Social Media and Tourists’ Decision in Bangladesh: An Empirical Study on Travelling Cox’s Bazar

  • Md. Faisal-E-ALAM Begum Rokeya University, Bangladesh
  • Abdelrhman MEERO College of Business Administration, Kingdom University, Bahrain
  • Abdul Aziz ABDUL RAHMAN College of Business Administration, Kingdom University, Bahrain
  • Nurul Mohammad ZAYED Faculty of Business & Entrepreneurship, Daffodil International University, Bangladesh
  • K. M. Anwarul ISLAM The Millennium University, Bangladesh
  • Md. Ali IMRAN Faculty of Business & Entrepreneurship, Daffodil International University, Bangladesh


Uses of social media are growing throughout the world. In the previous time, various studies have been directed to discover the necessity of motivational factors behind making decision of tourists. From social media attributes, if tourists have positive insight then they will be inspired to revisit the Cox’s Bazar in future. Also, the tourist industries have given significance to improve their service as part of marketing management to remain competitive. This study identifies the social media attributes and examines the impact of decision making towards travelling Cox’s Bazar. In this study, tourists’ perception of Cox’s Bazar is also found. Foreign tourists (from Asian, European, American, Australian, and African) are considered as sample for this study. Convenience Sampling and questionnaire survey that are taken from various literatures of tourism. Reliability Test and Descriptive Statistics are conducted to see the availability and normality of collected data. Then Demographic Analysis, Spearman’s Rho Correlation Test and finally the Kruskal-Wallis Test have been utilized to find out the relationship among variables. This study discovered that noteworthy impact of social media attributes towards tourists’ choice to travel Cox’s Bazar. These findings will also contribute to the government as the civil aviation and tourism ministry needs to formulate suitable policies and practices considering social media in the existing market for attracting both inbound and outbound tourists. 



[1] Al Jamil, Md A., and Siddique, Md Z.R. 2013. Prospects and Problems of Cox’s Bazar Sea Beach as a Tourist Spot of Bangladesh. International Journal of Trade and Commerce-IIARTC 2, 2: 273-281.
[2] Azim A., Abdel, T.S. and Kadir, A.R.A. 2013. Impact of information sources on the decision-making process of travel to the Egyptian tourist destination after January 25, 2011. Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 61(4): 395-423.
[3] Bieger, T., and Laesser, C. 2004. Information sources for travel decisions: Toward a source process model. Journal of travel research, 42(4): 357-371.
[4] Burke, L., et al. 2001. Coastal ecosystems. Washington, DC: World Resources Institute.
[5] Cao, Qian, Bin Yu, and Tian, T. X. X. 2017. The Effect of Social Media on Tourism Consumer Adoption Intention: Evidence from Urumqi. Journal of Accounting & Marketing 6(1): 219-229. DOI: 10.4172/2168-9601.1000219
[6] Cha, S., McCleary, K. W. and Uysal, M. 1995. Travel motivations of Japanese overseas travelers: A factor-cluster segmentation approach. Journal of travel research, 34(1): 33-39. DOI:10.1177/004728759503400104
[7] Cho, Mi-Hea, and SooCheong Jang. 2008. Information value structure for vacation travel. Journal of Travel Research, 47(1): 72-83. DOI: 10.1177/0047287507312422
[8] Choi, S., Lehto, X.Y., Morrison, A. M. and Jang, S.C. 2011. Structure of travel planning processes and information use patterns. Journal of travel research, 51(1): 26-40. DOI: 10.1177/0047287510394191
[9] Cohen, S.A., Prayag, G. and Moital, M. 2014. Consumer behaviour in tourism: Concepts, influences and opportunities. Current issues in Tourism, 17(10): 872-909. DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2013.850064
[10] Complete, I. 2006. Embracing consumer buzz creates measurement challenges for marketers.
[11] Cronbach, L.J. 1951. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3): 297-334. DOI: 10.1007/BF02310555
[12] Dewailly, J.‐M. 1999. Sustainable tourist space: from reality to virtual reality? Tourism Geographies, 1(1): 41-55. DOI: 10.1080/14616689908721293
[13] El-Said, O., and Aziz, H. 2021. Virtual tours a means to an end: An analysis of virtual tours’ role in tourism recovery post COVID-19. Journal of Travel Research, 61(3): 528-548. DOI: 10.1177/0047287521997567
[14] Fodness, D. and Murray, B. 1997. Tourist information search. Annals of tourism research, 24(3): 503-523. DOI: 10.1016/S0160-7383(97)00009-1
[15] Fodness, D. and Murray, B. 1998. A typology of tourist information search strategies. Journal of Travel Research, 37(2): 108-109.
