Measuring Revisit Intention of Domestic Tourists in Langkawi UNESCO Global Geopark, Malaysia: A Road to Sustainable Tourism
Domestic tourism in Malaysia has contributed significantly to the country's economy and made a sustainable impact on the tourism industry. Langkawi is one of the most visited tourists' attractions in Malaysia which is well-known for island tourism and Geotourism. This study explores the relationship of tourists' motivation, destination brand engagement and domestic tourists' revisit intention in Langkawi UNESCO Global Geopark, Malaysia. The study also examined the mediating role of destination brand management and destination trust between tourists motivation and revisit intention. This study used a quantitative approach to explore the relationships among dependent, independent and intervening variables. A total of 300 questionnaires were distributed, and 212 usable questionnaires returned and utilised for further analysis. For analysis purpose, the researchers decided to utilise SPSS version 25.0 for descriptive statistics and PLS-SEM version 3 for inferential analysis. The results found that tourists' motivation significantly influences destination brand engagement and destination trust for a direct relationship. Results also found that destination brand engagement and destination trust significantly affect tourists' revisit intention in Geopark Langkawi, Malaysia.
 Abubakar, A.M. 2016. Does eWOM influence destination trust and travel intention: a medical tourism perspective. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 29(1), 598-611.
 Abubakar, A.M., Ilkan, M., Al-Tal, R.M., Eluwole, K.K. 2017. eWOM, revisit intention, destination trust and gender. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 31, 220-227.
 Afshardoost, M., Eshaghi, M.S. 2020. Destination image and tourist behavioural intentions: A meta-analysis. Tourism Management, 81, 104154.
 Bayih, B.E., Singh, A. 2020. Modelling domestic tourism: motivations, satisfaction and tourist behavioral intentions. Heliyon, 6(9), e04839.
 Bazazo, I.K., Alananzeh, O.A. 2020. Developing geomorphologic tourism in the valleys of the eastern coast of the Dead Sea. Journal of Environmental Management & Tourism, 11(6), 1416-1426.
 Belwal, R., Amireh, M. 2018. Service quality and attitudinal loyalty: Consumers’ perception of two major telecommunication companies in Oman. Arab Economic and Business Journal, 13(2), 197-208.
 Bentivenga, M., Cavalcante, F., Mastronuzzi, G., Palladino, G., Prosser, G. 2019. Geoheritage: The Foundation for Sustainable Geotourism.
 Bonn, M.A., Cho, M., Lee, J.J., Kim, J.H. 2016. A multilevel analysis of the effects of wine destination attributes on travel constraints and revisit intention. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.
 Bruwer, J., Prayag, G., Disegna, M. 2018. Why wine tourists visit cellar doors: Segmenting motivation and destination image. International Journal of Tourism Research, 20(3), 355-366.
 Carrión Mero, P., Herrera Franco, G., Briones, J., Caldevilla, P., Domínguez-Cuesta, M.J., Berrezueta, E. 2018. Geotourism and local development based on geological and mining sites utilization, Zaruma-Portovelo, Ecuador. Geosciences, 8(6), 205.
 Chatzigeorgiou, C. 2017. Modelling the impact of social media influencers on millennials' behavioural intentions: The case of tourism in rural areas in Greece. Journal of Tourism, Heritage & Services Marketing (JTHSM), 3(2), 25-29.
 Chatzigeorgiou, C., Christou, E. 2016. Destination branding and visitor loyalty: Evidence from mature tourism destinations in Greece. Tourism: An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism, 11(5), 102-120.
 Chen, R., Zhou, Z., Zhan, G., Zhou, N. 2020. The impact of destination brand authenticity and destination brand self-congruence on tourist loyalty: The mediating role of destination brand engagement. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 15, 100402.
 Cheung, M.L., Pires, G., Rosenberger, P.J. 2020. The influence of perceived social media marketing elements on consumer–brand engagement and brand knowledge. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics.
 Chia, S.K.S., Lo, M.C., Razak, Z.B., Wang, Y.C., Mohamad, A.A. 2021. Impact of destination image on tourist satisfaction: the moderating effect of information technology (IT). GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 34(1), 88-93.
 Chin, C.H., Law, F.Y., Lo, M.C., & Ramayah, T. 2018. The Impact of Accessibility Quality and Accommodation Quality on Tourists' Satisfaction and Revisit Intention to Rural Tourism Destination in Sarawak: The Moderating Role of Local Communities' Attitude. Global Business and Management Research, 10(2), 115-127.
 Dale, N.F., Ritchie, B.W. 2020. Understanding travel behavior: A study of school excursion motivations, constraints and behavior. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 43, 11-22.
 Dedeoğlu, B.B., Van Niekerk, M., Weinland, J., Celuch, K. 2019. Re-conceptualizing customer-based destination brand equity. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 11, 211-230.
 Della Corte, V., Sciarelli, M., Cascella, C., Del Gaudio, G. 2015. Customer satisfaction in tourist destination: The case of tourism offer in the city of Naples. Journal of Investment and Management, 4(1-1), 39-50.
 Gardiner, S., Scott, N. 2018. Destination Innovation Matrix: A framework for new tourism experience and market development. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 10, 122-131.
 Ghozbanii, R., Aminbeidokhti, A., Jafari, S., Haqiqat, H. 2020. Factors Affecting Competitiveness of Geotourism Destination. Tourism Management Studies, 15(49), 63-93.
 Guttentag, D. 2016. Why Tourists Choose Airbnb: A Motivation-Based Segmentation Study Underpinned by Innovation Concepts.
 Hall, C.M., Prayag, G., Amore, A. 2017. Tourism and Resilience: Individual, Organisational and Destination Perspectives. Channel View Publications.
 Hamidizadeh, M.R., Cheh, M.G., Moghadam, A.H., Salimipour, S. 2016. Proposing a model of the effect of word of mouth on destination image of tourists and travel intention. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 6(2), 108-119.
 Hassan, S.B., Soliman, M. 2021. COVID-19 and repeat visitation: Assessing the role of destination social responsibility, destination reputation, holidaymakers’ trust and fear arousal. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 19, 100495.
 Hosany, S., Prayag, G., Deesilatham, S., Cauševic, S., Odeh, K. 2015. Measuring tourists’ emotional experiences: Further validation of the destination emotion scale. Journal of Travel Research, 54(4), 482-495.
 Hossain, M. 2016. Promotional measures in developing tourism industry in Bangladesh: An empirical study (Doctoral dissertation, University of Dhaka).
 Hsieh, C.M., Chen, T.P., Hsieh, C.J., Tsai, B.K. 2018. Moderating effect of membership status on the quality-value-loyalty chain at museums. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 46(1), 107-126.
 Huertas, A., Marine-Roig, E. 2015. Destination brand communication through the social media: What contents trigger most reactions of users?. In Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2015, 295-308. Springer, Cham.
 Inversini, A., Marchiori, E., Dedekind, C., Cantoni, L. 2010. Applying a conceptual framework to analyse the online reputation of tourism destinations. Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2010, 321-332.
 Jeong, M., Shin, H.H. 2020. Tourists’ experiences with smart tourism technology at smart destinations and their behavior intentions. Journal of Travel Research, 59(8), 1464-1477.
 Jiang, S., Scott, N., Tao, L., Ding, P. 2019. Chinese tourists’ motivation and their relationship to cultural values. Anatolia, 30(1), 90-102.
 Jin, L., Slowik, P. 2017. Literature review of electric vehicle consumer awareness and outreach activities. International Council on Clean Transportation. Available at: https://www.theicct. org/sites/default/files/publications/Consumer-EV-Awareness_ICCT_Working-Paper_23032017_vF. Pdf.
 Jovicic, D.Z. 2019. From the traditional understanding of tourism destination to the smart tourism destination. Current Issues in Tourism, 22(3), 276-282.
 Kashif, M., Samsi, S.Z.M., Sarifuddin, S. 2015. Brand equity of Lahore Fort as a tourism destination brand. Revista de Administração de Empresas, 55(4), 432-443.
 Kim, E., Chiang, L., Tang, L. 2017. Investigating wellness tourists’ motivation, engagement, and loyalty: In search of the missing link. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 34(7), 867-879.
 Ku, E.C., Chen, C.D. 2015. Cultivating travellers' revisit intention to e-tourism service: the moderating effect of website interactivity. Behaviour & Information Technology, 34(5), 465-478.
 Kubalíková, L. 2019. Assessing geotourism resources on a local level: A case study from Southern Moravia (Czech Republic). Resources, 8(3), 150.
 Kumar, V., Kaushik, A.K. 2020. Does experience affect engagement? Role of destination brand engagement in developing brand advocacy and revisit intentions. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 37(3), 332-346.
 Lee, S., Yen, C.L. 2015. Volunteer tourists' motivation change and intended participation. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 20(4), 359-377.
 Leo, G., Brien, A., Astor, Y., Najib, M., Novianti, S., Rafdinal, W., Suhartanto, D. 2020. Attraction loyalty, destination loyalty, and motivation: agritourist perspective. Current Issues in Tourism, 1-13.
 Leong, L.Y., Hew, T.S., Tan, G.W.H., Ooi, K.B., Lee, V.H. 2020. Tourism research progress-a bibliometric analysis of tourism review publications. Tourism Review.
 Liu, J., Wang, C., Fang, S., Zhang, T. 2019. Scale development for tourist trust toward a tourism destination. Tourism Management Perspectives, 31, 383-397.
 Loi, L.T.I., So, A.S.I., Lo, I.S., Fong, L.H.N. 2017. Does the quality of tourist shuttles influence revisit intention through destination image and satisfaction? The case of Macao. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 32, 115-123.
 Markus, Z., Perovic, D., Pekovic, S., Popovic, S. 2019. Assessing tourist revisit intention through the sports and recreational services offered. Business Systems Research: International journal of the Society for Advancing Innovation and Research in Economy, 10(2), 141-150.
 Marlina, E., Herawan, T. 2020. Geotourism concept development in the basis of environment sustainability, socio-cultural, and natural science wealth: A case study in Indonesia. Journal of Environmental Management & Tourism, 11(1 (41)), 145-158.
 Mazurek, M. 2019. Brand reputation and its influence on consumers’ behavior. In Contemporary Issues in Behavioral Finance. Emerald Publishing Limited.
 Newsome, D. 2010. The Need for a Planning Framework to Preserve the Wildness of Sibayak Volcano, North Sumatra. Earthscan.
 Ólafsdóttir, R., Tverijonaite, E. 2018. Geotourism: a systematic literature review. Geosciences, 8(7), 234.
 Pérez-Vega, R., Taheri, B., Farrington, T., O'Gorman, K. 2018. On being attractive, social and visually appealing in social media: The effects of anthropomorphic tourism brands on Facebook fan pages. Tourism Management, 66, 339-347.
 Polus, R.C., Bidder, C. 2016. Volunteer tourists’ motivation and satisfaction: A case of Batu Puteh village Kinabatangan Borneo. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 224, 308-316.
 Purbadharmaja, I.B.P., Setiawan, P.Y., Hayashi, T., Widanta, A.A.B.P. 2021. How electronic word of mouth (e-WOM) triggers intention to visit through destination image, trust and satisfaction: the perception of a potential tourist in Japan and Indonesia. Online Information Review.
 Putri, Y.E., Rosya, N., Siska, F. 2020. The Meaning of Creative Economy In The Minangkabu Community In The West Sumatra Tourism Destination Area, Indonesia. Geojournal of Tourism & Geosites, 33.
 Rahatmawati, I., Bahagiarti, S., Prastistho, B., Setyaningrum, T., Zakaria, M.F., Priyandhita, N. 2020. The Intention to Repeat Visit Tourist on the Geotourism Object of Cave Bentar, Tanjungsari, Yogyakarta. Journal of Environmental Management & Tourism, 11(8), 1931-1937.
 Rather, R.A., Najar, A.H., Jaziri, D. 2020. Destination branding in tourism: insights from social identification, attachment and experience theories. Anatolia, 31(2), 229-243.
 Said, J., Maryono, M. 2018. Motivation and perception of tourists as push and pull factors to visit national park. In E3S Web of Conferences (Vol. 31, 08022). EDP Sciences.
 Salehzadeh, R., Pool, J.K., Soleimani, S. 2016. Brand personality, brand equity and revisit intention: An empirical study of a tourist destination in Iran. Tourism Review.
 Saraniemi, S., Komppula, R. 2019. The development of a destination brand identity: A story of stakeholder collaboration. Current Issues in Tourism, 22(9), 1116-1132.
 Seetanah, B., Teeroovengadum, V., Nunkoo, R. 2020. Destination satisfaction and revisit intention of tourists: does the quality of airport services matter? Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 44(1), 134-148.
 Shafiei, Z., Farsani, N.T., Abdollahpour, M. 2017. The benefit of geo-branding in a rural geotourism destination: Isfahan, Iran. Geojournal of Tourism and Geosites, 19(1), 96-103.
 So, K.K.F., King, C., Sparks, B.A., Wang, Y. 2016. The role of customer engagement in building consumer loyalty to tourism brands. Journal of Travel Research, 55(1), 64-78.
 Soliman, M. 2019. Extending the theory of planned behavior to predict tourism destination revisit intention. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 1-26.
 Stoffelen, A., Vanneste, D. 2015. An integrative geotourism approach: Bridging conflicts in tourism landscape research. Tourism Geographies, 17(4), 544-560.
 Stylos, N., Vassiliadis, C.A., Bellou, V., Andronikidis, A. 2016. Destination images, holistic images and personal normative beliefs: Predictors of intention to revisit a destination. Tourism Management, 53, 40-60.
 Tomić, N., Marković, S.B., Antić, A., Tešić, D. 2020. Exploring the potential for geotourism development in the Danube Region of Serbia. International Journal of Geoheritage and Parks, 8(2), 123-139.
 Trinanda, O., Mutaqin, P.D. 2019. The influence of electronic word of mouth toward destination trust and travel intention on Sirandah Island in Padang City. eCo-Buss, 1(3), 140-151.
 UNWTO, W. 2017. UNWTO Tourism Highlights, 2015 edition. Madrid.
 WANG, Z.N., LUO, P.C. 2019. An analysis of tourist motivation factors in songkou ancient town of Yongtai. Journal of Fujian Normal University (Natural Science Edition), 03.
 Wen, J., Huang, S. 2019. Chinese tourists visiting volatile destinations: Integrating cultural values into motivation-based segmentation. Journal of China Tourism Research, 15(4), 520-540.
 Widjaja, Y.I., Khalifa, G.S., Abuelhassan, A.E. 2019. The effect of destination reputation on the revisit intention to halal tourism destination of Jakarta. International Journal of Business, Economics and Law, 20(5), 104-111.
 Wulung, S.R.P., Putra, R.R., Permadi, R.W.A., Maulana, M.I. 2020. Concentration-dispersal strategies to assist geotourism destination planning: a case study of Ciletuh-Palabuhanratu UNESCO Global Geopark. Journal of Indonesian Tourism and Development Studies, 8(3).
 Xie, X. 2018. Analysis of the Sustainability of Cultural Tourism Destinations in China from the Tourist Perspective: Case Study of the Ancient Town of Wuzhen. Available online: aggieweighill. Com
 Zhang, H., Wu,Y., Buhalis, D. 2018. A model of perceived image, memorable tourism experiences and revisit intention. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 8, 326-336.
The Copyright Transfer Form to ASERS Publishing (The Publisher)
This form refers to the manuscript, which an author(s) was accepted for publication and was signed by all the authors.
The undersigned Author(s) of the above-mentioned Paper here transfer any and all copyright-rights in and to The Paper to The Publisher. The Author(s) warrants that The Paper is based on their original work and that the undersigned has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment. It is the author's responsibility to obtain written permission to quote material that has been previously published in any form. The Publisher recognizes the retained rights noted below and grants to the above authors and employers for whom the work performed royalty-free permission to reuse their materials below. Authors may reuse all or portions of the above Paper in other works, excepting the publication of the paper in the same form. Authors may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the above Paper for the Author's personal use or for internal company use, provided that the source and The Publisher copyright notice are mentioned, that the copies are not used in any way that implies The Publisher endorsement of a product or service of an employer, and that the copies are not offered for sale as such. Authors are permitted to grant third party requests for reprinting, republishing or other types of reuse. The Authors may make limited distribution of all or portions of the above Paper prior to publication if they inform The Publisher of the nature and extent of such limited distribution prior there to. Authors retain all proprietary rights in any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in The Paper. This agreement becomes null and void if and only if the above paper is not accepted and published by The Publisher, or is with drawn by the author(s) before acceptance by the Publisher.