Soundscape Quality in Recreation Areas of Khao Yai National Park in Thailand
Soundscape is an important component of national parks that are established for conserving biodiversity, natural resources and ecological processes, as well as serving tourism to inculcate conservation awareness. Nevertheless, anthropogenic noise from visitors is difficult to control and can disturb wildlife and visitor experiences. This study aims to illustrate the quality of soundscape in recreational areas of Khao Yai National Park (KYNP) based on soundscape components, sound pressure level, perception and the satisfaction of visitors on soundscape, and satisfaction on Sound pressure level in term of LAeq (dBA). Significant differences in the overall soundscape components, sound pressure level, perception and satisfaction on soundscape and satisfaction on sound pressure level at each recreational area were found. Noise from tourism also impacted the presence of wildlife in recreational areas. A correlation was identified between a higher nature-based experience and higher satisfaction on biophony and geophony. Soundscape satisfaction was influenced by satisfaction on sound pressure level, perceived soundscape, and some demographical factors (gender, the day of visit, hometown, recreational areas, visit frequency, income, education, and occupation). KYNP must monitor soundscape components, soundscape satisfaction, and sound pressure levels to maintain the quality of natural soundscape and visitor experiences in the recreational areas. Further research is recommended on using the proportion of soundscape components and sound pressure level as a key monitoring tool to determine the practical carrying capacity of tourists, as soundscape components can be changed due to sound pressure level and also affect the soundscape satisfaction of tourists.
 Barber, J.R., et al. 2011. Anthropogenic noise exposure in protected natural areas: Estimating the scale of ecological consequences. Landscape Ecology, 26: 1281–95. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-011-9646-7
 Basner, M., et al. 2014. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health. Lancet, 383: 1325–32. DOI:https://doi.org:/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61613-X
 Benfield, J.A., Bell, P.A., Troup, L.J. and Soderstrom, N. 2010. Does anthropogenic noise in national parks impair memory? Environment and Behavior, 42(5): 693–706. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916509351219
 Benfield, J.A., Taff, D., Newman, P. and Smyth, J. 2014. Natural sound facilitates mood recovery from stress. Ecopsychology, 6(3): 183-8. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1089/eco.2014.0028
 Blauvelt, A. L., Jaimes, C. A., Breindel, J.T. and Tetreault, Z.A. 2008. The effects of non-natural sounds on visitor park experiences in Puerto Rico. Massachusetts: Worcester Polytechnic Institute. DOI:https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/212968592.pdf
 Burivalova, Z., et al. 2018. Using soundscapes to detect variable degrees of human influence on tropical forests in Papua New Guinea. Conservation Biology, 32(1): 205–15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12968
 Butchart, S. H.M., et al. 2010. Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines. Science, 328 (5982): 1164–68. DOI: https://doi.org:/10.1126/science.1187512
 Buxton, R.T., et al. 2017. Noise pollution is pervasive in U.S. protected areas. Science, 356 (6337): 531–33. DOI: https://doi.org:/10.1126/science.aah4783
 Buxton, R.T., et al. 2021. A synthesis of health benefits of natural sounds and their distribution in national parks. PNAS, 118 (14): e2013097118. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2013097118
 Deichmanna, J. L., et al. 2017. Soundscape analysis and acoustic monitoring document impacts of natural gas exploration on biodiversity in a tropical forest. Ecological Indicators, 74: 39–48. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.11.002
 Duarte, M.H.L., et al. 2015. The impact of noise from open-cast mining on Atlantic forest biophony. Biological Conservation, 191: 623 – 31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2015.08.006
 Dudley, N. 2008. Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN Publications Service.
 Dumyahn, S. L. and Pijanowski, B. C. 2011. Soundscape conservation. Landscape Ecology, 26: 1327–44. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-011-9635-x
 Duquette, C.A., Loss, S.R., and Hovic, T.J. 2021. A meta-analysis of the influence of anthropogenic noise on terrestrial wildlife communication strategies. Journal of Applied Ecology, 00: 1-10. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2664.13880
 Francis, C. D., Kleist, N. J., Ortega, C. P. and Cruz, A. 2012. Noise pollution alters ecological services: enhanced pollination and disrupted seed dispersal. P Roy Soc Lond B Bio, 279: 2727–35. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2012.0230
 Gramann, J. 1999. The effect of mechanical noise and natural sound on visitor experiences in units of the national park system. Social Science Research Review, 1(1): 2 - 16. Available at: https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1427&context=govdocs.
 Hebbali, A. 2020. olsrr: Tools for Building OLS Regression Models. R package version 0.5.3. Available at: https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=olsrr
 Herrera-Montes, I. M. 2018. Protected area zoning as a strategy to preserve natural soundscapes, reduce anthropogenic noise intrusion, and conserve biodiversity. Tropical Conservation Science, 11: 1-15. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/1940082918804344.
 Krause, B. and Payne, R. 2016. Wild Soundscapes: Discovering the Voice of the Natural World. Connecticut, USA: Yale University Press. Kindle.
 Latinopoulos, D. 2019. The role of ecotourism in the Prespa National Park in Greece. Evidence from a travel cost method and hoteliers’ perceptions. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 8(40): 1743 - 1754. DOI: https://doi.org:/10.14505/jemt.v10.8(40).04
 Levenhagen M.J., et al. 2021. Ecosystem services enhanced through soundscape management link people and wildlife. People and Nature 3: 176–89. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/pan3.10156
 Liu Aili, et al. 2017. Soundscape and its influence on tourist satisfaction. The Service Industries Journal, 38(3-4): 164-81. DOI: https://doi.org:/10.1080/02642069.2017.1382479
 Liu, Jiang, Yichao Xiong, Yajun Wang, and Tao Luo. 2018. Soundscape effects on visiting experience in City Park: A case study in Fuzhou, China. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 31: 38–47. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2018.01.022
 Machlis, G. and McNutt, M. 2015. Parks for science. Science, 348 (6241): 1291. DOI:https://doi.org:/10.1126/science.aac5760
 Manning, R. et al. 2006. From landscapes to soundscapes: understanding and managing natural quiet in the national parks. In Proceedings of the 2006 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium, The Sagamore, NY, USA, 9-11 April 2006. 601-6. Available at: https://www.nrs.fs.fed.us/pubs/gtr/gtr_nrs-p-14/79-manning-p-14.pdf.
 Merchan, C., Diaz-Balteiro, L. and Soliño, M. 2014. Noise pollution in national parks: Soundscape and economic valuation. Landscape and Urban Planning, 123: 1-9. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2013.11.006.
 Newman P. et al. 2007. An adaptive approach to managing soundscapes in Muir Woods National Monument: A test of management actions. In The meeting of the George Wright Society. MN, USA, April 2006.
 Nunnally, JG. 1978. Psychometric theory. New York, USA: McGraw Hill.
 O’Neill, C.and Harald Yurk H. 2017. In-Air Noise Impact Assessment for Birds and Reptiles: Based on a Preliminary Design of the Third Crossing of the Cataraqui River, Kingston, ON. Document 01194, Version 1.0. Technical report by JASCO Applied Sciences for Golder Associates Ltd. Available at: https://thirdcrossing.cityofkingston.ca/documents/26467239/38278041/Appendix%20I%20-%20In%20Air%20Noise%20Impact%20Assessment%20for%20Birds%20and%20Reptiles%20-%20Final.pdf.
 Phumsathan, Sangsan. 2010. Environmental Impacts of Tourism in Khao Yai National Park Thailand. PhD. Diss., Texas A&M University. Available at: https://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2010-08-8223
 Pijanowski, B. C., et al. 2011a. Soundscape ecology: The science of sound in the landscape. BioScience, 61(3): 203–16. DOI: https://doi.org:/10.1525/bio.2011.61.3.6
 Pijanowski, B. et al. 2011b. What is soundscape ecology? An introduction and overview of an emerging new science. Landscape Ecology; 26: 1213–32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-011-9600-8
 R Core Team. 2020. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
 Rojanachan, S., Phongkhieo, N.T. and Kaitpraneet, S. 2012. Soundscape perception of visitors to Khao Yai National Park. Thai J. For., 31(1): 78 – 86. Available at: http://www.tjf.forest.ku.ac.th/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/9_%E0%B8%AA%E0%B8%B8%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%B1%E0%B8%8D%E0%B8%8D%E0%B8%B2.pdf
 Rossman, B. 2006. The Importance of Soundscapes in National Park Management. In David H, editor. People, Places, and Parks: Proceedings of the 2005 George Wright Society Conference on Parks, Protected Areas, and Cultural Sites. Hancock, Michigan: The George Wright Society. Pp. 335-40.
 Sellars, R.W. 1997. Preserving nature in the national parks: a history. Yale University Press. http://www.georgewright.org/sellars.pdf
 Siikamäki, P. et al. 2015. Biodiversity attracts visitors to national parks. Biodivers Conserv, 24: 2521–2534. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-015-0941-5
 Department of National Parks, Plant and Wildlife Conservation [DNP]. 2021. Statistics of tourists vehicles and income in Thai national parks. Available at: http://webreg.dnp.go.th/park/index3.php?task=Report31
 Environmental Protection Agency [EPA]. 2016. Guidance Note for Noise: Licence Applications, Surveys and Assessments in Relation to Scheduled Activities (NG4).
The Copyright Transfer Form to ASERS Publishing (The Publisher)
This form refers to the manuscript, which an author(s) was accepted for publication and was signed by all the authors.
The undersigned Author(s) of the above-mentioned Paper here transfer any and all copyright-rights in and to The Paper to The Publisher. The Author(s) warrants that The Paper is based on their original work and that the undersigned has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment. It is the author's responsibility to obtain written permission to quote material that has been previously published in any form. The Publisher recognizes the retained rights noted below and grants to the above authors and employers for whom the work performed royalty-free permission to reuse their materials below. Authors may reuse all or portions of the above Paper in other works, excepting the publication of the paper in the same form. Authors may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the above Paper for the Author's personal use or for internal company use, provided that the source and The Publisher copyright notice are mentioned, that the copies are not used in any way that implies The Publisher endorsement of a product or service of an employer, and that the copies are not offered for sale as such. Authors are permitted to grant third party requests for reprinting, republishing or other types of reuse. The Authors may make limited distribution of all or portions of the above Paper prior to publication if they inform The Publisher of the nature and extent of such limited distribution prior there to. Authors retain all proprietary rights in any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in The Paper. This agreement becomes null and void if and only if the above paper is not accepted and published by The Publisher, or is with drawn by the author(s) before acceptance by the Publisher.