[16] Gretzel, U. 2006. Consumer generated content–trends and implications for branding. E-review of Tourism Research, 4(3): 9-11.
[17] Gretzel, U., and Yoo, K.H. 2008. Use and impact of online travel reviews. Information and communication technologies in tourism, 35-46.
[18] Gursoy, D., and Chen, J. S. 2000. Competitive analysis of cross-cultural information search behavior. Tourism management, 21(6): 583-590. DOI: 10.1016/S0261-5177(00)00005-4
[19] Gursoy, D., and McCleary, K.W. 2004. Travelers’ prior knowledge and its impact on their information search behavior. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 28(1): 66-94. DOI: 10.1177/1096348003261218
[20] Hajli, M. N. 2014. A study of the impact of social media on consumers. International journal of market research, 56(3): 387-404. DOI: 10.2501/IJMR-2014-025
[21] Hamid, Z. A., Wee, H., Hanafiah, M. H. and Asri, N. A. A. 2016. The effect of social media on tourists’ decision to travel to Islamic destination: A case of Malaysia. Heritage, Culture and Society: 501-505.
[22] Hsu, Tzu-Kuang, Yi-Fan Tsai, and Herg-Huey Wu. 2009. The preference analysis for tourist choice of destination: A case study of Taiwan. Tourism management, 30(2): 288-297. DOI:10.1016/j.tourman.2008.07.011
[23] Huang, Y.-C., Backman, S.J., Backman, K. F. and DeWayne Moore. 2013. Exploring user acceptance of 3D virtual worlds in travel and tourism marketing. Tourism Management, 36: 490-501. DOI:10.1016/j.tourman.2012.09.009
[24] Irwan, I., and Novianti, E. 2021. Virtual tour: tourism communication media during the covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Profetik: Jurnal Komunikasi, 14(1): 135-150. DOI: 10.14421/pjk.v14i1.2102
[25] Jayathilaka, R., Dharmasena, T., Rezahi, N. and Haththotuwegama, S. 2020. The impact of online reviews on inbound travellers’ decision making. Quality & Quantity, 54(3): 1005-1021. DOI: 10.1007/s11135-020-00971-1
[26] Karim, Z. 2018. The impact of social media on tourism industry growth in Bangladesh. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 6(8): 463-482.
[27] Khan, Md Y. H., and Abir, T. 2022. The Role of Social Media Marketing in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: A Conceptual Study on Bangladesh. In ICT as Innovator between Tourism and Culture, pp. 213-229. IGI Global, 2022.
[28] Koeva, M., Luleva, M. and Maldjanski, P. 2017. Integrating spherical panoramas and maps for visualization of cultural heritage objects using virtual reality technology. Sensors, 17(4): 829. DOI: 10.3390/s17040829
[29] Liu, X., Mehraliyev, F., Liu, C. and Schuckert, M. 2019. The roles of social media in tourists’ choices of travel components. Tourist Studies 20(1): 27-48. DOI: 10.1177/1468797619873107
[30] Majeed, S., Zhou, Z., Lu, C. and Ramkissoon, H. 2020. Online tourism information and tourist behavior: a structural equation modeling analysis based on a self-administered survey. Frontiers in Psychology, 11: 1-15. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00599
[31] Maser, B., and Weiermair, K. 1998. Travel decision-making: From the vantage point of perceived risk and information preferences. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 7(4): 107-121. DOI:10.1300/J073v07n04_06
[32] Molina, A., Gómez, M. and Martín-Consuegra, D. 2010. Tourism marketing information and destination image management. African journal of Business management, 4(5): 722-728, DOI: 10.5897/AJBM.9000651
[33] Mossberg, L. 2007. A marketing approach to the tourist experience. Scandinavian journal of hospitality and tourism, 7(1): 59-74. DOI: 10.1080/15022250701231915
[34] Murphy, L., Mascardo, G. and Benckendorff, P. 2007. Exploring word‐of‐mouth influences on travel decisions: friends and relatives vs. other travellers. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 31(5): 517-527. DOI: 10.1111/j.1470-6431.2007.00608.x
[35] Naushin, S., and Yuwanond, P. 2016. The Study of Motivation Factors of Tourists in Visiting Cox's Bazar Sea Beach, Bangladesh. PSAKU International Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (PSAKUIJIR), 5(1): 43-52.
