The Impact of Revolutions and Terrorist Attacks on Tourism. Case Study: Egypt

  • Daniel BAKOTA Jan Dlugosz University in Czestochowa, Poland
  • Magdalena MORGA Jan Dlugosz University in Czestochowa, Poland
  • Arkadiusz PLOMINSKI Jan Dlugosz University in Czestochowa, Poland
  • Mariusz RZETALA University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland


The essence of the research concerns the impact of armed conflicts and terrorist attacks on the arrivals of foreign tourists with Egypt selected as the testing ground. It was found that revolutions and terrorist attacks have a negative impact on the development of the tourism industry – following the social unrest that took place in Egypt in the years 1997, 2011 and 2015, the number of arrivals of foreign tourists decreased by: 13%, 33% and 42% respectively (depending on countries of the world the reduction of the flow of tourists was within the range of 21-78%). The decrease in the number of tourists which takes place after a terrorist attack is short-lived and usually does not last longer than a year, whereas the consequences of a revolution are noticeable for tourism for a period of 3 to 5 years. According to respondents, the most important consequence of social unrest (protests, demonstrations, terrorist attacks) for tourism is a drop in the number of arrivals of foreign tourists, reduction in the income generated by tourism, decline in employment in tourism and the general slowdown in the development of tourism.



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How to Cite
BAKOTA, Daniel et al. The Impact of Revolutions and Terrorist Attacks on Tourism. Case Study: Egypt. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 13, n. 2, p. 354-366, mar. 2022. ISSN 2068-7729. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 18 may 2022. doi: