Quality of Tourism in World Heritage Sites: A Way towards Sustainability
Quality issues around tourism are indicators for tourism demand, destination development, the visitor’s experience; environmental quality; and community participation. However, the search for quality issues in the tourism industry has been developed further through a one-dimensional approach concentrating specific questions on certain areas of tourism. This study intends to envisage the paradigm of tourism quality as a tool for overall destination development. This research has adopted an interpretive approach to explore multiple viewpoints about the quality of tourism. The findings explore the visitor’s experience, the residents’ perceptions, local issues, and destination management issues associated with the group of monuments in Mahabalipuram. This study enhances tourism literature by offering a framework of quality of tourism, which can be used as a gap analysis tool to identify the core areas of required development. The study also provided implications for management.
 Beeho, A., & Prentice, R. 1997. Conceptualising the experiences of heritage tourists. Tourism Management, 18(2): 75-87. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0261-5177(96)00103-3
 Bhandari, K. 2019. Tourism and the geopolitics of Buddhist heritage in Nepal. Annals of Tourism Research, 75: 58-69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2018.12.006
 Braun, V., & Clarke, V. 2006. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa
 Braun, V., & Clarke, V. 2019. Reflecting on reflexive thematic analysis. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 11(4): 589-597. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676x.2019.1628806
 Caust, J., & Vecco, M. 2017. Is UNESCO World Heritage recognition a blessing or burden? Evidence from developing Asian countries. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 27: 1-9. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2017.02.004
 Cellini, R. 2011. Is UNESCO recognition effective in fostering tourism? A comment on Yang, Lin and Han. Tourism Management, 32(2): 452-454. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2010.01.018
 Chi, C., Cai, R., & Li, Y. 2017. Factors influencing residents’ subjective well-being at World Heritage Sites. Tourism Management, 63: 209-222. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2017.06.019
 Cochrane, J., & Tapper, R. 2020. Tourism’s contribution to World Heritage Site management. In A. Leask & A. Fyall, Managing World Heritage Sites (1st ed., pp. 97-110). London: Routledge.
 Denzin, K., & Lincoln, Y. 2011. The Sage handbook of qualitative research. (1st ed.). London: Sage.
 Devi, S. 2014. Sustainable tourism development: Prospects and challenges in Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu (PhD). Pondicherry University.
 Dholakia, N., & Firat, A. 2003. Consuming people: From political economy to theatres of consumption (1st ed.). London: Routledge.
 Drost, A. 1996. Developing sustainable tourism for world heritage sites. Annals of Tourism Research, 23(2): 479-484. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(96)83345-7
 Enseñat-Soberanis, F., Frausto-Martínez, O., & Gándara-Vázquez, M. 2018. A visitor flow management process for touristified archaeological sites. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 14(4): 340-357. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/1743873x.2018.1529179
 Etikan, I. 2016. Comparison of Convenience Sampling and Purposive Sampling. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics, 5(1): 1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajtas.20160501.11
 Fu, X. 2019. Existential authenticity and destination loyalty: Evidence from heritage tourists. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 12: 84-94. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdmm.2019.03.008
 Fyall, A. 2006. The future market for World Heritage Sites. Managing World Heritage Sites, 159-175. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-7506-6546-9.50022-8
 García, P., Elche, D., Martínez-Pérez, Á., & Ruiz-Ortega, M. 2017. Determinants of radical innovation in clustered firms of the hospitality and tourism industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 61: 45-58. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2016.11.002
 Garrigos-Simon, F., Narangajavana-Kaosiri, Y., & Narangajavana, Y. 2019. Quality in Tourism Literature: A Bibliometric Review. Sustainability, 11(14): 3859. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su11143859
 Garrod, B., & Fyall, A. 2000. Managing heritage tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(3): 682-708. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/s0160-7383(99)00094-8
 Geary, D. 2008. Destination enlightenment: Branding Buddhism and spiritual tourism in Bodhgaya, Bihar. Anthropology Today, 24(3): 11-14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8322.2008.00584.x
 González Santa-Cruz, F., & López-Guzmán, T. 2017. Culture, tourism and World Heritage Sites. Tourism Management Perspectives, 24: 111-116. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2017.08.004
 Gullino, P., Beccaro, G., & Larcher, F. 2015. Assessing and Monitoring the Sustainability in Rural World Heritage Sites. Sustainability, 7(10): 14186-14210. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su71014186
 Hasnawati, G., & Yuhanis, A. 2018. Historical Service Quality Assessment of Malaysia’s World Heritage Site. Journal of International Business, Economics and Entrepreneurship, 3(2): 2550-1429.
 Honarpour, A., Jusoh, A., & Md Nor, K. 2017. Total quality management, knowledge management, and innovation: an empirical study in R&D units. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 29(7-8): 798-816. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14783363.2016.1238760
 Huang, C., Tsaur, J., & Yang, C. 2012. Does the world heritage list induce more tourists? Evidence from Macau. Tourism Management, 33(6): 1450-1457. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2012.01.014
 Huang, S., & Hsu, C. 2008. Recent Tourism and Hospitality Research in China. International Journal Of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 9(3), 267-287. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15256480802096050
 Hueneke, H., & Baker, R. 2009. Tourist behaviour, local values, and interpretation at Uluru: ‘The sacred deed at Australia’s mighty heart’. Geojournal, 74(5): 477-490. DOI: 10.1007/s10708-008-9249-2
 Ismagilova, G., Safiullin, L., & Gafurov, I. 2015. Using Historical Heritage as a Factor in Tourism Development. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 188: 157-162. DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.03.355
 Jaafar, M., Noor, S., & Rasoolimanesh, S. 2015. Perception of young residents toward sustainable conservation programmes: A case study of the Lenggong World Cultural Heritage Site. Tourism Management, 48: 154-163. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2014.10.018
 Jaafar, M., Rasoolimanesh, S., & Ismail, S. 2016. Perceived socio-cultural impacts of tourism and community participation: A case study of Langkawi Island. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 17(2): 123-134. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1467358415610373
 Jennings, G., et al. 2009. Quality Tourism Experiences: Reviews, Reflections, Research Agendas. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 18(2-3): 294-310.
 Kala, N. 2008. Host perception of heritage tourism impact with particular reference to the city of Jaipur. South Asian Journal of Tourism and Heritage, 1(2): 65-74.
 Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, B. 2009. Destination culture. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press.
 Kumar, A. 2016. Role of Tourism in Social Development - A Case Study of Mahabalipuram, Tamilnadu. International Journal of Social Science and Economics Invention, 2(9): 77-82.
 Landorf, C. 2009. Managing for sustainable tourism: a review of six cultural World Heritage Sites. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 17(1): 53-70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580802159719
 Levin, N., Ali, S., Crandall, D., & Kark, S. 2019. World Heritage in danger: Big data and remote sensing can help protect sites in conflict zones. Global Environmental Change, 55: 97-104. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2019.02.001
 Liburd, J., & Becken, S. 2017. Values in nature conservation, tourism and UNESCO World Heritage Site stewardship. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 25(12): 1719-1735. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2017.1293067
 Lincoln, Y., & Guba, E. 2011. Naturalistic inquiry. Brantford, Ont.: W. Ross MacDonald School Resource Services Library.
 Lo Piccolo, F., Leone, D., & Pizzuto, P. 2012. The (controversial) role of the UNESCO WHL Management Plans in promoting sustainable tourism development. Journal of Policy Research In Tourism, Leisure And Events, 4(3): 249-276. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19407963.2012.711087
 Lowenthal, D. 1998. The heritage crusade and the spoils of history. New York: Cambridge University Press.
 Maikhuri, R., Nautiyal, S., Rao, K., & Saxena, K. 2001. Conservation policy–people conflicts: a case study from Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (a World Heritage Site), India. Forest Policy and Economics, 2(3-4): 355-365. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/s1389-9341(01)00037-5
 Malcolm‐Davies, J. 2004. Borrowed Robes: The Educational Value of Costumed Interpretation at Historic Sites. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 10(3): 277-293. DOI:10.1080/1352725042000234451
 Mariani, M., & Guizzardi, A. 2019. Does Designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site Influence Tourist Evaluation of a Local Destination? Journal of Travel Research, 59(1): 22-36. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287518821737
 Marrocu, E., & Paci, R. 2013. Different tourists to different destinations. Evidence from spatial interaction models. Tourism Management, 39: 71-83. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2012.10.009
 Morley, C., Rosselló, J., & Santana-Gallego, M. 2014. Gravity models for tourism demand: theory and use. Annals of Tourism Research, 48: 1-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2014.05.008
 Nair, B. 2017. The politics of tourism representations: Discourse analysis of British travel brochures about incredible India. Journal of Advanced Research In Social Sciences And Humanities, 2(4). DOI:https://doi.org/10.26500/jarssh-02-2017-0401
 Nayak, M., & Luger, K. 2016. Involvement of Tourist Visitors to the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Goa, India. Open Tourism, 313-321. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-54089-9_23
 Nian, S., et al. 2019. How Outstanding Universal Value, Service Quality and Place Attachment Influences Tourist Intention towards World Heritage Conservation: A Case Study of Mount Sanqingshan National Park, China. Sustainability, 11(12): 3321. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su11123321
 Nicholas, L., & Thapa, B. 2010. Visitor perspectives on sustainable tourism development in the Pitons Management Area World Heritage Site, St. Lucia. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 12(5): 839-857. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-009-9227-y
 Nuryanti, W. 1996. Heritage and postmodern tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 23(2), 249-260. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(95)00062-3
 Olya, H., Alipour, H., & Gavilyan, Y. 2018. Different voices from community groups to support sustainable tourism development at Iranian World Heritage Sites: evidence from Bisotun. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 26(10): 1728-1748. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2018.1511718
 Pavlić, I., Portolan, A., & Puh, B. 2019. Segmenting residents by perceptions of tourism impacts in an urban World Heritage Site: the case of Dubrovnik. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 1-12. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/1743873x.2019.1656218
 Pedersen, A. 2002. Managing Tourism at World Heritage Sites: A Practical Manual for World Heritage Site Managers. Retrieved 10 August 2019, from http://whc.unesco.org/uploads/activities/documents/activity-113-2.pdf
 Phillippi, J., & Lauderdale, J. 2017. A Guide to Field Notes for Qualitative Research: Context and Conversation. Qualitative Health Research, 28(3): 381-388. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732317697102
 Poria, Y., Reichel, A., & Cohen, R. 2013. Tourists perceptions of World Heritage Site and its designation. Tourism Management, 35: 272-274. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2012.02.011
 Prentice, R. 1993. Motivations of the heritage consumer in the leisure market: An application of the Manning‐Haas demand hierarchy. Leisure Sciences, 15(4): 273-290. DOI: 10.1080/01490409309513207
 Rasoolimanesh, S., Jaafar, M., Ahmad, A., & Barghi, R. 2017. Community participation in World Heritage Site conservation and tourism development. Tourism Management, 58:142-153. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2016.10.016
 Rasoolimanesh, S., Roldán, J., Jaafar, M., & Ramayah, T. 2016. Factors Influencing Residents’ Perceptions toward Tourism Development: Differences across Rural and Urban World Heritage Sites. Journal of Travel Research, 56(6): 760-775. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287516662354
 Reeves, C., & Bednar, D. 1994. Defining quality: alternatives and implications. Academy of Management Review, 19(3): 419-445. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1994.9412271805
 Richards, G. 2007. Cultural Tourism: Global and Local Perspectives (1st ed.). London: The Hamworth hospitality press.
 Ryan, C., & Gu, H. 2009. Tourism in China (1st ed.). London: Routledge.
 Ryan, C., Chaozhi, Z., & Zeng, D. 2011. The impacts of tourism at a UNESCO heritage site in China – a need for a meta-narrative? The case of the Kaiping Diaolou. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19(6): 747-765. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2010.544742
 Ryan, J., & Silvanto, S. 2009. The World Heritage List: The making and management of a brand. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 5(4): 290-300. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/pb.2009.21
 Searcy, S. 2012. Tourism, Pilgrimage, and Development in Bodhgaya, Bihar, India (MSc). East Carolina University.
 Seyfi, S., Michael Hall, C., & Fagnoni, E. 2018. Managing World Heritage Site stakeholders: a grounded theory paradigm model approach. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 14(4): 308-324. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/1743873x.2018.1527340
 Shackley, M. 2001. Sacred World Heritage Sites: Balancing Meaning with Management. Tourism Recreation Research, 26(1): 5-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2001.11081171
 Sivaramamurti, C., & Narasimhaiah, B. 2006. Mahābalipuram (1st ed.). New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India.
 Srijuntrapun, P., Fisher, D., & Rennie, H. 2017. Assessing the sustainability of tourism-related livelihoods in an urban World Heritage Site. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 13(5): 395-410. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/1743873x.2017.1373779
 Stake, R. 2006. Multiple Case Study Analysis (1st ed.). London: The Guildford Press.
 Stebbins, R. 2001. Exploratory research in the social sciences. Thousand Oaks [Calif.]: SAGE.
 Su, L., Hsu, M., & Swanson, S. 2016. The Effect of Tourist Relationship Perception on Destination Loyalty at a World Heritage Site in China. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 41(2): 180-210. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348014525630
 Surebankar, S., & Hadli, M. 2010. Heritage Tourism in Information Age: Need of Historians’ Active Participation. South Asian Journal of Tourism and Heritage, 3(2): 114-122.
 Thongdejsri, M., & Nitivattananon, V. 2019. Assessing impacts of implementing low-carbon tourism program for sustainable tourism in a world heritage city. Tourism Review, 74(2): 216-234. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1108/tr-04-2017-0082
 Thussu, D. 2013. Communicating India’s Soft Power: Buddha to Bollywood (1st ed.). New York: Macmillan.
 Tsai, A., et al. 2016. Promises and pitfalls of data sharing in qualitative research. Social Science & Medicine, 169: 191-198. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.08.004
 Ung, A., & Vong, T. 2010. Tourist experience of heritage tourism in Macau SAR, China. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 5(2): 157-168. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17438731003668502
 Verma, A., & Rajendran, G. 2017. The effect of historical nostalgia on tourists’ destination loyalty intention: an empirical study of the world cultural heritage site – Mahabalipuram, India. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 22(9): 977-990. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2017.1357639
 Watson, S., & McCracken, M. 2002. No attraction in strategic thinking: perceptions of current and future skills needs for visitor attraction managers. International Journal of Tourism Research, 4(5): 367-378. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.386
 Yang, C., & Lin, H. 2011. Is UNESCO recognition effective in fostering tourism? A comment on Yang, Lin and Han: Reply. Tourism Management, 32(2): 455-456. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2010.03.011
 Yang, C., Lin, H., & Han, C. 2010. Analysis of international tourist arrivals in China: The role of World Heritage Sites. Tourism Management, 31(6): 827-837. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2009.08.008
 Yang, Y., Xue, L., & Jones, T. 2019. Tourism-enhancing effect of World Heritage Sites: Panacea or placebo? A meta-analysis. Annals of Tourism Research, 75: 29-41. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2018.12.007
 Yim King Wan, P., & Man Cheng, E. 2011. Service quality of Macao’s world heritage site. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 5(1): 57-68. DOI: 10.1108/17506181111111762
 Zhang, C., Fyall, A. & Zheng, Y. 2014. Heritage and tourism conflict within world heritage sites in China: a longitudinal study. Current Issues in Tourism, 18(2): 110-136. DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2014.912204
 Centre, U. 2019. India - UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 9 August 2019, from https://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/in
 Government of India, M. 2014. Tourism. Retrieved 9 August 2019, from http://www.tn.gov.in/deptst/tourism.pdf
 UNWTO. (2019). Sustainable development quality. Retrieved 17 February 2020, from http://sdt.unwto.org/en/content/quality
The Copyright Transfer Form to ASERS Publishing (The Publisher)
This form refers to the manuscript, which an author(s) was accepted for publication and was signed by all the authors.
The undersigned Author(s) of the above-mentioned Paper here transfer any and all copyright-rights in and to The Paper to The Publisher. The Author(s) warrants that The Paper is based on their original work and that the undersigned has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment. It is the author's responsibility to obtain written permission to quote material that has been previously published in any form. The Publisher recognizes the retained rights noted below and grants to the above authors and employers for whom the work performed royalty-free permission to reuse their materials below. Authors may reuse all or portions of the above Paper in other works, excepting the publication of the paper in the same form. Authors may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the above Paper for the Author's personal use or for internal company use, provided that the source and The Publisher copyright notice are mentioned, that the copies are not used in any way that implies The Publisher endorsement of a product or service of an employer, and that the copies are not offered for sale as such. Authors are permitted to grant third party requests for reprinting, republishing or other types of reuse. The Authors may make limited distribution of all or portions of the above Paper prior to publication if they inform The Publisher of the nature and extent of such limited distribution prior there to. Authors retain all proprietary rights in any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in The Paper. This agreement becomes null and void if and only if the above paper is not accepted and published by The Publisher, or is with drawn by the author(s) before acceptance by the Publisher.