The Role of Small and Medium - sized Enterprises to Promote Halal Tourism: The Case of Indonesia
Purpose - The tourism industry on a global scale has become a competitive market and knowing about the experience of tourists plays an important role in destination development. One of the growing segments in the tourism industry is halal tourism. The competitiveness of Indonesia as the most country with the largest Muslim population demonstrates a need for improvement at promoting halal tourism. This study planned to find out the role of different factors such as amenities, access and attraction on the satisfaction and intention to visit of Muslim tourists.
Design – The outcomes determined important attributes which can be useful for SMEs, destination marketers and stakeholders in Indonesia to have a better marketing strategy for promoting halal tourism.
Methodology - A quantitative approach was used where self-administrated questionnaires were distributed among Muslim inbound tourists in Jakarta, Indonesia. Statistical analysis such as descriptive analysis, simple and multiple linear regression were used to analyze the collected data.
Findings - The results of this study found ‘amenities’ significantly affected the satisfaction of Muslim tourists who visited Indonesia and there was a significant relation between satisfaction and intention to revisit this country.
Originality - This research was one of the few to assess the importance of SMEs to promote halal tourism in Indonesia.
 Adiningsih. 2004. "Dinamika Hara dalam Tanah dan Mekanisme Serapan Hara dalam Kaitannya dengan Sifat-Sifat Tanah dan Aplikasi Pupuk". Lembaga Pupuk Indonesia. dan Asosiasi Produsen Pupuk Indonesia.
 Alam, S. S. and Sayuti, M. N. 2011. Applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in halal food purchasing. International Journal of Commerce and Management, 21(1): 8-20. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1108/10569211111111676
 Al-Ansi, A. and Han, H. 2019. Role of halal-friendly destination performances, value, satisfaction, and trust in generating destination image and loyalty. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management. 13: 51-60. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2019.05.007
 Al-Ansi, A., Olya, H. G. and Han, H. 2018. Effect of general risk on trust, satisfaction and recommendation intention for halal food. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 83: 210-219. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2018.10.017
 Albawaba. 2014, August 14. Hunger games? World cup guide for Muslim fans and halal hooligans. Available at: http://www.albawaba.com/slideshow/ramadanworld-cup-584717
 Alegre, J. and Garau, J. 2010. Tourist satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Annals of Tourism Research, 37(1): 52-73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2009.07.001
 Babolian Hendijani, R. 2016. Effect of food experience on tourist satisfaction: The case of Indonesia. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10(3): 272-282. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCTHR-04-2015-0030
 Battour, M. 2018. Muslim travel behavior in halal tourism. In Mobilities, tourism and travel behavior – Contexts and boundaries. Available at: https://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs-wm/56647.pdf
 Battour, M. and Ismail, M. N. 2014. The role of destination attributes in Islamic tourism. SHS Web of Conferences, 12, 01077. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/shsconf/20141201077
 Battour, M. and Ismail, M. N. 2016. Halal tourism: Concepts, practices, challenges and tourism. Tourism Management Perspectives, 19(Part B): 150-154. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2015.12.008
 Battour, M., Battor, M. and Bhatti, M. A. 2014. Islamic attributes of destination: Construct development and measurement validation, and their impact on tourist satisfaction. International Journal of Tourism Research 16(6): 556-564. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.1947
 Borkhan, N. A. M, Derahman, Z, and Rahman, Y. A. 2017. Determinant factor of consumers intention to eat at halal certified restaurant. Kuahang, Pahang, Malaysia: Commerce Departement, Politeknik Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah.
