Tourist Image Building of the Country: Application of the Historiographical Method

  • Oleg Evgenievich AFANASYEV Russian State University of Tourism and Service, Russian Federation


The article deals with the problem of using the principles of the historiographical approach in the study of the reasons and factors for the tourist image building of the country in the historical and chronological aspect. The authors consider the importance of studying the historical process of creating negative or neutral images of Russia among European residents, based on the historiographical analysis of the sources of the 13th-19th centuries, which in the current context directly influences the demand and interest in tours to the country. The article offers and discusses in detail the mechanisms of tourist image building of the country in its two aspects – subjective and objective. It is noted that any person's image of a particular country without having visited it directly can be considered subjective, and be potentially attractive, neutral, or repellent. The negative image of Russia in the public perception of European residents over a long historical period is now expressed in its negative tourist image and fears of a possible tourist trip to the country. The article describes the technology of applying the historiographical analysis in the practice of training and retraining of industry professionals who are trained in technologies for designing tourist images of the country's regions. The article presents methods and forms of working with historical sources to identify ideas about the hospitality traditions and tourist images of Russia, described in the works of foreign travelers of the 13th-19th centuries. Descriptions of the peoples of Russia, their life and customs contained in these works, built the image perception of the country in the minds of European residents, in some cases with extrapolation effect to the modern era. The article states the empirical effectiveness of using historiographical analysis technologies to assess the causes and consequences of building a negative or neutral tourist image of Russia among foreign tourists, conditioned by the trends of its descriptions in historical sources. The conclusion is made that it is necessary to develop marketing strategies to overcome negative images and perceptions of Russia among potential consumers of its tour programs.


[1] Afanasiev, O.E. and Afanasieva, A.V. 2015. The functional significance and place of tourist legends in creating attractive destination properties. Universities for Tourism and Service Association Bulletin, 9(1): 52-60.
[2] Afanasiev, O.E. and Afanasieva, A.V. 2017. Museums of dark mythologies in the tourist place. In book: Korstanje M., George B. (Ed.). Virtual Traumas capes and Exploring the Roots of Dark Tourism. Series: Advances in Hospitality, Tourism, and the Services Industry. Hershey, Pennsylvania: IGI Global, 26-49.
[3] Aroutyunova, J.M. and Linkova, E.V. 2016. Russia as viewed by French travelers in XV-XVIII centuries. RUDN Journal of Russian History, 1: 108-116.
[4] Biryukov, S.V. 2013. The image of contemporary Russia: Western stereotypes and Russian realities. The prospects. Historical Prospects Foundation. Available at: (in Russian)
[5] Burkaltseva, D., et al. 2020. Features and New Opportunities of the Republic of Crimea Tourism Industry. Revista Inclusiones, 7: 325-336.
[6] Fedulin, A.A., et al. 2017. Methodological approaches to the assessment of historical and cultural resources in tourist destinations. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 8(6): 1198-1204. DOI:
[7] Groh, D. 1988. Rußland im Blick Europas. 300 Jahre historische Perspektiven. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. (in German)
[8] Grundy, D. and Toluba, B. 2012. Country's image development in higher education: Structural modeling from the attitude theory perspective. Actual Problems of Economics, 133: 40-52.
[9] Jenes, B. 2008. Reconsidering the measurement of country image  theory and practice. Budapest: Corvinus University of Budapest, 65-80.
[10] Kupriyanova, L.M., et al. 2020. Work Improvement of Customs Authorities in the Context of Creating a Favorable Environment for People with Disabilities: Legal Aspect. Revista Inclusiones, 7: 347-357.
[11] Linkova, E.V. 2014. On the formation of the image of Russia in Western Europe. RUDN Journal of Russian History, 1: 51-59.
[12] Mondello, E. 2018. Russia in Italo Calvino’s and Alberto Moravia’s travel notes. Imagology and Comparative Studies, 10: 172-182. DOI:
[13] Protasova, E.Yu. 2006. The image of Russia in the Finnish press. Pskov Regional Journal, 3: 185-196. (in Russian)
[14] Regent, T.M., et al. 2019. Improvement of Strategic Management of a Tourism Enterprise in the International Market. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 10(2): 427-431. DOI:
[15] Rubanik, A.N. and Ushakov, D.S. 2010. Incoming tourism technologies. Rostov-on-Don, MarT Publishing Center Phoenix. (in Russian)
[16] Ryumin, A.M. 2012. Modern stereotypes about Russia in the mass consciousness of Western countries. Higher Doctorate thesis in sociology. N. Novgorod: Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod. (in Russian)
[17] Smirnov, S.N., Kapustin, A.K., and Isaev, N.I. 2012. Image of Russia: Between the past and the future. World of Russia. Sociology. Ethnology, 4: 63-90. (in Russian)
[18] Trocenko, O.V. 2010. Problems in the geographic source of historical and geographical regional studies (as exemplified by the Dnepropetrovsk Region). Bulletin of the University of Dnepropetrovsk. Geology, Geography, Journal of Geology, Geography, and Geoecology, 18(3/2): 146-150. DOI:
[19] Umarov, M.M., et al. 2020. The formation of the mechanism for state tourism management at the regional level. Revista Inclusiones, 7: 112-120.
[20] Weinshtein, G.I. 2007. Russia through the eyes of the West: Stereotypes of perception and reality of interpretation. Emergency ration. Debates on politics and culture, 1(57): 13-23. (in Russian)
How to Cite
AFANASYEV, Oleg Evgenievich. Tourist Image Building of the Country: Application of the Historiographical Method. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 11, n. 4, p. 994-1000, june 2020. ISSN 2068-7729. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 15 aug. 2020. doi: