Applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Tourism-Related Waste Behaviour in Marine Protected Areas: The Aliwal Shoal Case Study

  • Carrigan HARPER Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management North-West University, South Africa
  • Claudine ROOS Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management North-West University, South Africa
  • Francois Pieter RETIEF Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management North-West University, South Africa
  • Reece Cronje ALBERTS Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management North-West University, South Africa
  • Dirk Petrus CILLIERS Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management North-West University, South Africa

Abstract

This paper aims to better understand tourism-related waste behaviour within marine protected areas (MPAs) by applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to a specific South African case study. Observed- and self-reported elements of waste separation behaviour were determined for four diving charters and five accommodation facilities within the Aliwal Shoal MPA. Observations and waste characterisation were performed to understand actual behaviour, while survey questionnaires based on the TPB were administered to determine self-reported behaviour. Interviews were conducted to explore challenges and opportunities for waste separation at source. The results found a significant percentage of recyclable waste (>70%) within the disposable waste stream, and no waste separation infrastructure at any of the facilities investigated. Survey responses indicated a positive attitude towards waste separation, with a social drive towards participating. Respondents also indicated that they generally participated in waste separation at source, a claim not supported by the observation data. The identified challenges for waste separation at source included a lack of separation infrastructure and collection services, inconvenience, time constraints, and unwillingness of customers to participate. Accordingly, the main opportunities towards waste separation included the provision of waste separation resources and reliable municipal services, and strategies towards improved waste-related awareness and behaviour.


 

References

[1] Ajzen, I. 2011. The theory of planned behaviour: Reactions and reflections. Psychology and Health, 26: 1113-1127. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2011.613995
[2] Alhassan, H., Asante, F.A., Oteng-Ababio, M. and Bawakyillenuo, S. 2018. Application of theory of planned behaviour to households’ source separation behaviour in Ghana. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 29(4): 704-721. DOI: 10.1108/MEQ-10-2017-0122
[3] Amusan, L. and Olutola, O. 2017. Climate change and sustainable tourism: South Africa caught in-between. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 6(4):1-15.
[4] Belsoy, J., Korir, J. and Yego, J. 2012. Environmental impacts of tourism in protected areas. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 2(10): 64-73. ISSN 2224-3216
[5] Capocchi, A., Vallone, C., Pierotti, M. and Amaduzzi, A. 2019. Overtourism: a literature review to assess implications and future perspectives. Sustainability, 11(12):1-18. DOI: 10.3390/su11123303
[6] Chiutsi, S., Mukoroverwa, M., Karigambe, P. and Mudzengi, B.K. 2011. The theory and practice of ecotourism in Southern Africa. Journal of Hospitality Management and Tourism, 2(2):14-21.
[7] del Mar Alonso-Almeida, M. 2012. Water and waste management in the Moroccan tourism industry: the case of three women entrepreneurs. Women's Studies International Forum, 35(5): 343-353. DOI:10.1016/j.wsif.2012.06.002
[8] Diaz-Farina, E., Díaz-Hernández, J.J. and Padrón-Fumero, N. 2020. The contribution of tourism to municipal solid waste generation: a mixed demand-supply approach on the island of Tenerife. Waste Management, 102:587-597. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2019.11.023
[9] Eagles, P.F., McCool, S.F. and Haynes, C.D. 2002. Sustainable tourism in protected areas: Guidelines for planning and management. Gland, SZ: IUCN.
[10] Findlay, K. 2020. Challenges facing marine protected areas in Southern African countries in light of expanding ocean economies across the sub-region. In: Humphreys, J., and Clark, R.W.E., eds. Marine Protected Areas. Poole: Elsevier. pp. 37-65.
[11] Flagg, J.A. and Bates, D.C. 2016. Recycling as a result of “cultural greening”? International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 17(4): 489-506. ISSN-1467-6370
[12] Ghani, W.A.W.A.K., Rusli, I.F., Biak, D.R.A. and Idris, A. 2013. An application of the theory of planned behaviour to study the influencing factors of participation in source separation of food waste. Waste Management, 33(5): 1276-1281.
[13] Gilli, M., Nicolli, F. and Farinelli, P. 2018. Behavioural attitudes towards waste prevention and recycling. Ecological Economics, 154: 294-305. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2018.08.009
[14] Gumede, T.K. and Nzama, A.T. 2019. Ecotourism as a mechanism for local economic development: the case of communities adjacent to the Oribi Gorge Nature Reserve, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 8(4): 1-19. ISSN: 2223-814X
[15] Hoveka, L.N., van der Bank, M. and Davies, T.J. 2020. Evaluating the performance of a protected area network in South Africa and its implications for megadiverse countries. Biological Conservation, 248: 1-9. ISSN: 0006-3207
[16] Hsiao, T.Y., Chuang, C.M., Kuo, N.W. and Yu, S.M.F. 2014. Establishing attributes of an environmental management system for green hotel evaluation. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 36:197-208. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2013.09.005
[17] Huffman, A.H., Van Der Werff, B.R., Henning, J.B. and Watrous-Rodriguez, K. 2014. When do recycling attitudes predict recycling? An investigation of self-reported versus observed behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 38: 262-270. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2014.03.006
[18] Issock, P.B.I., Roberts-Lombard, M. and Mpinganjira, M. 2020. Understanding household waste separation in South Africa: An empirical study based on an extended theory of interpersonal behaviour. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 530-547. DOI: 10.1108/meq-08-2019-0181
[19] Leung, Y.F., Spenceley, A., Hvenegaard, G. and Buckley, R. 2018. Tourism and visitor management in protected areas: Guidelines for sustainability. Gland, SZ: IUCN.
[20] Liang, Y., et al. 2021. Repercussions of COVID-19 pandemic on solid waste generation and management strategies. Frontiers of Environmental Science and Engineering, 15(6): 115. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11783-021-1407-5
[21] Lucrezi, S. and Saayman, M. 2017. Sustainable scuba diving tourism and resource use: Perspectives and experiences of operators in Mozambique and Italy. Journal of Cleaner Production, 168:632-644. DOI:10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2017.09.041
[22] Mak, T.M., Iris, K.M., Tsang, D.C., Hsu, S.C. and Poon, C.S. 2018. Promoting food waste recycling in the commercial and industrial sector by extending the Theory of Planned Behaviour: A Hong Kong case study. Journal of Cleaner Production, 204:1034-1043. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.09.049
[23] Manrai, L.A., Lascu, D. and Manrai, A.K. 2020. A study of safari tourism in sub-Saharan Africa: An empirical test of Tourism A-B-C (T-ABC) model, Journal of Business Research, 119: 639-651. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.02.066
[24] Nomura, H., Takahashi, Y. and Yabe, M. 2017. Psychological driving forces behind households’ behaviors toward municipal organic waste separation at source in Vietnam: a structural equation modeling approach. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 19(3): 1052-1060. DOI: 10.1007/s10163-017-0587-3
[25] Oelofse, S.H., Muswema, A.P. and Koen, R. 2016. The changing face of waste management–considerations when conducting a waste characterisation study. Paper delivered at the 23rd WasteCon Conference, Johannesburg. Available at: https://researchspace.csir.co.za/dspace/handle/10204/8948
[26] Pakpour A.H., Zeidi, I.M., Emamjomeh, M.M., Asefzadeh, S. and Pearson, H. 2014. Household waste behaviours among a community sample in Iran: An application of the theory of planned behaviour. Waste Management, 34(6): 980-986. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2013.10.028
[27] Petty, N.J., Thomson, O.P. and Stew, G. 2012. Ready for a paradigm shift? Part 2: introducing qualitative research methodologies and methods. Manual Therapy, 17(5): 378-384. DOI: 1016/j.math.2012.03.004
[28] Phu, S.T.P., Fujiwara, T., Hoang, M.G. and Tran, M.T. 2019. Waste separation at source and recycling potential of the hotel industry in Hoi A city, Vietnam. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 21(1): 23-34. DOI:10.1007/S10163-018-0807-5
[29] Razali, F., Daud, D., Weng-Wai, C., and Jiram, W.R.A. 2020. Waste separation at source behaviour among Malaysian households: the theory of planned behaviour with moral norm. Journal of Cleaner Production, 271(2): 1-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.122025
[30] Reinius, S.W. and Fredman, P. 2007. Protected areas as attractions. Annals of tourism research, 34(4):839-854. DOI: 10.1016/j.annals.2007.03.011
[31] Roos, C., et al. 2021. Understanding waste management behaviour in private nature reserves through the Theory of Planned Behaviour. PARKS, 27(2): 47-56. DOI: 10.2305/IUCN.CH.2021.PARKS-27-2CR.en
[32] Sandham, L.A., et al. 2020. Evaluating Environmental Impact Assessment report quality in South African national parks. Koedoe: African Protected Area Conservation and Science, 62(1): 1-9. DOI:https://doi.org/10.4102/koedoe.v62i1.1631
[33] Sink, K. 2016. The marine protected areas debate: implications for the proposed phakisa marine protected areas network. South African Journal of Science, 112(9-10): 1-4. DOI:https://doi.org/10.17159/sajs.2016/a0179
[34] Sowman, M. and Sunde, J. 2018. Social impacts of marine protected areas in South Africa on coastal fishing communities. Ocean and Coastal Management, 157: 168-179. DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.02.013
[35] Steg, L. and Vlek, C. 2009. Encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: An integrative review and research agenda. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29(3): 309-317. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvp.2008.10.004
[36] Stem, C.J. et al. 2003. Community participation in ecotourism benefits: The link to conservation practices and perspectives. Society and Natural Resources, 16(5):387-413. DOI: 10.1080/08941920390190041
[37] Stoeva, K. and Alriksson, S. 2017. Influence of recycling programmes on waste separation behaviour. Waste Management, 68: 732-741. DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2017.06.005
[38] Strydom, W.F. 2018. Applying the theory of planned behavior to recycling behavior in South Africa. Recycling, 3(43): 1-20. DOI: 10.3390/recycling3030043
[39] Tonglet, M., Phillips, P.S. and Read, A.D. 2004. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour to investigate the determinants of recycling behaviour: a case study from Brixworth, UK. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 41(3): 191-214. DOI: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2003.11.001
[40] Wani, M.A., Dada, Z.A. and Shah, S.A. 2018. Sustainable integrated solid waste management in the trans-himalayan accommodation sector. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 7(2): 1-17. ISSN: 2223-814X
[41] Wyngaard, A.T. and De Lange, R. 2013. The effectiveness of implementing eco initiatives to recycle water and food waste in selected Cape Town hotels. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 34: 309-316. DOI:10.1016/j.ijhm.2013.04.007
[42] Xu, L., Ling, M., Lu, Y. and Shen, M. 2017. Understanding household waste separation behaviour: Testing the roles of moral, past experience, and perceived policy effectiveness within the theory of planned behaviour. Sustainability, 9(4):1-27. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su9040625
[43] Yin, R. 2017. Case study research: Design and Methods - Sixth Edition, Sage publications, London.
[44] Yusof, Z.B. and Jamaludin, M. 2013. Green approaches of Malaysian green hotels and resorts. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 85:421-431. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.371
[45] American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). 2016. Standard Test Method for Determination of the Composition of Unprocessed Municipal Solid Waste. Available at: https://www.astm.org/Standards/D5231.htm
[46] MORI Social Research Institute. 2002. Public Attitudes towards Recycling and Waste Management: Quantitative and Qualitative Review. (Research Study Conducted for The Strategy Unit, Cabinet Office: London, UK). Available at: https://www.nswai.org/docs/Public%20Attitudes%20Towards%20Recycling%20and%20Waste%20Management.pdf
[47] StatsSA (Statistics South Africa). 2019. Tourism satellite Account for South Africa, final 2016 and provisional 2017 and 2018. Available at: http://www.statssa.gov.za/publications/Report-04-05-07/Report-04-05-072018.pdf
[48] United Nations Environment Programme, World Conservation Monitoring Centre and International Union for the Conservation of Nature (UNEP-WCMC and IUCN). 2021. World Database on Protected Areas. Available at: https://www.iucn.org/theme/protected-areas/our-work/world-database-protected-areas
Published
2022-06-03
How to Cite
HARPER, Carrigan et al. Applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Tourism-Related Waste Behaviour in Marine Protected Areas: The Aliwal Shoal Case Study. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 13, n. 3, p. 853-876, june 2022. ISSN 2068-7729. Available at: <https://journals.aserspublishing.eu/jemt/article/view/7009>. Date accessed: 26 june 2022. doi: https://doi.org/10.14505/jemt.v13.3(59).23.