Influence of Cognitive and Emotional Advertisements on Biosphere Reserve Image and Visitation Intention for Youth

  • Anda ARKLINA Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences, Latvia
  • Kristine GRINBERGA Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences, Latvia
  • Nripendra SINGH Clarion University of Pennsylvania, USA
  • Agita LIVINA Institute of Social, Economic and Humanities Research of Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences, Latvia

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to explore the role of the North Vidzeme Biosphere Reserve’s image (functional, symbolic and experiential) in building young visitors’ intentions to visit biosphere reserves. Integrated research methods were used. An online survey was conducted for data collection (n=295), and focus group discussions and observations (three groups - two from Latvia and one from Estonia) were conducted about youth traveling behavior in the North Vidzeme Biosphere Reserve. Descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling were used to analyze data. Findings showed that the North Vidzeme Biosphere Reserve has a weak image in the perception of young people. Most respondents agreed that visiting biosphere reserves relieves stress, helps them to socialize, and allows them to escape from daily routine; additionally, they noted that they would visit protected areas more often if they would see their friends visiting them. Youth 15–19 was more excited, pleasureful, and excited about visiting biosphere reserves, but youth 20–25 was more neutral about it. Both groups agreed that there was a lack of advertisements and visibility of these areas on social media platforms. Research results showed that improving functional, symbolic, and emotional images of the North Vidzeme Biosphere Reserve will have a positive effect on youth visiting and revisiting intentions.

References

[1] Artuger, S., Cetinsoz, B.C. 2017. The Impact of Destination Image and the Intention to Revisit: A Study Regarding Arab Tourists. European Scientific Journal 13:5-16. DOI:https://doi.org/10.19044/esj.2017.v13n5p82
[2] Cetinkaya, G. 2018. Why do so few local people visit national parks? Examining the constraints on Antalya’s national parks in Turkey. An International Journal of Akdeniz University Tourism Faculty, 6:1-18. DOI:https://doi.org/10.30519/ahtr.390456
[3] Delgado-Ballester, E., Sabiote, E.F. 2015. Brand experimental value versus brand functional value: which matters more for the brand? European Journal of Marketing, 49: 1857-1879. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1108/EJM-02-2014-0129
[4] Dolot, A. 2018. The characteristic of Generation Z”. “e-mentor” Academic Journal published by Warsaw school of Economics, 2:44-50. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15219/em74.1351
[5] Druvaskalne-Druva, I., Livina, A. 2019. “Environmental awareness perception of young people living in the biosphere reserve in Latvia”. Paper delivered at the International Scientific Conference Society. Integration. Education, Vidzeme University of Applied Sciences, Valmiera, Latvia, May 24-25, 2019.
[6] Egan, T. 2016. Can the Selfie Generation Unplug and Get into Parks? National Geographic Journal, 10.
[7] Falgoust, A. 2017. Young People’s Perceptions of Nature and Interactions with National Parks. Honor Thesis, The University of Southern Mississippi
[8] Han, H., et al. 2018. Impact of functional/cognitive and emotional advertisements on image and repurchase intention. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management 28: 446-471. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2019.1531803
[9] Howe, N., Strauss, W. 1991. Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584 to 2069. Harper Perennial.
[10] Keller, K.L. 1993. Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity. Journal of Marketing, 57:1-22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1252054
[11] Kesterson, K.D. 2013. The Relationships between `Push' and `Pull' Factors of Millennial Generation Tourists to Heritage Tourism Destinations: Antebellum and Civil War Sites in the State of Arkansas. Master Thesis, University of Arkansas,
[12] Klauss, K. “X, Y, Z paaudzes (Generations X, Y, Z)”. Available at: https://www.vid.gov.lv/sites/default/files/4_x_y_z_paaudzes.pdf.
[13] Koulopoulos, T. “Gen Z and Predicting the Future of Technology and Behavior”. Youtube, Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=8&v=znggH2k7Y6Y&feature=emb_logo.
[14] Lee, J.S., Lee, C.K., Choi, Y. 2011. Examining the Role of Emotional and Functional Values in Festival Evaluation. Journal of Travel Research, 50: 685–696. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287510385465
[15] Njagi, C.W., Ndivo, R.M., Manyara, G. 2017. Understanding the travel motivation among youth travelers in Kenya: the ‘push’ and ‘pull’ paradigm. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure 6:1-17.
[16] Pendergast, D. 2010. Getting to know the Y generation. In: Benckendorff, P., Moscardo, G., Pendergast, D. “Tourism and Generation Y”. CAB International.
[17] Pratminingsih, S.A., Rudatin, C.L., Rimenta, T. 2014. Roles of Motivation and Destination Image in Predicting Tourist Revisit Intention: A Case of Bandung-Indonesia. International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, 5: 19-24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7763/IJIMT.2014.V5.479
[18] Prayag, G., Hosany, S., Muskat, B., Chiapa d. G. 2017. Understanding the Relationships between Tourists’ Emotional Experiences, Perceived Overall Image, Satisfaction, and Intention to Recommend. Journal of Travel Research, 56. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287515620567
[19] Robinson, T.M. “The Generations”. Career planer. Available at: https://www.careerplanner.com/Career-Articles/Generations.cfm.
[20] Rubene, Z. 2019. Researcher of Generations, Professor of the University of Latvia, Member of the Board of the Independent Education Association, Dr. paed., Mg. phil., interview on October.
[21] Winslow, D. “Are Generations Real? The History, The Controversy”. Youtube, Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J0Cj5PJPsEI.
[22] Yousaf, A., Amin, I.C., Santos, J.A. 2018. Tourists’ Motivations to Travel: A Theoretical Perspective on the Existing Literature. Tourism and Hospitality Management, 24: 1-14.
[23] Collage group. “Essentials of Gen Z and Millennial Marketing”. Available at: https://pages.collagegroup.com/Webinar-Recording-Fulfillment_LP-Recorded-Webinar-2019-05-01-Essentials-YZ.html.
[24] DAP. “North Vidzeme Biosphere Reserve”. Available at: https://www.daba.gov.lv/public/eng/protected_areas/north_vidzeme_biosphere_reserve/.
Published
2020-09-13
How to Cite
ARKLINA, Anda et al. Influence of Cognitive and Emotional Advertisements on Biosphere Reserve Image and Visitation Intention for Youth. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 11, n. 6, p. 1391 - 1399, sep. 2020. ISSN 2068-7729. Available at: <https://journals.aserspublishing.eu/jemt/article/view/5526>. Date accessed: 27 nov. 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.14505/jemt.v11.6(46).09.