Community-Based Ecotourism and Its Impact on the Social and Economic Conditions: A Case Study in Blekok, Situbondo Regency, Indonesia
This study aims to analyse the impact of the implementation of community-based ecotourism on the social and economic conditions of the people of Kampung Blekok. Primary data were obtained from 79 respondents who were selected by purposive sampling. The research method used a descriptive quantitative method. The data used were the characteristics of the people of Kampung Blekok, data on the social and economic conditions of the people of Kampung Blekok before and after the inauguration of the Kampung Blekok Ecotourism. The results show that the group of low and high income showed the decrease of percentage (11.39 and 8.87%, respectively), otherwise the middle and very high-income group presented an increase percentage (8.85 and 11.39%, consecutively). It means people who gained low and high income are reduced and middle and very high-income group are increased. It can conclude that ecotourism activities could affect the social economic of people in kampung Blekok.
 Balantukang, J., Dumais, N.K.and Kumaat, R.M. 2018. Community participation in the maleo conservation program in the village of Mataindo, Central Pinolosian sub-district, South Bolang Mongondow district. Agri-sosio ekonomi, 11(2a): 1-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.35791/agrsosek.11.2A.2015.9445 (in Indonesian)
 Barkauskiene, K. and Snieska, V. 2013. Ecotourism as an integral part of sustainable tourism development. Economics and Management, 18(3): 449-456.
 Bernard, H. R. 2002. Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods. 3rd edition, California, AltaMira Press.
 Candrea, A.N., and Stanciu, P. 2008. Ecotourism development strategies in the Retezat National Park. Revista de turism-studii si cercetari in turism, 6: 44-48.
 Christy, Y. A., Setyati, W. A. and Pribadi, R. 2019. Economic Valuation Study of Mangrove Forest Ecosystems in Kaliwlingi and Sawojajar Villages, Brebes District, Central Java. Journal of Marine Research, 8(1): 94-106. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14710/jmr.v8i1.24334 (in Indonesian)
 Cobbinah, P.B. 2015. Contextualising the meaning of ecotourism. Tourism Management Perspectives, 16: 179-189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2015.07.015
 Dunets, A.N., et al. 2019. Selection of strategic priorities for sustainable development of tourism in a mountain region: concentration of tourist infrastructure or nature-oriented tourism. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues, 7(2): 1217. DOI: 10.9770/jesi.2019.7.2(29)
 Erwiantono, Susilo, H. Aditya, A., Saleha, Q. and Budiayu, A. 2016. Policy on Economic Benefit Value and Sustainable Ecotourism Management in the Labuan Mirror Area, Berau Regency, East Kalimantan. Jurnal Kebijakan Sosek Kp, 6(1): 49-65. (in Indonesian)
 Fatmasari, D. 2014. Socio-economic and cultural analysis of coastal communities in Waruduwur Village, Mundu District, Cirebon Regency. Jurnal Kajian Ekonomi dan Perbankan Syariah, 6(1): 144-166. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24235/amwal.v6i1.255 (in Indonesian)
 Ferreira, T.O., Vidal-Torrado, P., Otero, X.L. and Macias, F. 2007. Are Mangrove forest substrates sediments or soils? A case study in southeastern Brazil. Journal Catena, 70(1): 79-91. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2006.07.006
 Fisu, A. A., Ahmad, A., Hidayat, A. and Marzaman, L.U. 2020. Potential of mangrove ecosystem as a tourism object development in Kaledupa Island. Edutourism Journal of Tourism Research, 2(1): 11-17. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.46964/jtr..v2i1.323
 Friess, D.A. 2017. Ecotourism as a tool for mangrove conservation. Sumatra Journal of Disaster, Geography and Geography Education, 1(1): 24-35.
 Fyka, S.A., Yunus, L., Limi, M.A., Hamzah, A. and Darwan. 2018. Analysis of the Impact of Bokori island tourism development towards the Bajo social economic conditions (case study in the village Mekar Soropia district). Habitat, 29(3): 106-112. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.habitat.2018.029.3.13
 Green, F. and Zhu, Y. 2010. Overqualification, job dissatisfaction, and increasing dispersion in the returns to graduate education. Oxford economic papers, 62(4): 740-763. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/oep/gpq002
 Hendriyana, H., Putra, I.N.D. and Sunarya, Y. 2020. Creative Industry Leading Pandan Craft Products Supports Pangandaran Ecotourism Area, West Java. Jurnal Panggung, 30(2): 163-182. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.26742/panggung.v30i2.1202.g758 (in Indonesian)
 Hidayat, L.R.A. and Tarmuji, A. 2014. Analysis of the implementation of SEO (search engine optimization) and smo (social media optimized) on the Faculty's Website at Ahmad Dahlan University to Increase Ranking on Search Engines]. Jurnal Sarjana Teknik Informatika, 2(2): 205 – 210. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12928/jstie.v2i2.2841 (in Indonesian)
 Hijriati, E. and Mardiana, R. 2014. The Effect of community-based ecotourism on changing ecological, social and economic conditions in Batusuhunan Village, Sukabumi. Jurnal Sosiologi Pedesaan, 2(3): 146-159. (in Indonesian)
 Little, M. E. 2017. Innovative Recycling Solutions to Waste Management Challenges in Costa Rican Tourism Communities. Journal of Environmental and Tourism Analyses, 5(1): 33-52.
 Mihalic, T. 2000. Environmental management of a tourist destination. A factor of tourism competitiveness. Tourism management, 21: 65-78.
 Muhaerin, M. 2008. Study of ecotourism resources in Perancak estuary, Jimbaran, Bali. Script, Institut pertanian bogor, Indonesia. (in Indonesian)
 Mujiburrahmad, Kadir, I.A. and Muslim, I. 2020. The role of community-based ecotourism on changes in the economic conditions of the people of Mon Ikeun Village, Lhoknga District, Aceh Besar District. Jurnal Bisnis Tani, 6(1): 26-36. DOI: https://doi.org/10.35308/jbt.v6i1.3433. (in Indonesian)
 Nafi, M., Supriyadi, B. and Roedjinandari, N. 2017. Pengembangan Ekowisata Daerah. Buku Bunga Rampai 38-45.
 Putri., A.D. and Setiawina, D. 2013. The influence of education age, occupation on poor household income in Bebandem Village]. E-Jurnal EP Unud, 2(4): 173-180. Available at: https://ojs.unud.ac.id/index.php/eep/article/view/4768 (in Indonesian)
 Salakory, R.A. 2016. Community-based ecotourism development in the Banda Islands, Central Maluku Regency. Agrika, 10(1): 84-92. (in Indonesian)
 Sangpikul, A. 2017. Ecotourism Impacts on the Economy, Society and Environment of Thailand. Journal of Reviews on Global Academic, 6: 302-312. DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-7092.2017.06.30.
 Saputra, D.K., et al. 2020. Habitat Management Based on Sensitivity Assessment in Tulungangung Coastal Area. Journal of Economic and Social Fisheries and Marine, 07(02): 258-267. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21776/ub.ecsofim.2020.007.02.11
 Slovin, E. 1960. Slovin's formula for sampling technique.
 Sugiyono. 2016. Qualitative Research Methods, Quantitative and R & D, Alfabeta, Bandung, Indonesia.
 Swangjang, K. and Kornpiphat, P. 2021. Does ecotourism in a Mangrove area at Klong Kone, Thailand, conform to sustainable tourism? A case study using SWOT and DPSIR. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 1-26.
 Umam, K., Sudiyarto and Winarno, S.T. 2015. Mangrove ecotourism development strategy in Wonorejo Surabaya. Jurnal Agraris, 1(1): 38-42. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18196/agr.116. (in Indonesian)
 Urrego, L. E., Molina, E.C. and Suárez, J.A. 2014. Environmental and anthropogenic influences on the distribution, structure, and floristic composition of mangrove forests of the Gulf of Urabá (Colombian Caribbean). Aquatic Botany, 114: 42-49. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2013.12.006
 Wahyuni, S., Mulyatna, L. and Qomariyah, L. 2018. Case Study: Purworejo Village, Bonang District, Demak Regency. Journal of community based environmental engineering and management, 2(2): 43-50. (in Indonesian)
 Wardani, I.G.M. I. S. and Anom, P. 2017. The Socio-Economic impact of kampoeng crab mangrove ecotourism management on fishermen in Tuban Village, Badung Regency. Jurnal Destinasi Pariwisata, 5(1): 72-77. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24843/JDEPAR.2017.v05.i01.p14 (in Indonesian)
 Western, D. and Wright, M. 1994. Natural Connections, Perspectives in Community- Based Conservation, Island Press, Washington.
 Wijaya, S.A., Zulkarnain, Z. and Sopingi, S. 2018. The Learning Process of the Tourism Awareness Group (POKDARWIS) in the Development of Tourism Ecotourism Villages (POKDARWIS) in the Development of Ecotourism Kampoeng. Jurnal Pendidikan Nonformal, 11(2): 88-96. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17977/um041v11i2p88-96. (in Indonesian)
 Xu, M., et al. 2017. The differences and similarities between two-sample t-test and paired t-test. Shanghai archives of psychiatry, 29(3): 184-188. DOI: 10.11919/j.issn.1002-0829.217070.
 Yanuar, V. 2017. Community-based ecotourism, Kubu beach nature tourism. Ziraa’ah, 42(3): 183-192. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31602/zmip.v42i3.889. (in Indonesian)
 Zallesa, S. et al. 2020. A Survey of Macrozoobenthos Assemblages in a Tropical Mangrove Estuary in Brebes, Java Island. Omni-Akuatika, 16(1): 62-68. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20884/1.oa.2020.16.1.754
The Copyright Transfer Form to ASERS Publishing (The Publisher)
This form refers to the manuscript, which an author(s) was accepted for publication and was signed by all the authors.
The undersigned Author(s) of the above-mentioned Paper here transfer any and all copyright-rights in and to The Paper to The Publisher. The Author(s) warrants that The Paper is based on their original work and that the undersigned has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment. It is the author's responsibility to obtain written permission to quote material that has been previously published in any form. The Publisher recognizes the retained rights noted below and grants to the above authors and employers for whom the work performed royalty-free permission to reuse their materials below. Authors may reuse all or portions of the above Paper in other works, excepting the publication of the paper in the same form. Authors may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the above Paper for the Author's personal use or for internal company use, provided that the source and The Publisher copyright notice are mentioned, that the copies are not used in any way that implies The Publisher endorsement of a product or service of an employer, and that the copies are not offered for sale as such. Authors are permitted to grant third party requests for reprinting, republishing or other types of reuse. The Authors may make limited distribution of all or portions of the above Paper prior to publication if they inform The Publisher of the nature and extent of such limited distribution prior there to. Authors retain all proprietary rights in any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in The Paper. This agreement becomes null and void if and only if the above paper is not accepted and published by The Publisher, or is with drawn by the author(s) before acceptance by the Publisher.