2013-social-Media-and-tourism-industrystatistics#sthash.
 Xiang, Z., and Gretzel, U. 2010. Role of social media in online travel information search. Tourism management, 31(2): 179-188. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2009.02.016
 Yen, T. L., and Halim, N. A. 2021. A review on the influence of social media in travel decision of youth travelers. Management, 6(26): 186-195. DOI: 10/35631/JTHEM.626016
 Yuan, Y., et al. 2022. The effect of social media on travel planning process by Chinese tourists: the way forward to tourism futures. Journal of Tourism Futures, 1-20. DOI: 10.1108/JTF-04-2021-0094
 Živković, R., Gajić, J. and Brdar, I. 2014. The impact of social media on tourism. Singidunum Journal of Applied Sciences: 758-761. DOI: 10.15308/SInteZa-2014-758-761
 Global Digital 2019 reports. Avcailable at: https://wearesocial.com/blog/2019/01/digital-2019-global-internet-use-accelerates
 Pew Internet & American Life Project (2006). Available at: http://www.pewInternet.org/trends/Internet_Activities/
 Travel Industry Association of America. Travelers' use of the Internet. Washington, DC: Travel Industry Association of America, 2005.
 Tripadvisor (2014b). TripBarometer April 2014. Global edition. Available at: http://www.tripadvisor.com/TripAdvisorInsights/n2200/tripbarometer-april-2014-global-edition
The Copyright Transfer Form to ASERS Publishing (The Publisher)
This form refers to the manuscript, which an author(s) was accepted for publication and was signed by all the authors.
The undersigned Author(s) of the above-mentioned Paper here transfer any and all copyright-rights in and to The Paper to The Publisher. The Author(s) warrants that The Paper is based on their original work and that the undersigned has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment. It is the author's responsibility to obtain written permission to quote material that has been previously published in any form. The Publisher recognizes the retained rights noted below and grants to the above authors and employers for whom the work performed royalty-free permission to reuse their materials below. Authors may reuse all or portions of the above Paper in other works, excepting the publication of the paper in the same form. Authors may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the above Paper for the Author's personal use or for internal company use, provided that the source and The Publisher copyright notice are mentioned, that the copies are not used in any way that implies The Publisher endorsement of a product or service of an employer, and that the copies are not offered for sale as such. Authors are permitted to grant third party requests for reprinting, republishing or other types of reuse. The Authors may make limited distribution of all or portions of the above Paper prior to publication if they inform The Publisher of the nature and extent of such limited distribution prior there to. Authors retain all proprietary rights in any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in The Paper. This agreement becomes null and void if and only if the above paper is not accepted and published by The Publisher, or is with drawn by the author(s) before acceptance by the Publisher.