[36] Nishimura, S., Waryszak, R. and King, B. 2007. The use of guidebooks by Japanese overseas tourists: A quantitative approach. Journal of Travel Research, 45(3): 275-284. DOI: 10.1177/0047287506295907
[37] Nowreen, S., and Hossain, K. F. 2021. The Role of Social Media as an Element of Tourist Motivation in Bangladesh. In Technology Application in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry of Bangladesh, pp. 229-241. Springer, Singapore.
[38] Park, Do-Hyung, Jumin Lee, and Ingoo Han. 2007. The effect of on-line consumer reviews on consumer purchasing intention: The moderating role of involvement. International journal of electronic commerce 11(4): 125-148. DOI: 10.2753/JEC1086-4415110405
[39] Parra-López, E., Gutiérrez-Taño, D., Diaz-Armas, R.J. and Bulchand-Gidumal, J. 2012. Travellers 2.0: Motivation, opportunity and ability to use social media. Social media in travel, tourism and hospitality: Theory, practice and cases: 171-187.
[40] Qu, H., and Lee, H. 2011. Travelers’ social identification and membership behaviors in online travel community. Tourism management, 32(6): 1262-1270. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2010.12.002
[41] Rahman, N. N., and Begum, M. 2020. Impact of Social Media on Youths to Enhance the Tourism in Bangladesh. International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews, 7(4): 937-953.
[42] Roberts, R. R., and Kraynak, J. 2008. Walk like a Giant, Sell like a Madman: America's #1 Salesman Shows You How to Sell Anything. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
[43] Schroeder, R. 1996. Possible worlds: the social dynamic of virtual reality technology. Westview Press, Inc.
[44] Smallman, C., and Moore, K. 2010. Process studies of tourists’decision-making. Annals of tourism research, 37(2): 397-422. DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2009.10.014
[45] Stepchenkova, S., and Eales, J.S. 2011. Destination image as quantified media messages: The effect of news on tourism demand. Journal of Travel Research, 50(2): 198-212. DOI: 10.1177/0047287510362780
[46] Tarannum, T. 2020. Effectiveness of social media in promoting tourism in Bangladesh. PhD diss., KDI School,
[47] Tsai, L.-L. 2022. Factors That Influence Virtual Tourism Holistic Image: The Moderating Role of Sense of Presence. Sustainability, 14(1): 467. DOI: 10.3390/su14010467
[48] Vogt, C.A., and Fesenmaier, D.R. 1998. Expanding the functional information search model. Annals of Tourism Research, 25(3): 551-578. DOI: 10.1016/S0160-7383(98)00010-3
[49] Wang, Y., and Fesenmaier, D.R. 2007. Collaborative destination marketing: A case study of Elkhart County, Indiana. Tourism management 28(3): 863-875. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2006.02.007
[50] Werthner, H., and Klein, S. 1999.Information technology and tourism: a challenging ralationship. Springer-Verlag Wien.
[51] Wrang and Fesenmair. 2013. Social Media and Tourism Industry Statistics. Available at:
[52] Xiang, Z., and Gretzel, U. 2010. Role of social media in online travel information search. Tourism management, 31(2): 179-188. DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2009.02.016
[53] Yen, T. L., and Halim, N. A. 2021. A review on the influence of social media in travel decision of youth travelers. Management, 6(26): 186-195. DOI: 10/35631/JTHEM.626016
[54] Yuan, Y., et al. 2022. The effect of social media on travel planning process by Chinese tourists: the way forward to tourism futures. Journal of Tourism Futures, 1-20. DOI: 10.1108/JTF-04-2021-0094
[55] Živković, R., Gajić, J. and Brdar, I. 2014. The impact of social media on tourism. Singidunum Journal of Applied Sciences: 758-761. DOI: 10.15308/SInteZa-2014-758-761
[56] Global Digital 2019 reports. Avcailable at:
[57] Pew Internet & American Life Project (2006). Available at:
[58] Travel Industry Association of America. Travelers' use of the Internet. Washington, DC: Travel Industry Association of America, 2005.
[59] Tripadvisor (2014b). TripBarometer April 2014. Global edition. Available at:
How to Cite
FAISAL-E-ALAM, Md. et al. Social Media and Tourists’ Decision in Bangladesh: An Empirical Study on Travelling Cox’s Bazar. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 13, n. 4, p. 925 - 934, june 2022. ISSN 2068-7729. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 13 july 2024. doi: