The Effect of Social Marketing Strategy on Urban Tourism Growth and Economic Development in Zanjan, Iran

  • Toktam SALARI University of Zanjan, Iran
  • Omar YOUSEFI Islamic Azad University-Neyshabur Branch, Iran
  • Hossein AZIMI University of Zanjan, Iran


Tourism for cities with tourist attractions such as Zanjan can become the most important source of monetization. Provided that proper and comprehensive planning is planned and implemented for it. The concept of social marketing is based on that each organization must first determine the needs, wants and interests of its target markets, then providing those needs and demands more effective than other competitors in a way that welfare of both customers and society are provided. This article investigates the impact of social marketing strategy on the urban tourism growth and economic development with emphasis on the mediating role of trust. This study, in terms of purpose, is application-oriented and is descriptive-correlational in terms of method. The statistical population of the study consist of experts, specialists and students of Tourism science at Zanjan city. The sampling method was random, and the sample size was calculated based on the Cochran formula of 391 people. The data collection tool is the standard questionnaire which validity and reliability were evaluated by experts and Structural Equation Model (SEM) using desired Cronbach's alpha (0.896), respectively. Data were analyzed using pls3 and SPSS software. The results of the study indicated that social marketing with an intensity of "0.556" and trust with an intensity of "0.258" are effective in the tourism growth and economic development. There is also a meaningful relationship between social marketing and trust.


[1] Andreasen, A. R. 2011. Marketing social marketing in the social change marketplace. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 21(1): 3-13.
[2] Brown, K. 2009. Island Tourism Marketing Music and Culture. International Journal of Culture Tourism and Hospitality, 3 (1): 25-32.
[3] Cheng, S.C. and Kao, Y. H. 2011. Which color is better? The influence of Website photo color and consumer: The incongruity viewpoint. The Business Review, 17(2): 117-123.
[4] Chowdhury, R., Olsen, D. and Pracejus, J. 2011. How many pictures should your print ad have? Journal of Business Research, 64(1): 3-6.
[5] Cole, E.J. 2007. A Community-Based Social Marketing Campaign to Green the Offices at Pacific University: Recycling, Paper Reduction, and Environmentally Preferable, Ph.D., Antioch University, 214 pages.
[6] Domegan, Ch.T. 2008. Social Marketing: implications for contemporary marketing practices classification scheme. Journal of Business & Industrial marketing, 23(2): 135-141.
[7] Etesami, M. 2011. Analyzing the effectiveness of social marketing on maintaining urban greenspace, Master thesis, University of Esfahan.
[8] Gilmore, J.H. 2002. Differencing Hospitality Cooperation’s via Experiences. Cornell, Hotel and Restaurant: Quarterly, 43(3): 87-92.
[9] Hastings, G. and Saren, M. 2003. The critical contribution of social marketing theory and application. Marketing theory, 3(3): 305-322.
[10] Herault, S. 2012. Responsabilité sociale de Ientreprise et publicité. RIMHE, Rev. Interdiscip. Manag. Humanisme, 1: 7 –18.
[11] Kafashpour, A., Mortazavi, S. and Hasani moghadam, S. 2012. Applying social marketing philosophy to volunteer blood donation using planned behavior theory. Journal of blood.
[12] Kotler, P. 1984. What consumerism means for marketers. Harvard Business Review, 50(3): 48-57.
[13] Kotler, P., Roberto, N. and Lee, N. 2002. Social marketing: Improving the quality of life.
[14] Lefebvre, R. C., and Flora, J. A. 1988. Social Marketing and Public Health Intervention. Health Education Quarterly, 15(3): 299-315.
[15] MacFadyen, L., Stead, M. and Hastings, G.B. 2002. Social marketing, in Baker, M.J. (Ed.), The Marketing Book, 5th ed., Chapter 27, Butterworth Heineman, Oxford.
[16] McKnight, C. 2002. What Is and What Is Not Social Marketing: The Challenge of Reviewing the Evidence. Journal of Marketing Management, 21: 545-553.
[17] Naseri, M. 1996. Identifying the Effective Barriers to Development of Tourism Industry of Iran, MA thesis, Tarbiat Modares University.
[18] Niazi, S. and Montazeri, Z. 2012. Social marketing, First Edition, Tehran, Taimaz Publishing, 115 pages.
[19] Panahi, I. 2008. Sport and Anxiety, published in
[20] Stanaland, A.J.S., Lwin, M.O. and Murphy, P.E. 2011. Consumer perceptions of the antecedents and consequences of corporate social responsibility. J. Bus Ethics, 102(1): 47–55.
[21] Takahashi, B. 2007. Social marketing for environment: A comparative Analysis of Theory and practicet. M.S., State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, 207 pages.
[22] Tellis, G.J., Chandy, R. K., Maclnns, D. and Thivanich, P. 2005. Practiced Prize Report: Modeling the Micro effects of Television Advertising: Which ad Works, When, Where, for how long and Why? Marketing Science, 24(3): 359 - 366.
[23] Wilhelm-Rechmann, A., Cowling, R. M. and Difford, M. 2013. Using social marketing concepts to promote the integration of systematic conservation plans in land use planning in South Africa. Oryx, 1-9.
How to Cite
SALARI, Toktam; YOUSEFI, Omar; AZIMI, Hossein. The Effect of Social Marketing Strategy on Urban Tourism Growth and Economic Development in Zanjan, Iran. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 13, n. 2, p. 438-444, mar. 2022. ISSN 2068-7729. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 03 june 2023. doi: