Sustainable Tourism Development in Jordan. Measuring Customer Satisfaction of American Tourists Visiting Petra and Mount Nebo in Jordan

  • Ramzi AL ROUSAN Hashemite University, Jordan
  • Hussien IBRAHEIM University of Jordan, Jordan
  • Malek BADER Hashemite University, Jordan
  • Nermin KHASAWNEH Hashemite University, Jordan


This study investigates the effect of selected factors on the choice of tourist sites in Jordan. These selected factors form the basis for the satisfaction level of American tourist visiting Petra and Mount Nebo. The selected factors are chosen based on the perception of quality of services by American tourists who are focused on three main factors of “destination services” related to “accommodation, facilities at destination and the travel agency”. The opinions and feedbacks of the tourist guides were analysed to provide more insight into the satisfaction level of the American tourist. Specific questionnaires were distributed among American tourists via 10 travel agencies to gather data. Besides, all the tourist guides who supported this study were interviewed for cross-checking purposes. The findings suggested the Americans were generally satisfied with their vacation to Petra and Mount Nebo except for cleanliness at the nearby towns and the sites. This paper seeks to provide data on the satisfaction level of American tourists and the factors that need to be prioritized to enhance higher level of customer satisfaction. This will further improve the destination services for a particular tourist site. Besides, stakeholders need to further improve their tourism aspects to enhance tourist satisfaction.


