The Role of Small and Medium - sized Enterprises to Promote Halal Tourism: The Case of Indonesia

  • Roozbeh BABOLIAN HENDIJANI BINUS Business School Master Program Bina Nusantara University, Indonesia
  • Lim SANNY BINUS Business School Master Program Bina Nusantara University, Indonesia

Abstract

Purpose - The tourism industry on a global scale has become a competitive market and knowing about the experience of tourists plays an important role in destination development. One of the growing segments in the tourism industry is halal tourism. The competitiveness of Indonesia as the most country with the largest Muslim population demonstrates a need for improvement at promoting halal tourism. This study planned to find out the role of different factors such as amenities, access and attraction on the satisfaction and intention to visit of Muslim tourists.


Design – The outcomes determined important attributes which can be useful for SMEs, destination marketers and stakeholders in Indonesia to have a better marketing strategy for promoting halal tourism.


Methodology - A quantitative approach was used where self-administrated questionnaires were distributed among Muslim inbound tourists in Jakarta, Indonesia. Statistical analysis such as descriptive analysis, simple and multiple linear regression were used to analyze the collected data.


Findings - The results of this study found ‘amenities’ significantly affected the satisfaction of Muslim tourists who visited Indonesia and there was a significant relation between satisfaction and intention to revisit this country.


Originality - This research was one of the few to assess the importance of SMEs to promote halal tourism in Indonesia.

References

[1] Abdul Gani, A., Mahdzar, M. and M Anuar, N. A. 2019. Visitor’s experiential attributes and revisit intention to islamic tourism attractions in Malaysia. Journal of Tourism, Hospitality & Culinary Arts 11(1): 1-12.
[2] Adiningsih. 2004. "Dinamika Hara dalam Tanah dan Mekanisme Serapan Hara dalam Kaitannya dengan Sifat-Sifat Tanah dan Aplikasi Pupuk". Lembaga Pupuk Indonesia. dan Asosiasi Produsen Pupuk Indonesia.
[3] Alam, S. S. and Sayuti, M. N. 2011. Applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in halal food purchasing. International Journal of Commerce and Management, 21(1): 8-20. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1108/10569211111111676
[4] Al-Ansi, A. and Han, H. 2019. Role of halal-friendly destination performances, value, satisfaction, and trust in generating destination image and loyalty. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management. 13: 51-60. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2019.05.007
[5] Al-Ansi, A., Olya, H. G. and Han, H. 2018. Effect of general risk on trust, satisfaction and recommendation intention for halal food. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 83: 210-219. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2018.10.017
[6] Albawaba. 2014, August 14. Hunger games? World cup guide for Muslim fans and halal hooligans. Available at: http://www.albawaba.com/slideshow/ramadanworld-cup-584717
[7] Alegre, J. and Garau, J. 2010. Tourist satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Annals of Tourism Research, 37(1): 52-73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2009.07.001
[8] Babolian Hendijani, R. 2016. Effect of food experience on tourist satisfaction: The case of Indonesia. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10(3): 272-282. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCTHR-04-2015-0030
[9] Battour, M. 2018. Muslim travel behavior in halal tourism. In Mobilities, tourism and travel behavior – Contexts and boundaries. Available at: https://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs-wm/56647.pdf
[10] Battour, M. and Ismail, M. N. 2014. The role of destination attributes in Islamic tourism. SHS Web of Conferences, 12, 01077. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/shsconf/20141201077
[11] Battour, M. and Ismail, M. N. 2016. Halal tourism: Concepts, practices, challenges and tourism. Tourism Management Perspectives, 19(Part B): 150-154. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2015.12.008
[12] Battour, M., Battor, M. and Bhatti, M. A. 2014. Islamic attributes of destination: Construct development and measurement validation, and their impact on tourist satisfaction. International Journal of Tourism Research 16(6): 556-564. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.1947
[13] Borkhan, N. A. M, Derahman, Z, and Rahman, Y. A. 2017. Determinant factor of consumers intention to eat at halal certified restaurant. Kuahang, Pahang, Malaysia: Commerce Departement, Politeknik Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah.
[14] Bujisic, M., Hutchinson, J. and Parsa, H. G. 2014. The effects of restaurant quality attributes on customer behavioral intentions. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 26(8): 1270-1291. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-04-2013-0162
[15] Choo, H., Ahn, K. and Petrick, J. F. 2016. An integrated model of festival revisit intentions: Theory of planned behavior and festival quality/satisfaction. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 28(4): 818-838. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-09-2014-0448
[16] Dalgıç, B. and Fazlıoğlu, B. 2021. Innovation and firm growth: Turkish manufacturing and services SMEs. Eurasian Business Review, 1-25. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40821-020-00176-4
[17] Din, K. H. 1989. Islam and tourism: Patterns, issues, and options. Annals of Tourism Research, 16(4): 542-563. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(89)90008-X
[18] Duman, T. 2011. Value of islamic tourism offering perspective from the Turkish experience. World Islamic Tourism Forum (WITF), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 12-13 July 2011: International Burch University Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
[19] Eid, R. and El-Gohary, H. 2015. The role of Islamic religiosity on the relationship between perceived value and tourist satisfaction. Tourism Management, 46(Supplement C): 477-488. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2014.08.003
[20] El-Gohary, H. 2016. Halal tourism, is it really halal? Tourism Management Perspectives, 19(Part B): 124-130. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2015.12.013
[21] Faulina, F., Siregar, E., Novita, V. and Arimbi, S. 2020. Push and pull motivations on halal tourism. Journal of Indonesian Tourism and Development Studies, 8(2).
[22] Grissemann, U. S. and Stokburger-Sauer, E. 2012. Customer co-creation of travel services: The role of company support and customer satisfaction with the co-creation performance. Tourism Management, 33(6): 1483-1492. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2012.02.002
[23] Hai, P. T. and Thuong, M. T. 2019. The influence of the spiritual tourist destination attraction on international tourist’s satisfaction and return intention: Empirical evidence of Danang city, Vietnam. African Journal of hospitality, Tourism and Leisure 8(1): 1-15.
[24] Han, H. 2013. The healthcare hotel: Distinctive attributes for international medical travelers. Tourism Management, 36: 257-268. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2012.11.016
[25] Han, H. and Ryu, K. 2007. Moderating role of personal characteristics in forming restaurant customers’ behavioral intentions: An upscale restaurant setting. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing 15(4): 25-54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1300/J150v15n04_03
[26] Han, H., Al-Ansi, A., Olya, H. G. and Kim, W. 2019. Exploring halal-friendly destination attributes in South Korea: Perceptions and behaviors of muslim travelers toward a non-muslim destination. Tourism Management, 71: 151-164. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2018.10.010
[27] Han, H. and Hyun, S. S. 2017. Impact of hotel-restaurant image and equity of physical-environment, service, and food on satisfaction and intention. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 63: 82-92. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2017.03.006
[28] Han, H., Meng, B. and Kim, W. 2017. Bike-travelling as a growing phenomenon: Role of attributes, value, satisfaction, desire and gender in developing loyalty. Tourism Management, 59(Supplement C): 91-103. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2016.07.013
[29] Haneef, S. K. 2017. A model to explore the impact of tourism infrastructure on destination image for effective tourism marketing (Doctoral dissertation, University of Salford).
[30] Hassan, Z. 2015. Factors affecting muslim tourists choice of halal concept hotels and satisfaction in Malaysia: Moderating effect of religious devotedness. International Journal of Accounting & Business Management, 3(2): 133-144.
[31] Henderson, J. C. 2009. Islamic tourism reviewed. Tourism Recreation Research, 34(2): 207-211. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2009.11081594
[32] Henderson, J. C. 2010. Sharia-compliant hotels. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10(3): 246-254. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1057/thr.2010.3
[33] Hendijani, R. B. 2015. Push and pull factors of inbound tourists to Indonesia. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 2(12): 331-337. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14505/jemt.v6.2(12).05
[34] Hendijani, R. B. 2018. Perception of inbound backpackers towards urban superstructure: A case in Jakarta (Indonesia). Turizam 22(2): 71-83. DOI: 10.5937/22-17529
[35] Hosany, S. and Witham, M. 2010. Dimensions of cruisers’ experiences, satisfaction, and intention to recommend. Journal of Travel Research 49(3): 351-364. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287509346859
[36] Huang, S. and Hsu, C. H. 2009. Effects of travel motivation, past experience, perceived constraint, and attitude on revisit intention. Journal of Travel Research, 48(1): 29-44. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287508328793
[37] Iniesta-Bonillo, M. A., Sanchez-Fernandez, R. and Jimenez-Castillo, D. 2016. Sustainability, value, and satisfaction: Model testing and cross-validation in tourist destinations. Journal of Business Research 69(11): 5002-5007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.04.071
[38] Jaelani, A. 2017. Halal tourism industry in Indonesia: Potential and practices. International Review of Management and Marketing 7(3): 25-34. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2899864
[39] Jafari, J. and Scott, N. 2014. Muslim world and its tourisms. Annals of Tourism Research, 44: 1-19. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2013.08.011
[40] Jayne, M. 2004. Culture that works? Creative industries development in a working-class city. Capital & Class 28(3): 199-210. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/030981680408400119
[41] Jeong, C. and Holland, S. 2012. Destination image saturation. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 29(6): 501-519. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2012.701162
[42] Jia, X. and Chaozhi, Z. 2021. Turning impediment into attraction: A supplier perspective on Halal food in non-Islamic destinations. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 19, 100517. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2020.100517
[43] Kim, S., Im, H. H. and King, B. E. 2015. Muslim travelers in Asia: The destination preferences and brand perceptions of Malaysian tourists. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 21(1): 3-21. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/1356766714549648
[44] Ladzani, W. M. and Van Vuuren, J. J. 2002. Entrepreneurship training for emerging SMEs in South Africa. Journal of Small Business Management, 40(2): 151-161.
[45] Liau, Y. 2016. Airlines created to cater to muslim travellers. The Seattle Times February 4. Available at: http://www.seattletimes.com/nation-world/airlines-created-tocater-to-muslim-travellers/
[46] Lipka, M. and Hackett, C. 2017, April 06. Why muslims are the world's fastest-growing religious group. Pewresearch. Available at: http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/04/06/why-Muslims-are-the-worlds-fastest-growing-religious-group/
[47] Liu, Y. C., Li, I. J., Yen, S. Y. and Sher, P. J. 2018. What makes muslim friendly tourism? An empirical study on destination image, tourist attitude and travel intention. Advances in Management and Applied Economics, 8(5): 27-43.
[48] Lovelock, C. and Wirthz, J. 2010. Service marketing: People, technology, strategy (6th Ed). New Jersey, NJ: Prentice Hall.
[49] Mason, M. C. and Paggiaro, A. 2012. Investigating the role of festivalscape in culinary tourism: The case of food and wine events. Tourism Management, 33(6): 1329-1336. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2011.12.016
[50] Mayock, P. 2015, July. 13. Hotel news now: Muslim market a formidable force in travel. Available at: http://www.hotelnewsnow.com/Article/16249/Muslim-market-aformidable-force-in-travel
[51] Mohsin, A., Ramli, N. and Alkhulayfi, B. A. 2016. Halal tourism: Emerging opportunities. Tourism Management Perspectives, 19: 137-143. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2015.12.010
[52] Nirwandar, S. 2015. Halal lifestyle in Indonesia. UNWTO Seminars, Brunei Darussalam, November 16th 2015: Tourism Ministry of Indonesia.
[53] Nurdiansyah, A. 2018. Halal certification and its impact on tourism in Southeast Asia: A case study halal tourism in Thailand. KnE Social Sciences, 3(5): 26-53. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18502/kss.v3i5.2323
[54] Oktadiana, H., Pearce, P. L. and Chon, K. 2016. Muslim travellers’ needs: What don’t we know? Tourism Management Perspectives, 20: 124-130. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2016.08.004
[55] Oliver, R. L. 1997. Satisfaction: A behavioral erspective on the consumer. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
[56] Oliver, R. L. 1999. Whence consumer loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 63: 33-44. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/00222429990634s105
[57] Olya, H. G. and Al-ansari, A. 2018. Risk assessment of halal products and services: Implication for tourism industry. Tourism Management, 65: 279-291. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2017.10.015
[58] Oviedo-García, M. Á., Vega-Vázquez, M., Castellanos-Verdugo, M. and Orgaz-Agüera, F. 2019. Tourism in protected areas and the impact of servicescape on tourist satisfaction, key in sustainability. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 12: 74-83. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2019.02.005
[59] Park, S., Hwang, D., Lee, W. S. and Heo, J. 2018. Influence of nostalgia on authenticity, satisfaction, and revisit intention: The case of Jidong mural alley in Korea. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 1-17. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15256480.2018.1511497
[60] Prayogo, R. R., Ketaren, F. L. S. and Hati, R. M. 2016, November. Electronic word of mouth, destination image, and satisfaction toward visit intention: An empirical study in Malioboro street, Yogyakarta. In 1st International Conference on Social and Political Development (ICOSOP 2016). Atlantis Press.
[61] Prebensen, N. K. and Xie, J. 2017. Efficacy of co-creation and mastering on perceived value and satisfaction in tourists’ consumption. Tourism Management, 60(Supplement C): 166-176. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2016.12.001
[62] Prodjo. W.A. 2016, June 8. Tiga Hambatan Pengembangan Wisata halal di Indonesia. Kompas. Available at: https://travel.kompas.com/read/2016/08/06/170400727/Tiga.Hambatan.Pengembangan. Wisata.halal.di.Indonesia
[63] Rahman, M. K., Zailani, S. and Musa, G. 2018. Tourists’ satisfaction and loyalty intention at Shariah compliant private hospitals in Malaysia. International Journal of Tourism Sciences, 18(4): 295-311. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/15980634.2018.1555605
[64] Rahmawati, R., et al. 2021. Is it true that Lombik deserves to be a Halal tourist destination in the world? A perception of domestic tourists. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 34(1): 94-101. DOI:https://doi.org/10.30892/gtg.34113-624
[65] Rashid, N. R. N. A., Akbar, Y. A. A., Laidin, J. and Muhamad, W. S. A. W. 2019. Factors influencing muslim tourists satisfaction travelling to non-muslim countries. In Contemporary management and science issues in the halal industry (pp. 139-150). Springer, Singapore.
[66] Ratnasari, R. T., Gunawan, S., Rusmita, S. A. and Prasetyo, A. 2019. Halal food certification to improve the competitiveness of east and middle business in Indonesia. KnE Social Sciences, 1044-1056.
[67] Rogerson, C.M. 2006. Creative industries and urban tourism: South African perspectives. Urban Forum, 17: 149-164.
[68] Ruiz, E. C., Gonzalez, G. B. and Zamora, D. T. 2018. Destination image, satisfaction and destination loyalty in cruise tourism: The case of Malaga (Spain). Tourism & Management Studies, 14(1): 58-68. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.18089/tms.2018.14105
[69] Ryan, C. 2016. Halal tourism. Tourism Management Perspectives, 19: 121-123. DOI: 10.1016/j.tmp.2015.12.014
[70] Samori, Z., Salleh, N. Z. M. and Khalid, M. M. 2016. Current trends on halal tourism: Cases on selected Asian countries. Tourism Management Perspectives, 19: 131-136. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2015.12.011
[71] Sartiyah, S. 2021. Readiness and Understanding of Tourism Industries in‎ The Development of Halal Tourism in Aceh Province. International Journal of Islamic Economics, 2(2): 126-135. DOI:https://doi.org/10.32332/ijie.v2i2.2605
[72] Scott, N. and Jafari, J. 2010. Introduction. In N. Scott, and J. Jafari (Eds.), Tourism in the Muslim world (pp. 1-13). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
[73] Sekaran, U., and Bougie, R. 2016. Research methods for business (7th Eds.). UK: Wiley.
[74] Shafaei, F. 2017. The relationship between involvement with travelling to Islamic destinations and Islamic brand equity: A case of muslim tourists in Malaysia. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 22(3): 255-271. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2016.1232741
[75] Shafaei, F. and Mohamed, B. 2015. Involvement and brand equity: A conceptual model for muslim tourists. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 9(1): 54-67. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCTHR-06-2014-0050
[76] Sheridan, G. 1999. Asian values, western dreams. St Leonard’s: Allen & Unwin.
[77] Sofyan, R. 2012. Pariwisata halal (2012.ed.,Rep). Jakarta: Tim Kontributor Focusdiscussion group (FGD) Kementrian Pariwisata dan Ekonomi Kreatif Indonesia.
[78] Soltanian, M., Zailani, S., Iranmanesh, M. and Aziz, A. A. 2016. Motivations of SME entrepreneurs to become halalpreneurs. Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, 7(2): 173-189. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1108/JSTPM-07-2015-0023
[79] Tanford, S. and Jung, S. 2017. Festival attributes and perceptions: A meta-analysis of relationships with satisfaction and loyalty. Tourism Management, 61: 209-220. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2017.02.005
[80] Truong, T. L. H., Lenglet, F., and Mothe, C. 2018. Destination distinctiveness: Concept, measurement, and impact on tourist satisfaction. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 8: 214-231. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2017.04.004
[81] Ulfy, M. A., Haque, A., Karim, M. W., Hossin, M. S., and Huda, M. N. 2021. Tourists Behavioural Intention to Visit Halal Tourism Destination: An Empirical Study on Muslim Tourists in Malaysia. International Fellowship Journal of Interdisciplinary Research, 1(1): 1-18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4459649
[82] Varagur, K. 2017, November 26. Indonesia aims to attract more muslim visitors in 'halal' tourism push. NPR. Available at: https://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2017/11/26/528010256/indonesia-aims-to-attract-more-Muslim-visitors-in-halal-tourism-push
[83] Wardi, Y., Abror, A., and Trinanda, O. 2018. Halal tourism: Antecedent of tourist’s satisfaction and word of mouth (WOM). Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 23(5): 463-472. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2018.1466816
[84] Zailani, S., Kanapathy, K., Iranmanesh, M. and Tieman, M. 2015. Drivers of halal orientation strategy among halal food firms. British Food Journal, 117(8): 2143-2160. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-01-2015-0027
[85] BPS. 2017. Statistik Kunjungan Wisatawan Mancanegara 2016. Jakarta: B. P. Statistik.
[86] Badan Pusat Statistik. 2020. Available at: https://www.bps.go.id/subject/35/usaha-mikrokecil.html
[87] Crescent Rating. 2018. Halal tourism basic guidelines and glossary. Cape Town Tourism. February, 2018. Cape Town, South Africa.
[88] Euro Monitor International, Tourism Flows Inbound in Indonesia. Retrieved 2013. Available at: https://euromonitor.com/tourism-flows-inbound-in-Indonesia
[89] Id CloudHost. 2020, March 22. Available at: https://idcloudhost.com/pengertian-umkm-menurut-undang-undang-kriteria-dan-ciri-ciri-umkm/
[90] MasterCard & CrescentRating. 2015. Global muslim travel index (GMTI) 2015. Available at: http://newsroom.mastercard.com/mea/documents/global-muslimtravel-index-2015/
[91] Mastercard-Cresentrating (n.d.). Global muslim travel index 2018. Singapore, Bukit Merah Central. SG: Mastercard-Cresentrating.
[92] Patheos. Sustainability: The eco-halal revolution. Altmuslim. Last modified December 4, 2009. Accessed April 19, 2013. Available at: http://www.patheos.com/blogs/altmuslim/2009/12/the_eco-halal_revolution/
[93] Pew Research Centre. 2015. The future of world religions: Population growth projections, 2010-2050. Available at: http://www.pewforum.org/2015/04/02/religious-projections-2010-2050/
[94] Reuters, T. (n.d.). State of Global Islamic Economy Report 2017/2018.
[95] The Business Year. 2016. A welcome host. Available at: https://www.thebusinessyear.com/malaysia-2016/a-welcome-host/focus
[96] The Guardian. 2010, December 23. The birth of halal holidays. The Guardian. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2010/aug/28/halal-holidays-turkey-Muslimwomen
[97] The National. 2014, July 9. Japan woos muslim travelers ahead of 2020 Olympic games. The National. Available at: https://www.thenational.ae/world/japan-woos-Muslim-travellers- ahead-of-2020-olympic-games-1.261206
[98] WTTC. 2017. League tables summary. World Travel and Tourism Council, London.
Published
2021-03-29
How to Cite
HENDIJANI, Roozbeh BABOLIAN; SANNY, Lim. The Role of Small and Medium - sized Enterprises to Promote Halal Tourism: The Case of Indonesia. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 12, n. 2, p. 473-486, mar. 2021. ISSN 2068-7729. Available at: <https://journals.aserspublishing.eu/jemt/article/view/5968>. Date accessed: 11 may 2021. doi: https://doi.org/10.14505//jemt.12.2(50).15.