The Costs of Reduction Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation. Concepts and Issues
This study examines the concept of “Reduction Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation” - REDD costs by using the existence costs of Boucher (2008) such as opportunity costs, transaction costs, implementation costs, stabilization costs, and administration costs. In addition, it provides some actual issues of REDD. The study proves that global simulation models yield far higher REDD prices than empirical models, however, they can be criticized for their use of aggregated data and other simplifications. Moreover, adding implementation, administration, stabilization costs into transaction costs could potentially lead to double-counting problem. Finally, REDD is an inexpensive option compared to reducing emissions in the energy sectors of industrialized countries and has a potential to generate substantial benefits in addition to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Yet, it is important for countries to manage these issues that can be potentially defect REDD adoption.
 Anger, N. and Sathaye, J. 2008. Reducing Deforestation and Trading Emissions: Economic Implications for The Post-Kyoto Market. Center for European Economic Research Discussion Paper, No. 08-016, http://ssrn.com/abstract=1114044 (accessed May 16, 2018).
 Antinori, C. and Sathaye, J. 2007. Assessing Transaction Costs of Project-based Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
 Borner, J. and Wunder, S. 2008. Paying for Avoided Deforestation in The Brazilian Amazon: From Cost Assessment to Scheme Design. International Forestry Review, 10: 496-511.
 Boucher, D. 2008. What REDD Can Do: The Economics and Development of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation. Tropical Forest and Climate Initiative – Union of Concerned Scientists.
 Cacho, O.J., Marshall, G.R. and Milne, M. 2005. Transaction and Abatement Costs of Carbon Sink Projects in Developing Countries. Environment and Development Economics, 10: 597-614.
 Da Fonseca, G.A.B., Rodríguez, C.M., Midgley, G., Busch, J., Hannah, L. and Mittermeier, R.A. 2007. No Forest Left Behind. PLoS Biology, 5: 1645-1646.
 Dutschke, M. and Wolf, R. 2007. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries: The Way Forward. GTZ Climate Protection Programme.
 Eliasch, J. 2008. The Eliasch Review – Climate Change: Financing Global Forests. UK Office of Climate Change.
 Gan, J. and McCarl, B. 2007. Measuring Transnational Leakage of Forest Conservation. Ecological Economics, 64: 423-432.
 Grieg-Gran, M. 2006. The Cost of Avoiding Deforestation: Report Prepared for The Stern Review of the Economics of Climate Change. IIED.
 Houghton, R.A. 2007. The Role of Forests in the Global Carbon Cycle. Presentation given at the Kathryn Fuller Science for Nature Symposium: Reducing Emissions from Deforestation, World Wildlife Fund, Washington D.C., USA, October 18-19, 2007.
 Kindermann, G., et al. 2008. Global Cost Estimates for Reducing Carbon Emissions through Avoided Deforestation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the Unites States of Americ. Available at: http://www.pnas.org/content/105/30/10302 (accessed May 27, 2018).
 Nepstad, D., et al. 2007. The Costs and Benefits of Reducing Carbon Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in the Brazilian Amazon. WHRC-IPAM-UFMG.
 Pagiola, S. 2008. Payments for Environmental Services in Costa Rica. Ecological Economics, 65: 712-724.
 Pagiola, S. and Bosquet, B. 2009. Estimating The Costs of REDD at The Counry Level. MRPA Paper, No. 13726. Available at: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/13726/ (accessed May 19, 2018).
 Piris-Cabezas, P. and Keohane, N. 2008. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD): Implications for the Carbon Market. Environmental Defense Fund.
 Ramankutty, N., et al. 2007. Challenges to Estimating Carbon Emissions from Tropical Deforestation. Global Change Biology, 13: 51-66.
 Sathaye, J. and Andrasko, K. 2007. “Special Issue on Estimation of Baselines and Leakage in Carbon Mitigation Forestry Projects.” Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 12: 963-970.
 Schoene, D., Killman, W., Lupke, H.V. and Mette, L. 2007. Definitional Issues Related to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation in Developing Countries. FAO Forest and Climate Change Working Paper, No. 5. Available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/j9345e/j9345e00.htm (accessed May 28, 2018)
 Sohngen, C. 2008. Tools for Estimating the Costs of Carbon Sequestration through Avoided Deforestation: Global Land Use Modeling. Presentation at the Workshop on The Costs of REDD, The World Bank, Washington D.C., USA, May 27th, 2008.
 Stern, N. 2006. The Stern Review: The Economics of Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.
 Strassburg, B., et al. 2008. An Empirically-Derived Mechanism of Combined Incentives to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation. Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment (CSERGE) Working Paper ECM, No. 08-01. Available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTCC/Resources/407863-1213125462243/5090543-1213136742584/ECM 0801Strassburgetal.pdf (accessed May 28, 2018)
 Swallow, B., et al. 2007. Opportunities for Avoided Deforestation with Sustainable Benefits: An interim report of the ASB partnership for the Tropical Forest Margins. ASB Partnership for the Tropical Forest Margins.
 Tavoni, M., Sohngen, B. and Bosetti, V. 2007. Forestry and the Carbon Market Response to Stabilize Climate. Energy Policy, 35: 5346-5353.
 Watson, R.T., Noble, I.R., and Bolin, B. 2000. Land Use, Land-use Change, and Forestry: A Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.
 Wertz-Kanounnikoff, S. 2008. Estimating the Costs of Reducing Forest Emissions: A Review of Methods. CIFOR Working Paper, No. 42. Available at: https://www.cifor.org/library/2605/ (accessed June 6, 2018).
 Wunder, S., Engel, S. and Pagiola, S. 2008. Taking Stock: A Comparative Analysis of Payments for Environmental Service Programs in Developed and Developing Countries. Ecological Economics, 65: 834-852.
 Wünscher, T., Engel, S. and Wunder, S. 2008. Spatial Targeting of Payments for Environmental Services: A Tool for Boosting Conservation Benefits. Ecological Economics, 65: 822-833.
The Copyright Transfer Form to ASERS Publishing (The Publisher)
This form refers to the manuscript, which an author(s) was accepted for publication and was signed by all the authors.
The undersigned Author(s) of the above-mentioned Paper here transfer any and all copyright-rights in and to The Paper to The Publisher. The Author(s) warrants that The Paper is based on their original work and that the undersigned has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment. It is the author's responsibility to obtain written permission to quote material that has been previously published in any form. The Publisher recognizes the retained rights noted below and grants to the above authors and employers for whom the work performed royalty-free permission to reuse their materials below. Authors may reuse all or portions of the above Paper in other works, excepting the publication of the paper in the same form. Authors may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the above Paper for the Author's personal use or for internal company use, provided that the source and The Publisher copyright notice are mentioned, that the copies are not used in any way that implies The Publisher endorsement of a product or service of an employer, and that the copies are not offered for sale as such. Authors are permitted to grant third party requests for reprinting, republishing or other types of reuse. The Authors may make limited distribution of all or portions of the above Paper prior to publication if they inform The Publisher of the nature and extent of such limited distribution prior there to. Authors retain all proprietary rights in any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in The Paper. This agreement becomes null and void if and only if the above paper is not accepted and published by The Publisher, or is with drawn by the author(s) before acceptance by the Publisher.