[1] Aktas, A, Cevirgen, A, and Toker, B. 2009. Assessing Holiday Satisfaction of German and Russian Tourists Visiting Alanya. Tourism and Hospitality Management, 15(1): 1-12.
[2] Anderson, E.W. and Fornell, C. 1994. A customer satisfaction research prospectus. In Rust, R.T. and Oliver, R.L. Service Quality: New Directions in Theory and Practice, 241-268.
[3] Bar, R., Tatar, C.F. and Herman, G.V. 2016. Satisfaction Degree Rating of Tourist Services in Buziaș Spa, Timiș County, Romania. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites. 18(2): 212-223.
[4] Barsky, J. 2012. Benchmarking the guest experience on a global scale reveals difference. Hotel Management, 227 (9): 14. DOI:
[5] Borhorst, T. Brent, J.R. R. and Sheehan, L. 2010. Determinants of tourism success for DMOs & destinations: An empirical examination of stakeholders' perspectives. Tourism Management, 31(5): 572-589. DOI:
[6] Dabija, D.-C. and Băbuţ, R. 2013. An Approach to Sustainable Development from Tourists’ Perspective. Empirical Evidence in Romania. Amfiteatru Economic, 7: 617-633.
[7] Deng, Z., Lu, Y, Wei, K. K., and Zhang, J. 2009. Understanding customer satisfaction and loyalty: An empirical study of mobile instant messages in China. International Journal of Information Management, 30: 289–300. DOI:
[8] Gundersen, M.G., Heide, M. and Olsson, U.H. 1996. Hotel guest satisfaction among business travelers – what are the important factors? Cornell hotel and restaurant administration quarterly, April, 36 (2): 72-81.
[9] Gustafsson, A., Johnson, M.D., and Roos, I. 2005. The Effects of Customer Satisfaction, Relationship Commitment Dimensions, and Triggers on Customer Retention. Journal of Marketing, 69: 210–218. DOI:
[10] Hennig-Thurau, T., and Klee, A. 1997. The Impact of Customer Satisfaction and Relationship Quality on Customer Retention: A Critical Reassessment and Model Development. Psychology & Marketing, 14(8): 737–764. DOI:<737::AID-MAR2>3.0.CO;2-F
[11] Hui, T.K., Wan, D. and Ho, A. 2007. Tourists’ satisfaction, recommendation and revisiting Singapore. Tourism Management, 28 (4): 965-975. DOI:
[12] Jang, S., and Feng, R. 2007. Temporal destination revisit intention: The effects of novelty seeking and satisfaction. Tourism Management, 28: 580-590. DOI:
[13] Khristianto, W., Kertahadi, I., and Suyadi, I. 2012. The influence of information system and service on customer satisfaction and loyalty in online shopping. International Journal of Academic Research, 4(2): 28-32.
[14] Kim, M.K., Park, M.C., and Jeong, D.H. 2004. The effects of customer satisfaction and switching barrier on customer loyalty in Korean mobile telecommunication services. Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, School of Business, Information and Communications University, Yusong-gu, Hwaam-dong, Taejon 305-348, South Korea.
[15] Kozak, M. 2001. Comparative assessment of tourist satisfaction with destinations across two nationalities. Tourism Management, 22(4): 391–401. DOI:
[16] Kozak, M. 2001. Repeaters’ behaviour at two distinct destinations. Annals of Tourism Research, 28 (3): 784-807. DOI:
[17] Legoherel, P., Hsu, C.H.C. and Dauce, B. 2015. Variety-seeking: Using the CHAID segmentation approach in analyzing the international traveller market. Tourism Management 46(1): 359–366. DOI:
[18] Lu, A.C.C. and Chen, B.T. 2014. Information search behaviour of independent travellers: A cross-cultural comparison between Chinese, Japanese, and American travellers. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management 23(8): 865–884. DOI:
[19] Lujun, Su., Maxwell, K.Hsu. and Robert, E.B. 2020. From Recreation to Responsibility: Increasing Environmentally Responsible Behavior in Tourism. Jounal of Business Research, 109: 557-573. DOI:
[20] Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities. 2019, “Tourism Statistical Newsletter”. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan”, Jordan. Available at:
[21] O¨zdemir, C. and Yolal, M. 2016. Cross-cultural tourist behaviour: An examination of tourists’ behaviour in guided tours. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 17(3): 314-324. DOI:
[22] Oliver, R.L. 1999. Whence Consumer Loyalty. The Journal of Marketing, Fundamental Issues and Directions for Marketing, 63: 33-44. DOI:
[23] Ozimek, I.; Szlachciuk, J.; Kulykovets, O. and Przeździecka-Czyżewska 2017. Factors Influencing the Choice and Quality Assessment of Hotel Facilities in Poland. Folia Oeconomica Stetinensia, 17(1): 170-181. DOI:
[24] Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. and Berry, L. 1990. Delivering Quality Service. New York, Free Press.
[25] Porges, R. 2014. Tell me something I don’t know: Promoting the value of tourism. Tourism Drives the Provincial Economy. Presentation hosted by the Tourism Industry Association of BC, Vancouver, BC.
[26] Ramzi, R., Mairna, M., Eyad, A. and Fadi, B. 2018. Measuring Holiday Satisfaction of American Tourists Visiting the Dead Sea in Jordan. Geojournal of Tourism and Giosites, 24(1): 48-59. DOI:
[27] Reisinger, Y. and Turner, L.W. 2003. Cross-Cultural Tourist Behavior. Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
[28] Ross, G.F. 1993. Destination evaluation and vacation preferences. Annals of Tourism Research, 20: 237-244. DOI:
[29] Sekaran, U., and Bougie, R. 2013. Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building approach. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
[30] Sheth, J. N. 2001. Competitive Advantages through Customer Satisfaction. BMA Review, 2(1): 13-25.
[31] Tabachnick, B. G., and Fidell, L. S. 1996. Using multivariate statistics (3rd Ed.). New York: Harper Collins.
[32] Tasci, A. and Boylu, Y. 2010. Cultural comparison of tourists’ safety perception in relation to trip satisfaction. International Journal of Tourism Research, 12(2): 179–192. DOI:
[33] Tatar, C.F., Herman, G.V. and Gozmer, M., 2018. Tourist Guides’ Contribution to Sustainability in Romania. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites. Year XI, 1(21): 282-287.
[34] Theobald, W. F. 1998. Global Tourism (2nd ed.). Oxford, England: Butterworth–Heinemann, 6-7.
[35] Truong, T. H. and King, B. 2006. Comparing cross-cultural dimensions of the experiences of international tourists in Vietnam. Journal of Business Systems, Governance, and Ethics, 1(1): 65-75. DOI:httpS:// v1i1.69
[36] Tse, D. K., and Wilton, P. C. 1988. Models of Consumer Satisfaction Formation: An Extension. Journal of Marketing Research, 25(2): 204-212. DOI:
[37] Wang, S. and Qu, H. 2006. A study of tourists’ satisfaction determinants in the context of the Pearl River Delta Sub-Regional destinations. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 14(3): 49-63. DOI:
[38] Yavuz, N.F. 1994. A market segmentation study of visitors to North Cyprus through importance-performance analysis of destination attributes. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
[39] Yeoh, C. et al. 2019. Customer Satisfaction in Tourism Service Quality. Scientific American, 4: 3398-3402.
[40] Yuksel, A. and Yuksel, F. 2007. Shopping risk perceptions: Effects on tourists’ emotions, satisfaction and expressed loyalty intentions. Tourism Management, 28(3): 703-713. DOI:
[41] The Jordan Times. 2019. retrieved on 21 January 2019 from The, 2019. Issue 28 February 2019.
How to Cite
ROUSAN, Ramzi AL et al. Sustainable Tourism Development in Jordan. Measuring Customer Satisfaction of American Tourists Visiting Petra and Mount Nebo in Jordan. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 11, n. 4, p. 1001-1012, june 2020. ISSN 2068-7729. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 27 may 2022. doi: