Studying Tourism Impacts by Q Methodology Approach

  • Michaela HAVLIKOVA Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague


This paper presents the results of a Q-methodology survey conducted at the Karlovy Vary film festival. The festival, held annually in July, has been going for almost fifty years, in Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic. The purpose of this research is to enhance the current literature on evaluating tourism and event impacts, specifically relating to the relationship between the guest and the host. The paper compares the results of a 5-pile Q-set survey and a 7-pile Q-set survey. Cluster analysis and an ANOVA test were applied to compare the results. The results show significant differences between both types of survey, although some commonalities were observed.


[1] Andereck, K L., Valentine, K.M., Knopf, R.C. and Vogt, Ch.A. (2005). Residents’ perception of community tourism impacts. Annals of Tourism Research, 32: 1036-1076. DOI:10.1177/0047287507312402
[2] Ap, J. (1992). Residents’ perceptions on tourism impacts. Annals of Tourism Research, 19(4): 665-690. DOI:10.1016/0160-7383(92)90060-3
[3] Besculides, A., Lee, M.A. and McCormock, P.J. (2002). Residents’ perception of the cultural benefits of tourism. Annals of tourism research, 29: 303-319. DOI: 10.1016/S0160-7383(01)00066-4
[4] Butler, R.W. (1980). The Concept of Tourist Area Cycle of Evolution: Implication for Management of Resources. Canadian Geographer, 24: 5-12. DOI:10.1111/j.1541-0064.1980.tb00970.x
[5] Chen, S.C. (2011). Residents’ Perception of the Impact of Major Annual Tourism Events in Macao: Cluster Analysis. Journal of Convention & Event Tourism, 12: 106-128. DOI:10.1080/15470148.2011.569877
[6] Crompton, J.L. and McKay, S.L. (1994). Measuring the economic impacts of festivals and events: Some myths, misapplications and ethical dilemmas. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 2: 33-43. DOI:10.3727/106527094792335782
[7] Crompton, J.L., Lee, S. and Shuster, T.J. (2001). A guide for undertaking economic impact studies: the Springfest example. Journal of Travel Research, 40: 79-87. DOI: 10.1177/004728750104000110
[8] Davis, Ch.H. and Michell, C. (2011). Q Methodology in Audience Research: Bridging the Qualitative/Quantitative ‘Divide’? Participations. Journal of Audience and Reception Studies, 2: 559-593.
[9] Deery, M., Jago, L. and Fredline, L. (2012). Rethinking social impacts of tourism research: A new research agenda. Tourism Management, 33: 64-73. DOI:10.1016/j.tourman.2011.01.026
[10] Doxey, G.V. (1975). A Causation Theory of Visitors-Residents Irritants: Methodology and Research Inferences, in Proceedings of the Travel Research Association, 6th Annual Conference, Salt Lake City: 195-198.
[11] Dwyer, L., Mellor, R., Mistilis, N. and Mules, T. (2000). A framework for assessing ‘tangible’ and ‘intangible’ impacts of events and conventions. Event Management, 6: 175-189. DOI:
[12] Eshliki, S.A., Kaboudi, M. (2011). Community Perception of Tourism Impacts and Their Participation in Tourism Planning: A Case study of Ramsar, Iran. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 36: 333-341. DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.03.037
[13] Fredline, E. and Faulkner, B. (2000). Host community reactions: A cluster analysis. Annals of Tourism Research, 27: 763-784. DOI:10.1016/S0160-7383(99)00103-6
[14] Gartner, W.C. and Holecek, D.F. (1983). Economic Impact of an annual tourism industry exposition. Annals of Tourism Research, 10: 199-212. DOI:10.1016/0160-7383(83)90026-9
[15] Getz, D. (2008). Event tourism: Definition, evolution, and research. Tourism Management, 29: 403-428. DOI:10.1016/j.tourman.2007.07.017
[16] Getz, D. (1993). Corporate culture in not - for - profit festival organizations. Festival Management and Event Tourism, 1: 11-17.
[17] Green, R. (2005). Community perception of environmental and social change and tourism development on the island of Koh Samui, Thailand, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25: 37–56. DOI:10.1016/j.jenvp.2004.09.007
[18] Guisti, A. and Viviani, A. (2013). Social diversity: a look at tourism, Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 4: 57-64. DOI:10.14505/jemt.v4.2(8).01
[19] Hashimoto, A. (2002). Tourism and socio cultural development issues. In P. Sharpley & D.J. Telfer (Eds.) Tourism and development: Concepts and Issues, Clevedo, UK: Channel View Publisching: 202-230.
[20] Havlíková, M. (2016). Likert scale versus Q-table measures – a comparison of host community perceptions of a film festival. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism. DOI:10.1080/15022250.2015.1114901
[21] Hernandez, S.A., Cohen, J. and Garcia H.I (1996). Resident attitudes towards an instant resort enclave. Annals of Tourism Research, 23(4): 755-779. DOI:10.1016/0160-7383(95)00114-X
[22] King, B., Pizam, A. and Milman, A. (1993). Social impacts of tourism: Host perceptions, Annals of Tourism Research, 20: 650-665. DOI:10.1016/0160-7383(93)90089-L
[23] Klooster, P.M., Visser M. and Jong, M.D.T. (2008). Comparing two image research instruments: The Q-sort technique versus the Likert attitude questionnaire. Food Quality and Preference, 19: 511-518. DOI:10.1016/j.foodqual.2008.02.007
[24] Lankford, S.V. and Howard D.R. (1994). Developing a Tourism Impact Attitude Scale. Annals of Tourism Research, 21: 121-139. DOI:10.1016/0160-7383(94)90008-6
[25] Mbeng, L.O., Philips, P.S. and Fairweather, R. (2009). Developing Sustainable Waste Management Practice: Application of Q Methodology to Construct New Strategy Component in Limbe – Cameroon. The Open Waste Management Journal, 2: 27-36. DOI:10.2174/1876400200902010027
[26] Pizam, A. (1978). Tourism´s impacts: The social costs to the destination community as perceived by its residents. Journal of Travel Research, 16: 8-12. DOI:10.1177/004728757801600402
[27] Richardson, S.L. and Long, P.T. (1991). Recreation, tourism and quality of life in small winter cities: Five keys to success. Winter Cities, 9: 22-25.
[28] Sheldon, P. and Abenoja, T. (2001). Resident attitudes in a mature destination: the case of Waikiki. Tourism Management, 22: 434-443. DOI:10.1016/S0261-5177(01)00009-7
[29] Sharpley, R. (2014). Host perception of tourism: A review of the research. Tourism Management, 42: 37-49. DOI:10.1016/j.tourman.2013.10.007
[30] Sharpley, R. (2008). Tourism, tourists, and society. Huntington: Elm Publications.
[31] Small, K., Edward, D. and Sheridan, L. (2005). A flexible Framework for evaluating the socio-cultural impacts of a (small) festival. International Journal of Event Management Research, 1: 66-77.
[32] Smith, V. (1978). Eskimo tourism: micro-models and marginal men. Host and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism. V. Smith sed., Oxford: Blackwell: 51-70.
[33] Snaith, T. and Haley A. (1999). Residents’ opinions of tourism development in the historic city of York, England. Tourism Management, 20: 595-603. DOI: 10.1016/S0261-5177(99)00030-8
[34] Thrane, C. (2002). Jazz Festival visitors and their expenditures: Linking Spending patterns to musical interest. Journal of Travel Research, 40: 281-286. DOI: 10.1177/0047287502040003006
[35] Tosun, C. (2000). Limits to community participation in the tourism development process in developing countries. Tourism Management, 21: 613-633. DOI: 10.1016/S0261-5177(00)00009-1
How to Cite
HAVLIKOVA, Michaela. Studying Tourism Impacts by Q Methodology Approach. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 7, n. 1, p. 80-87, oct. 2016. ISSN 2068-7729. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 03 oct. 2023.


tourism; event; Q-methodology; cluster analysis