The Destination Life Cycle Concept in Developing a Tourist Brand. Case of Mangystau of Kazakhstan
The article aims to find the relation of positioning of a tourist destination to the life cycle of a territory (TALC). The research methodology is based on the marketing studies conducted as a survey of experts who works with tourists in Mangystau area of Kazakhstan. On the basis of the studies a model of the tourist brand’s positioning was developed in accordance with the territory’s stage of development, mainly for those visitors who seek for new places, since the area’s nature has almost “wild” and unexplored places and many historical and cultural objects which are located precisely in the unmanned and impassable steppe. The area’s brand structure was elaborated in accordance with the McKinsey model to build an appropriate positioning of the destination due to a stage of its life cycle. The finding of this study suggested that the strategy of the Mangystau tourist brand should be based on its identification, attributes and its life cycle’s stages and be aimed at positioning related to nature and cultural traditions that identified as the most valuable tourist attractions. The research applied the psychographic personality classification system to propose the type of tourists for whom that territory will be especially attractive.
 Aaker, D. A., & Joachimsthaler, E. 2000. Brand Leadership. New York, NY: Free Press, Simon & Schuster, Inc.
 Andriotis, K. 2001. Strategies on resort areas and their lifecycle stages. Tourism Review 56:40-43.
 Anholt, S. 2005. Brand New Justice: How branding places and products can help the developing world. (2nd ed.). Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
 Avraham, E. 2015. Destination image repair during crisis: Attracting tourism during the Arab Spring uprisings. Tourism Management 47(April). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2014.10.003
 Avraham, E. 2016. Destination marketing and image repair during tourism crises: The case of Egypt. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management 28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2016.04.004
 Avraham, E., & Ketter, E. 2017. Destination image repair while combatting crises: tourism marketing in Africa. An International Journal of Tourism Space, Place and Environment 19(5). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2017.1357140
 Bitsani, E., & Kavoura, A. 2014. Host Perceptions of Rural Tour Marketing to Sustainable Tourism in Central Eastern Europe. The Case Study of Istria, Croatia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 148: 362-69.
 Blain, C., Levy, S.E., & Brent Ritchie, J. R. 2005. Destination Branding: Insights and Practices from Destination Management Organizations. Journal of Travel Research 43(4): 328-338. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287505274646.
 Bogolyubov V. S., & Orlovskaya V. P. 2005. Ekonomika turizma. [Tourism Economics]. Moscow: Academia.
 Brady, S. 2020. The best country for adventure backpacking in the 2020s, according to experts. Lonely Planet (January 6). Available at: https://www.lonelyplanet.com/articles/algeria-backpacking-adventure-destination
 Butler, R. 2005. The Tourism Area Life Cycle, Vol. 1 Applications and Modifications. Clevedon: Channel View Publications.
 Butler, R.W. 1980. The concept of a tourist area cycle of evolution: Implications for management of resources. The Canadian Geographer 24(1): 5-12.
 Caldwell, N., & Freire, J. R. 2004. The differences between branding a country, a region and a city: Applying the Brand Box Model. Journal of Brand Management, 12(1): 50–61.
 Christaller, W. 1964. Some considerations of tourism location in Europe: the peripheral regions – underdeveloped countries – recreation areas. Papers in Regional Science 12(1): 95–105.
 Colston, P. 2021. Optimism among American travellers back to pre-pandemic levels, according to MMGY Travel survey. Conference News & Conference & Meetings World. April 8. Available at: https://www.c-mw.net/optimism-among-american-travellers-back-to-pre-pandemic-levels-according-to-mmgy-travel-survey/
 Cooper, C., & Jackson, S. 1989. Destination life cycle: the Isle of Man case study. Annals of Tourism Research, 16: 377-98.
 Cruz-Milan, O. 2018. Plog’s model of personality-based psychographic traits in tourism: a review of empirical research. In M. A. Camilleri (Ed.), Tourism planning and destination marketing (pp. 49-74). Emerald Publishing Limited. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/978-1-78756-291-220181003
 Daye, M., Charman, K., Wang, Y. & Suzhikova, B. 2020. Exploring local stakeholders’ views on the prospects of China’s Belt & Road Initiative on tourism development in Kazakhstan. Current Issues in Tourism 23(15): 1948 - 1962. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2019.1700941
 Dolnicar, S. 2013. Tourism Market Segmentation: A Step-by-Step Guide. In C. A. Tisdell (Ed.), Handbook of tourism economics: analysis, new applications, and case studies (pp. 87–104). World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.
 Doroshenko Ye. 2017. News of Aktau and Mangystau, Tumba (April 2). Available at: https://tumba.kz/vse-o-mangistau/57-vse-o-mangistau/24861-puteshest_po_mang_gorodosh.html (in Russian)
 Dzhandzhugazova, E. A. 2019. Marketing technologies in tourism: marketing of tourist areas. (3rd ed.). Moscow: Yurait Publishing House. (in Russian)
 Dzhandzhugazova, E. A., Blinova, E. A., Orlova, L. N. and Romanova, M. M. 2017. Intellectual Resources Used in Developing Tourism and Hospitality Industry. Eurasian Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 12(5b): 705-22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.12973/ejac.2017.00204a
 Gilbert, E. W. 1939. The Growth of Inland and Seaside Health Resorts in England. Scottish Geographical Magazine 55(1): 16-35. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00369223908735100
 Gnoth, J. 2007. The structure of destination brands: leveraging values. Tourism Analysis, 12: 345-58.
 Goglenkov, A.M. 2015. Branding of tourist destinations as a direction of territorial branding. Humanitarian research, 7(2). Available at: http://human.snauka.ru/2015/07/11867 (in Russian)
 Hall, C. M. 2006. Introduction. In R. Butler, The Tourism Area Life Cycle, Vol. 1 Applications and Modifications (xv-xviii). Clevedon: Channel View Publications.
 Kapferer, J.-N. 2012. The New Strategic Brand Management: Advanced insights and strategic thinking. London: Kogan Page.
 Karpova, G.A., & Khoreva, L.V. 2011. Economics and tourism management. Tutorial in 2 parts. Part 2. SPb: SPbGUEF Publishing House. (in Russian)
 Keller, K. 2013. Strategic Brand Management (4th ed.). London: Pearson Education Limited.
 Kiryanova, L. G. 2011. Marketing and branding of tourist destinations. Tomsk: Tomsk Polytechnic University. (in Russian)
 Kiryanova, L. G. 2012. Tourist Destination as a comprehensive concept and a key element of the tourism system. Bulletin of KemSU 4(52):131-136. (in Russian)
 Knudsen, T.R., et al. 2007. Improving Brand Economy. Vestnik McKinsey [McKinsey Herald] 4(9) (January 31). Available at: https://www.marketing.spb.ru/lib-comm/brand/brand_economics.htm. (in Russian)
 Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G. (2018). Principles of Marketing (17th ed.). London: Pearson Education Limited.
 Kruzhalin, V.I., & Aleksandrova, A.Yu. (Eds). 2008. Tourism and recreation on the path to sustainable development: domestic and foreign studies]. Moscow: Sovetskiy Sport. (in Russian)
 Leiper, N. (1979). The framework of tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 6(4): 390–407.
 Levitt, T. 1965. Exploit the Product Life Cycle. Harvard Business Review, 43: 81-94.
 Lundgren, J. O. 1984. Geographic concepts and the development of tourism research in Canada. GeoJournal, 9(1): 17–5.
 Morgan, N., Pritchard, A. & Pride, R. 2004. Destination branding: Creating the unique destination proposition. (2nd ed.). Oxford: Elsevier Ltd.
 Morozov, M. A., Morozova, N.S., Karpova, G.A., and Khoreva L.V. 2014. Economics of tourism. Moscow: Federal Tourism Agency. (in Russian)
 Mukhamediuly, A. 2018. Kazakhstan as an actual tourist brand. Kazakhstanskaya Pravda newspaper. (September 17). https://kazpravda.kz/articles/view/kazahstan-kak-aktualnii-turistskii-brend (in Russian)
 Mukhtarova K.S., Balgabayeva Z.B., & Ziyadin S.T. 2018. Kazakhstan tourist brand сreation – from country to region! Bulletin of KazNU, The Journal of Economic Research & Business Administration, 3(125): 55-63.
 Muller, D., & Jansson, B. 2007. Tourism in peripheries: Perspectives from the Far North and South. Oxfordshire: CAB International.
 Ozturk, A. B., Ozer, O., & Çaliskan, U. 2015. The relationship between local residents’ perceptions of tourism and their happiness: a case of Kusadasi, Turkey. Tourism Review, 70(3): 232-242. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/TR-09-2014-0053
 Patterson, M. G., & McDonald, G. 2004. How clean and green is New Zealand tourism?: Lifecycle and future environmental impacts. Lincoln, N.Z.: Manaaki Whenua Press.
 Pike, S., & Mason, R. 2011. Destination competitiveness through the lens of brand positioning: the case of Australia’s Sunshine Coast. Current issues in tourism, 14(2): 169-82.
 Pike, S., & Page, S. 2014. Destination Marketing Organizations and destination marketing: A narrative analysis of the literature. Tourism Management, 41: 1-26.
 Plog, S. C. 1974. Why destination areas rise and fall in popularity. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 14: 55–58.
 Plog, S. C. 1990. A carpenter’s tools: An answer to Stephen L. J. Smith’s review of psychocentrism/allocentrism. Journal of Travel Research, 28(4): 43–45.
 Plog, S. C. 2001. Why destination areas rise and fall in popularity: An update of a Cornell Quarterly classic. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 42(3): 13–24.
 Ralston, L. S. 1993. The relationship between the expressed need for affiliation and motivations for travel. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Department of Recreation Resources Development, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
 Risitano, M. 2005. The role of destination branding in the tourism stakeholders system. The Campi Flegrei case. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228701100
 Sabirova D. 2017. Mangystau: the land of saints and ‘aliens” Steppe. (December 6). Available at: https://the-steppe.com/razvlecheniya/mangistau-zemlya-svyatyh-i-chuzhih. (in Russian)
 Sexton, D. 2008. Branding 101: How to Build the Most Valuable Asset of Any Business. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken.
 Shaikenova, R., & Mamutova K. 2009. The current state of ecotourism in Kazakhstan. Paper presented at the All-Russian scientific-practical conference “Ecological and ethnographic tourism: formation, problems and development prospects”, October 9, in Khabarovsk, Russia. (in Russian)
 Shen, Ye. & Joppe, M. 2016. Breathing New Life into Old Theories. Travel and Tourism Research Association: Advancing Tourism Research Globally 3. Available at: https://scholarworks.umass.edu/ttra/2016/Academic_Papers_Oral/3
 Stansfield, C. 1978. Atlantic City and the resort cycle. Annals of Tourism Research, 5(2): 238-51.
 Tooman, L. A. 1997. Applications of the Life-cycle Model in Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 24(1): 214-34.
 Zhomartova, G. Zh. 2013. Tourism in the Republic of Kazakhstan: development problems and prospects. Bulletin of the Karaganda University 71(3). Available at: http://rmebrk.kz/magazines/journal/show/1814
 Euromonitor International. 2014. Strategy Briefing: The New Online Travel Consumer, July, Available at: https://www.euromonitor.com/the-new-online-travel-consumer/report
 European Union. 2016. Project “Regional Development of Kazakhstan”. A practical guide to the development of regional tourism. National Program of the European Union “Development Cooperation Instrument 2012” for the Republic of Kazakhstan. Astana: GDSI Limited. (in Russian)
 Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan. 2017. On approval of the Concept of development of the tourism industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan until 2023. (Decree №406 of June 30, 2017). Astana: Institute of Legislation and Legal Information of the Republic of Kazakhstan. (in Russian)
 Mangystau Library. Local history. Mangistau region. Khabibolla Sydikov Mangystau Regional Universal Library. Available at: http://moub.kz/ru/kraeved?title=mangistauskaya_oblast126
 Mangystau Regional Museum. Architectural monuments: Mangystau Regional Museum of Local Lore Available at: https://www.muzey.kz/ru/mangystau/historical_sites
 Megabook. Universal Encyclopaedia of Kirill and Methodiy: Mangystau Area Available at: https://megabook.ru/article/Мангистауская%20область (in Russian)
 Mendikulov, M. 1987. Monuments of traditional architecture of Western Kazakhstan. Almaty: Oner. (in Russian)
 Statistics Committee of the Ministry of National Economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. http://stat.gov.kz/.
 The World Bank. 2021. Kazakhstan Tourism Statistics 1995-2019. Available at: https://www.ceicdata.com/en/kazakhstan/tourism-statistics
 The World Bank. 2021. World Tourism Organization, Yearbook of Tourism Statistics, Compendium of Tourism Statistics and data files https://data.worldbank.org/indicator
 TripAdvisor and Accenture. (2021). The future of travel. Report. Available at: https://preview.shorthand.com/23Faqrgvpquovd4i
 TripAdvisor. 2021. The year of the travel rebound: 5 traveler trends to watch out for in 2021. Available at: https://www.tripadvisor.com/InfoCenter-a_ctr.2021TravelTrends
 UNWTO. 2011. Policy and Practice for Global Tourism, UNWTO, Madrid. DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.18111/9789284413799
 UNWTO. 2019. UNWTO Tourism Definitions, UNWTO, Madrid. DOI:https://doi.org/10.18111/9789284420858
 UNWTO. 2020a. UNWTO World Tourism Barometer and Statistical Annex, January 2020. UNWTO World Tourism Barometer (English version), 18(1). Available at: https://www.e-unwto.org/doi/epdf/10.18111/wtobarometereng.2020.18.1.1
 UNWTO. 2021a. UNWTO World Tourism Barometer and Statistical Annex (English version) 19, no.1 (January). Available at: https://www.e-unwto.org/doi/epdf/10.18111/wtobarometereng.2021.19.1.1
 UNWTO. 2021b. World Tourism Organization. International Tourism Highlights, 2020 Edition, UNWTO, Madrid. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18111/9789284422456
 UNWTO/GTERC. 2020b. UNWTO/GTERC Asia Tourism Trends, Executive Summary, Madrid. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18111/9789284422272
 WDI DataBank. (2021). World Development Indicators, The World Bank. Available at: http://wdi.worldbank.org/tables
 WTTC. 2020. World Travel and Tourism Council. Travel & Tourism – Global Economic Impact & Trends 2020. May 2020. Available at: https://wttc.org/Research/Economic-Impact
The Copyright Transfer Form to ASERS Publishing (The Publisher)
This form refers to the manuscript, which an author(s) was accepted for publication and was signed by all the authors.
The undersigned Author(s) of the above-mentioned Paper here transfer any and all copyright-rights in and to The Paper to The Publisher. The Author(s) warrants that The Paper is based on their original work and that the undersigned has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment. It is the author's responsibility to obtain written permission to quote material that has been previously published in any form. The Publisher recognizes the retained rights noted below and grants to the above authors and employers for whom the work performed royalty-free permission to reuse their materials below. Authors may reuse all or portions of the above Paper in other works, excepting the publication of the paper in the same form. Authors may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the above Paper for the Author's personal use or for internal company use, provided that the source and The Publisher copyright notice are mentioned, that the copies are not used in any way that implies The Publisher endorsement of a product or service of an employer, and that the copies are not offered for sale as such. Authors are permitted to grant third party requests for reprinting, republishing or other types of reuse. The Authors may make limited distribution of all or portions of the above Paper prior to publication if they inform The Publisher of the nature and extent of such limited distribution prior there to. Authors retain all proprietary rights in any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in The Paper. This agreement becomes null and void if and only if the above paper is not accepted and published by The Publisher, or is with drawn by the author(s) before acceptance by the Publisher.