 Bujisic, M., Hutchinson, J. and Parsa, H. G. 2014. The effects of restaurant quality attributes on customer behavioral intentions. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 26(8): 1270-1291. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-04-2013-0162
 Choo, H., Ahn, K. and Petrick, J. F. 2016. An integrated model of festival revisit intentions: Theory of planned behavior and festival quality/satisfaction. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 28(4): 818-838. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-09-2014-0448
 Dalgıç, B. and Fazlıoğlu, B. 2021. Innovation and firm growth: Turkish manufacturing and services SMEs. Eurasian Business Review, 1-25. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40821-020-00176-4
 Din, K. H. 1989. Islam and tourism: Patterns, issues, and options. Annals of Tourism Research, 16(4): 542-563. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(89)90008-X
 Duman, T. 2011. Value of islamic tourism offering perspective from the Turkish experience. World Islamic Tourism Forum (WITF), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 12-13 July 2011: International Burch University Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
 Eid, R. and El-Gohary, H. 2015. The role of Islamic religiosity on the relationship between perceived value and tourist satisfaction. Tourism Management, 46(Supplement C): 477-488. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2014.08.003
 El-Gohary, H. 2016. Halal tourism, is it really halal? Tourism Management Perspectives, 19(Part B): 124-130. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2015.12.013
 Faulina, F., Siregar, E., Novita, V. and Arimbi, S. 2020. Push and pull motivations on halal tourism. Journal of Indonesian Tourism and Development Studies, 8(2).
 Grissemann, U. S. and Stokburger-Sauer, E. 2012. Customer co-creation of travel services: The role of company support and customer satisfaction with the co-creation performance. Tourism Management, 33(6): 1483-1492. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2012.02.002
 Hai, P. T. and Thuong, M. T. 2019. The influence of the spiritual tourist destination attraction on international tourist’s satisfaction and return intention: Empirical evidence of Danang city, Vietnam. African Journal of hospitality, Tourism and Leisure 8(1): 1-15.
 Han, H. 2013. The healthcare hotel: Distinctive attributes for international medical travelers. Tourism Management, 36: 257-268. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2012.11.016
 Han, H. and Ryu, K. 2007. Moderating role of personal characteristics in forming restaurant customers’ behavioral intentions: An upscale restaurant setting. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing 15(4): 25-54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1300/J150v15n04_03
 Han, H., Al-Ansi, A., Olya, H. G. and Kim, W. 2019. Exploring halal-friendly destination attributes in South Korea: Perceptions and behaviors of muslim travelers toward a non-muslim destination. Tourism Management, 71: 151-164. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2018.10.010
 Han, H. and Hyun, S. S. 2017. Impact of hotel-restaurant image and equity of physical-environment, service, and food on satisfaction and intention. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 63: 82-92. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2017.03.006
 Han, H., Meng, B. and Kim, W. 2017. Bike-travelling as a growing phenomenon: Role of attributes, value, satisfaction, desire and gender in developing loyalty. Tourism Management, 59(Supplement C): 91-103. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2016.07.013
 Haneef, S. K. 2017. A model to explore the impact of tourism infrastructure on destination image for effective tourism marketing (Doctoral dissertation, University of Salford).
 Hassan, Z. 2015. Factors affecting muslim tourists choice of halal concept hotels and satisfaction in Malaysia: Moderating effect of religious devotedness. International Journal of Accounting & Business Management, 3(2): 133-144.
 Henderson, J. C. 2009. Islamic tourism reviewed. Tourism Recreation Research, 34(2): 207-211. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2009.11081594
 Henderson, J. C. 2010. Sharia-compliant hotels. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10(3): 246-254. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1057/thr.2010.3
 Hendijani, R. B. 2015. Push and pull factors of inbound tourists to Indonesia. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 2(12): 331-337. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14505/jemt.v6.2(12).05
 Hendijani, R. B. 2018. Perception of inbound backpackers towards urban superstructure: A case in Jakarta (Indonesia). Turizam 22(2): 71-83. DOI: 10.5937/22-17529
 Hosany, S. and Witham, M. 2010. Dimensions of cruisers’ experiences, satisfaction, and intention to recommend. Journal of Travel Research 49(3): 351-364. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287509346859
 Huang, S. and Hsu, C. H. 2009. Effects of travel motivation, past experience, perceived constraint, and attitude on revisit intention. Journal of Travel Research, 48(1): 29-44. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287508328793
 Iniesta-Bonillo, M. A., Sanchez-Fernandez, R. and Jimenez-Castillo, D. 2016. Sustainability, value, and satisfaction: Model testing and cross-validation in tourist destinations. Journal of Business Research 69(11): 5002-5007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.04.071
 Jaelani, A. 2017. Halal tourism industry in Indonesia: Potential and practices. International Review of Management and Marketing 7(3): 25-34. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2899864
 Jafari, J. and Scott, N. 2014. Muslim world and its tourisms. Annals of Tourism Research, 44: 1-19. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2013.08.011
 Jayne, M. 2004. Culture that works? Creative industries development in a working-class city. Capital & Class 28(3): 199-210. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/030981680408400119
 Jeong, C. and Holland, S. 2012. Destination image saturation. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 29(6): 501-519. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2012.701162
 Jia, X. and Chaozhi, Z. 2021. Turning impediment into attraction: A supplier perspective on Halal food in non-Islamic destinations. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 19, 100517. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2020.100517
 Kim, S., Im, H. H. and King, B. E. 2015. Muslim travelers in Asia: The destination preferences and brand perceptions of Malaysian tourists. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 21(1): 3-21. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/1356766714549648
 Ladzani, W. M. and Van Vuuren, J. J. 2002. Entrepreneurship training for emerging SMEs in South Africa. Journal of Small Business Management, 40(2): 151-161.
 Liau, Y. 2016. Airlines created to cater to muslim travellers. The Seattle Times February 4. Available at: http://www.seattletimes.com/nation-world/airlines-created-tocater-to-muslim-travellers/
 Lipka, M. and Hackett, C. 2017, April 06. Why muslims are the world's fastest-growing religious group. Pewresearch. Available at: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/04/06/why-Muslims-are-the-worlds-fastest-growing-religious-group/
 Liu, Y. C., Li, I. J., Yen, S. Y. and Sher, P. J. 2018. What makes muslim friendly tourism? An empirical study on destination image, tourist attitude and travel intention. Advances in Management and Applied Economics, 8(5): 27-43.
 Lovelock, C. and Wirthz, J. 2010. Service marketing: People, technology, strategy (6th Ed). New Jersey, NJ: Prentice Hall.
 Mason, M. C. and Paggiaro, A. 2012. Investigating the role of festivalscape in culinary tourism: The case of food and wine events. Tourism Management, 33(6): 1329-1336. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2011.12.016
 Mayock, P. 2015, July. 13. Hotel news now: Muslim market a formidable force in travel. Available at: http://www.hotelnewsnow.com/Article/16249/Muslim-market-aformidable-force-in-travel
 Mohsin, A., Ramli, N. and Alkhulayfi, B. A. 2016. Halal tourism: Emerging opportunities. Tourism Management Perspectives, 19: 137-143. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2015.12.010
 Nirwandar, S. 2015. Halal lifestyle in Indonesia. UNWTO Seminars, Brunei Darussalam, November 16th 2015: Tourism Ministry of Indonesia.
 Nurdiansyah, A. 2018. Halal certification and its impact on tourism in Southeast Asia: A case study halal tourism in Thailand. KnE Social Sciences, 3(5): 26-53. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18502/kss.v3i5.2323
 Oktadiana, H., Pearce, P. L. and Chon, K. 2016. Muslim travellers’ needs: What don’t we know? Tourism Management Perspectives, 20: 124-130. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2016.08.004
 Oliver, R. L. 1997. Satisfaction: A behavioral erspective on the consumer. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
 Oliver, R. L. 1999. Whence consumer loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 63: 33-44. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/00222429990634s105
 Olya, H. G. and Al-ansari, A. 2018. Risk assessment of halal products and services: Implication for tourism industry. Tourism Management, 65: 279-291. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2017.10.015
 Oviedo-García, M. Á., Vega-Vázquez, M., Castellanos-Verdugo, M. and Orgaz-Agüera, F. 2019. Tourism in protected areas and the impact of servicescape on tourist satisfaction, key in sustainability. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 12: 74-83. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2019.02.005
 Park, S., Hwang, D., Lee, W. S. and Heo, J. 2018. Influence of nostalgia on authenticity, satisfaction, and revisit intention: The case of Jidong mural alley in Korea. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 1-17. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15256480.2018.1511497
 Prayogo, R. R., Ketaren, F. L. S. and Hati, R. M. 2016, November. Electronic word of mouth, destination image, and satisfaction toward visit intention: An empirical study in Malioboro street, Yogyakarta. In 1st International Conference on Social and Political Development (ICOSOP 2016). Atlantis Press.
 Prebensen, N. K. and Xie, J. 2017. Efficacy of co-creation and mastering on perceived value and satisfaction in tourists’ consumption. Tourism Management, 60(Supplement C): 166-176. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2016.12.001
 Prodjo. W.A. 2016, June 8. Tiga Hambatan Pengembangan Wisata halal di Indonesia. Kompas. Available at: https://travel.kompas.com/read/2016/08/06/170400727/Tiga.Hambatan.Pengembangan. Wisata.halal.di.Indonesia
 Rahman, M. K., Zailani, S. and Musa, G. 2018. Tourists’ satisfaction and loyalty intention at Shariah compliant private hospitals in Malaysia. International Journal of Tourism Sciences, 18(4): 295-311. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/15980634.2018.1555605
 Rahmawati, R., et al. 2021. Is it true that Lombik deserves to be a Halal tourist destination in the world? A perception of domestic tourists. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 34(1): 94-101. DOI:https://doi.org/10.30892/gtg.34113-624
 Rashid, N. R. N. A., Akbar, Y. A. A., Laidin, J. and Muhamad, W. S. A. W. 2019. Factors influencing muslim tourists satisfaction travelling to non-muslim countries. In Contemporary management and science issues in the halal industry (pp. 139-150). Springer, Singapore.
 Ratnasari, R. T., Gunawan, S., Rusmita, S. A. and Prasetyo, A. 2019. Halal food certification to improve the competitiveness of east and middle business in Indonesia. KnE Social Sciences, 1044-1056.
 Rogerson, C.M. 2006. Creative industries and urban tourism: South African perspectives. Urban Forum, 17: 149-164.
 Ruiz, E. C., Gonzalez, G. B. and Zamora, D. T. 2018. Destination image, satisfaction and destination loyalty in cruise tourism: The case of Malaga (Spain). Tourism & Management Studies, 14(1): 58-68. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.18089/tms.2018.14105
 Ryan, C. 2016. Halal tourism. Tourism Management Perspectives, 19: 121-123. DOI: 10.1016/j.tmp.2015.12.014
 Samori, Z., Salleh, N. Z. M. and Khalid, M. M. 2016. Current trends on halal tourism: Cases on selected Asian countries. Tourism Management Perspectives, 19: 131-136. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2015.12.011
 Sartiyah, S. 2021. Readiness and Understanding of Tourism Industries in The Development of Halal Tourism in Aceh Province. International Journal of Islamic Economics, 2(2): 126-135. DOI:https://doi.org/10.32332/ijie.v2i2.2605
 Scott, N. and Jafari, J. 2010. Introduction. In N. Scott, and J. Jafari (Eds.), Tourism in the Muslim world (pp. 1-13). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
 Sekaran, U., and Bougie, R. 2016. Research methods for business (7th Eds.). UK: Wiley.
 Shafaei, F. 2017. The relationship between involvement with travelling to Islamic destinations and Islamic brand equity: A case of muslim tourists in Malaysia. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 22(3): 255-271. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2016.1232741
 Shafaei, F. and Mohamed, B. 2015. Involvement and brand equity: A conceptual model for muslim tourists. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 9(1): 54-67. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCTHR-06-2014-0050
 Sheridan, G. 1999. Asian values, western dreams. St Leonard’s: Allen & Unwin.
 Sofyan, R. 2012. Pariwisata halal (2012.ed.,Rep). Jakarta: Tim Kontributor Focusdiscussion group (FGD) Kementrian Pariwisata dan Ekonomi Kreatif Indonesia.
 Soltanian, M., Zailani, S., Iranmanesh, M. and Aziz, A. A. 2016. Motivations of SME entrepreneurs to become halalpreneurs. Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, 7(2): 173-189. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1108/JSTPM-07-2015-0023
 Tanford, S. and Jung, S. 2017. Festival attributes and perceptions: A meta-analysis of relationships with satisfaction and loyalty. Tourism Management, 61: 209-220. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2017.02.005
 Truong, T. L. H., Lenglet, F., and Mothe, C. 2018. Destination distinctiveness: Concept, measurement, and impact on tourist satisfaction. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 8: 214-231. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2017.04.004
 Ulfy, M. A., Haque, A., Karim, M. W., Hossin, M. S., and Huda, M. N. 2021. Tourists Behavioural Intention to Visit Halal Tourism Destination: An Empirical Study on Muslim Tourists in Malaysia. International Fellowship Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, 1(1): 1-18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4459649
 Varagur, K. 2017, November 26. Indonesia aims to attract more muslim visitors in 'halal' tourism push. NPR. Available at: https://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2017/11/26/528010256/indonesia-aims-to-attract-more-Muslim-visitors-in-halal-tourism-push
 Wardi, Y., Abror, A., and Trinanda, O. 2018. Halal tourism: Antecedent of tourist’s satisfaction and word of mouth (WOM). Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 23(5): 463-472. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2018.1466816
 Zailani, S., Kanapathy, K., Iranmanesh, M. and Tieman, M. 2015. Drivers of halal orientation strategy among halal food firms. British Food Journal, 117(8): 2143-2160. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-01-2015-0027
 BPS. 2017. Statistik Kunjungan Wisatawan Mancanegara 2016. Jakarta: B. P. Statistik.
 Badan Pusat Statistik. 2020. Available at: https://www.bps.go.id/subject/35/usaha-mikrokecil.html
 Crescent Rating. 2018. Halal tourism basic guidelines and glossary. Cape Town Tourism. February, 2018. Cape Town, South Africa.
 Euro Monitor International, Tourism Flows Inbound in Indonesia. Retrieved 2013. Available at: https://euromonitor.com/tourism-flows-inbound-in-Indonesia
 Id CloudHost. 2020, March 22. Available at: https://idcloudhost.com/pengertian-umkm-menurut-undang-undang-kriteria-dan-ciri-ciri-umkm/
 MasterCard & CrescentRating. 2015. Global muslim travel index (GMTI) 2015. Available at: http://newsroom.mastercard.com/mea/documents/global-muslimtravel-index-2015/
 Mastercard-Cresentrating (n.d.). Global muslim travel index 2018. Singapore, Bukit Merah Central. SG: Mastercard-Cresentrating.
 Patheos. Sustainability: The eco-halal revolution. Altmuslim. Last modified December 4, 2009. Accessed April 19, 2013. Available at: http://www.patheos.com/blogs/altmuslim/2009/12/the_eco-halal_revolution/
 Pew Research Centre. 2015. The future of world religions: Population growth projections, 2010-2050. Available at: http://www.pewforum.org/2015/04/02/religious-projections-2010-2050/
 Reuters, T. (n.d.). State of Global Islamic Economy Report 2017/2018.
 The Business Year. 2016. A welcome host. Available at: https://www.thebusinessyear.com/malaysia-2016/a-welcome-host/focus
 The Guardian. 2010, December 23. The birth of halal holidays. The Guardian. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2010/aug/28/halal-holidays-turkey-Muslimwomen
 The National. 2014, July 9. Japan woos muslim travelers ahead of 2020 Olympic games. The National. Available at: https://www.thenational.ae/world/japan-woos-Muslim-travellers- ahead-of-2020-olympic-games-1.261206
 WTTC. 2017. League tables summary. World Travel and Tourism Council, London.
The Copyright Transfer Form to ASERS Publishing (The Publisher)
This form refers to the manuscript, which an author(s) was accepted for publication and was signed by all the authors.
The undersigned Author(s) of the above-mentioned Paper here transfer any and all copyright-rights in and to The Paper to The Publisher. The Author(s) warrants that The Paper is based on their original work and that the undersigned has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment. It is the author's responsibility to obtain written permission to quote material that has been previously published in any form. The Publisher recognizes the retained rights noted below and grants to the above authors and employers for whom the work performed royalty-free permission to reuse their materials below. Authors may reuse all or portions of the above Paper in other works, excepting the publication of the paper in the same form. Authors may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the above Paper for the Author's personal use or for internal company use, provided that the source and The Publisher copyright notice are mentioned, that the copies are not used in any way that implies The Publisher endorsement of a product or service of an employer, and that the copies are not offered for sale as such. Authors are permitted to grant third party requests for reprinting, republishing or other types of reuse. The Authors may make limited distribution of all or portions of the above Paper prior to publication if they inform The Publisher of the nature and extent of such limited distribution prior there to. Authors retain all proprietary rights in any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in The Paper. This agreement becomes null and void if and only if the above paper is not accepted and published by The Publisher, or is with drawn by the author(s) before acceptance by the Publisher.