The Idea of Congruence between Image and Society Stereotype on Attitude toward Tourist Destination

  • Sri RAHAYU Vocational Higher School, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia
  • Sofjan ASSAURI Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia
  • Ignatius HERUWASTO Faculty of Economics and Business Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia


This article aims to provide a conceptual framework that depicts the matching between destination image, destination society stereotype in the context of consumer’s behavior, and tourist destination. Using literature review and empirical researches, the present study attempts to formulate propositions that connect destination image and destination society stereotype in creating and/or improving positive attitude toward tourist destination. Based on literature review and empirical researches, the concept fit as matching can be implemented to achieve congruence between destination image and destination society stereotype in order to develop more optimal (positive) attitudes toward tourist destination. The present study also offers the concept of relationship closeness and image formation type as moderation to strengthen the development of positive attitudes. At the end of this paper, several suggestions and recommendations are provided to follow up the proposed notions in the form of empirical research. They include the dimensions and elements of each concept that need further exploration. This paper provides conceptual framework for practitioners and academics who are looking for theoretical support pertaining to destination image and destination society stereotype in the context of tourist destination. In addition, this paper also offers the concept of fit as matching to build congruence between destination image and destination society, as an instance of the application of strategic discipline in the context of marketing and tourism.  The propositions in this paper contain the concepts of relationship closeness and image formation type as variables of moderation which may provide further contribution to the literature of tourism marketing.


[1] Ahmed, Z. U. 1991. The influence of the components of a state’s tourist image on product positioning strategy. Tourism Management, 12: 331–340.
[2] Ahmed, Z. U. 1996. The need for the identification of the constituents of a destination’s tourist image a promotional segmentation perspective. Revue du Tourism, 51(2): 44–57.
[3] Ajzen, I., and Fishbein, M. 1977. Attitude-behavior relations: A theoretical analysis and review of empirical research. Psychological Bulletin, 84(5): 8-918.
[4] Albu, C.E. 2013. Stereotypical factors in tourism. Cross-Cultural Management Journal, 15 (1 (3)):5-13.
[5] Aldrich, H. E. 1979. Organization and Environments. Engle- wood, New Jersey, USA: Prentice-Hall.
[6] Alhemoud, A.M., and Armstrong, E.G. 1996. Image of tourism attractions in Kuwait. Journal of Travel Research, 34 (4): 76-80.
[7] Al-Kwifi, O. S. 2015. The impact of destination images on tourists’ decision making: A technological exploratory study using fMRI, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, 6(2):174 – 194.
[8] Aron, A., Aron, E., and Smollan, D. 1992. Inclusion of other in the self scale and the structure of interpersonal closeness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63 (4): 596-612.
[9] Aron, A. et al. 1997. The experimental generation of interpersonal closeness: A procedure and some preliminary findings. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23(4): 363-377.
[10] Ashworth, G., and Voogd, H. 1990. Selling the City: Marketing Approaches in Public Sector Urban Planning. Belhaven, London.
[11] Babin, B. J., Darden, W. R., and Griffin, M. 1994. Work and/or fun: measuring hedonic and utilitarian shopping value. Journal of Consumer Research, 20(4): 644-656.
[12] Bagozzi, R. P. 1994a. Measurement in marketing research: Basic principles of questionnaire design. Principles of Marketing Research, 1: 1-49.
[13] Bagozzi, R. P. (Ed.). 1994b. Principles of Marketing Research (pp. 386-422). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
[14] Baloglu, S., and McCleary, K. W. 1999. A model of destination image formation. Annals of Tourism Research, 26: 808–889.
[15] Bandura, A. 1971. Psychotherapy based upon modeling principles. Handbook of Psychotherapy and behavior Change. New York: Wiley, 653 -708.
[16] Bandura, A. 1971. Social Learning Theory. Morristown.
[17] Bandura, A. 1971. Social Learning Theory. USA: General Learning Corporation.
[18] Bandura, A. 1971. Vicarious and self-reinforcement processes. In R. Glaser (Ed.), The nature of reinforcement (pp. 228-278). New York: Academic Press.
[19] Bandura, A. 1977. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2): 191 -215.
[20] Beerli, A., and Martin, J. D. 2003. Tourists’ characteristics and the perceived image of tourist destinations: a quantitative analysis – a case study of Lanzarote, Spain. Tourism Management, (25): 623-636.
[21] Bergqvist, R. 2009. Place marketing in a logistics context: A Swedish case study and discourse. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 5 (1): 54–66.
[22] Reitsamer, B. F, Brunner-Sperdin, A., and Stokburger Sauer, N.E. 2016. Destination attractiveness and destination attachment: The mediating role of tourists' attitude. Tourism Management Perspectives, 93-101.
[23] Bieger, T. 1998. Reengineering destination marketing organisations: The case of Switzerland. The Tourist Review, 53(3): 4 – 17.
[24] Bloch, P. H., and Richins, M. L. 1983. A theoretical model for the study of product importance perceptions. The Journal of Marketing, 69-81.
[25] Bohner, G., and Wänke, M. 2002. Attitudes and Attitude Change. Psychology Press.
[26] Bramwell, B., and Rawding, L. 1996. Tourism Marketing Images of Industrial Cities. Annals of Tourism Research, 23: 201–221.
[27] Calantone, R. J., Di Benedetto, C. A., Hakam, A., and Bojanic D. C. 1989. Multiple multinational tourism positioning using correspondence analysis. Journal of Travel Research, 28(2): 25–32.
[28] Caldero´n, H., Gil, I., and Gallarza, M. G. 1998. Una aproximacio´n al estudio de la actividad turı´stica desde la perspectiva del Marketing. In I International Forum on The Sciences, Techniques and Art applied to Marketing. Academy and Profession, pp. 207–217. Madrid: Universidad Complutense.
[29] Campbell, W. K., and Sedikides, C. 1999. Self-threat magnifies the self-serving bias: A meta-analytic integration. Review of general Psychology, 3(1): 23-43.
[30] Echtner, C.M., and Ritchie, J.R. B. 2003. The meaning and measurement of destination image, The Journal of Tourism Studies, 14(1): 37-48.
[31] Chattalas, M., Kramer, T., and Takada, H. 2008. The impact of national stereotypes on the country of origin effect: A conceptual framework. International Marketing Review, 25 (1): 54-74.
[32] Chen, C.-C., Lai, Y.-H., Petrick, J., and Lin, Y.-H. 2016. Tourism between divided nations: An examination of stereotyping on destination image. Tourism Management, 55: 25-36.
[33] Chi, C. G. Q., and Qu, H. 2008. Examining the structural relationships of destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: An integrated approach. Tourism Management, 29: 624-636.
[34] Chon, K-S. 1990. The role of destination image in tourism: A review and discussion. Revue du Tourisme, 2: 2–9.
[35] Chon, K-S. 1991. Tourist destination image modification process. Marketing implications. Tourism Management, 12(1): 68–72.
[36] Chon, K-S. 1992. The role of destination image in tourism: An extension. Revue du Tourisme, 1: 2–8.
[37] Clark, M. S., and Reis, H. T. 1988. Interpersonal processes in close relationships. Annual Review of Psychology, 39(1): 609-672.
[38] Dibble, J. L., Levine, T. R., and Park, H. S. 2012. The uni-dimensional relationship closeness scale (URCS): reliability and validity evidence for a new measure of relationship closeness. Psychological Assessment, 24(3): 565-572.
[39] Drazin, R., and Van de Ven, A. H. 1985. Alternative forms of fit in contingency theory. Administrative Science Quarterly, 514-539.
[40] Dunn, D. M., and Dunn, L. M. 2007. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test: Manual. Pearson.
[41] Eagly, A. H., and Chaiken, S. 1993. The Psychology of Attitudes. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.
[42] Echtner, C. M., and Ritchie, J. R. B. 1991. The meaning and measurement of destination image. The Journal of Tourism Studies, 2(2): 2–12.
[43] Echtner, C. M., and Ritchie, J. 1993. The measurement of destination image: An empirical assessment. Journal of Travel Research, 31 (3): 3-13.
[44] Embacher, J., and Buttle, F. 1989. A repertory grid analysis of Austria’s Image as a summer vacation destination. Journal of Travel Research, 28(3): 3–23.
[45] Engel, J. F., Blackwell, R. D., and Miniard, P. W. 1986. Consumer Behavior (5th ed.). Chicago, IL: The Dryden Press.
[46] Fakeye, P. C., and Crompton, J. L. 1991. Image differences between prospective, first-time, and repeat visitors to the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Journal of Travel Research, 30(2): 10–16.
[47] Fischer, E., and Arnold, S. J. 1990. More than a labor of love: Gender roles and Christmas gift shopping. Journal of Consumer Research, 17(3): 333-345.
[48] Fishbein, M., and Ajzen, I. 1975. Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. MA: Addison-Wesley.
[49] Fiske, S. T., and Taylor, S. 1991. Social Cognition. McGraw-Hill.
[50] Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A., Glick, P., and Xu, J. 2002. A Model of (Often Mixed) stereotype content: competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82 (6): 878–902.
[51] Fiske, S. T., Neuberg, S. L., Beattie, A. E., and Milberg, S. J. 1987. Category-based and attribute-based reactions to others: Some informational conditions of stereotyping and individuating processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 23(5): 399-427.
[52] Fiske, S. T., Xu, J., and Cuddy, A. 1999. (Dis)respecting versus (Dis)liking: Status and interdependence predict ambivalent stereotype of competence and warmth. Journal of Social Issues, 55 (3): 473-489.
[53] Fry, L. W., and Smith, D. A. 1987. Congruence, contingency, and theory building. Academy of Management Review, 12: 117-132.
[54] Gallarza, M. G., Saura, I., and Garcıa, H. 2002. Destination image toward a conceptual framework. Annals of Tourism Research, 29 (1): 56-78.
[55] Gartner, W. C. 1989. Tourism image: attribute measurement of state tourism products using multidimensional scaling techniques. Journal of Travel Research, 28(2):16–20.
[56] Gartner, W. C. 1993. Image formation process. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 2(2/3):191–215.
[57] Gartner, W. C. 1996. Tourism Development: Principles, Policies, and Policies. New York: Van Nostram Reinhold.
[58] Ginsberg, A., and Venkatraman, N. 1985. Contingency perspectives of organizational strategy: A critical review of the empirical research. Academy of Management Review, 10(3): 421-434.
[59] Goodrich, J. N. 1978. A new approach to image analysis through multidimensional scaling. Journal of Travel Research, 17(2): 2–7.
[60] Govers, R. and Go, F. 2003. Deconstructing destination image in the information age. Information Technology and Tourism, 6 (1): 13-29.
[61] Gunn, C. A. 1972. Vacationscape: designing tourist regions. Austin, Texas: Bureau of Business Research, University of Texas at Austin.
[62] Gunn, C. A. 1988. Vacationscape: Designing tourist regions. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Mansfeld, Y. (1992). From motivation to actual travel. Annals of Tourism Research, 19(3): 399-419.
[63] Hallmann, K., and Breuer, C. 2010. The impact of image congruence between sport event and destination on behavioural intentions, Tourism Review, 65(1): 66 – 74.
[64] Halpenny, E. A. 2006. Environmental behaviour, place attachment and park visitation: A case study of visitors to Point Pelee National Park.
[65] Harrigan, K. R. 1983. Research methodologies for contingency approaches to business strategy. Academy of Management Review, 8(3): 398-405.
[66] Hirschman, E. C. 1983. Aesthetics, ideologies and the limits of the marketing concept. The Journal of Marketing, 47: 45-55.
[67] Jain, V. 2014. 3D Model of attitude. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management and Social Sciences, 3 (3): 1-12.
[68] Jalilvand, M. R., and Samiei, N. 2012. The impact of electronic word of mouth on a tourist destination choice: Testing the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Internet Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy, 22(5): 591-612.
[69] Jenkins, O. H. 1999. Understanding and measuring tourist destination images. International Journal of Tourism Research, 1: 1-15.
[70] Kaynak, E., and Cavusgil, S. 1983. Consumer attitudes toward products of foreign origin: do they vary across product classes? International Journal of Advertising, 2 (2): 147-157.
[71] Kim, H.-S. 2006. Using hedonic and utilitarian shopping motivations to profile inner city consumers. Journal of Shopping Center Research, 13 (1): 57-79.
[72] Kim, H., and Richardson, S. L. 2003. Motion picture impacts on destination images. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(1): 216-237.
[73] Koerte, T. R. 2009. The projected and perceived image of the United Republic of Tanzania. CFS Honors Program Undergraduate Theses, 8.
[74] Kotler, P. 1997. Marketing Management. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
[75] Kotler, P., and Gertner, D. 2002. Country as brand, product, and beyond: a place marketing and brand management perspective. Journal of Brand Management, 9 (4/5): 249-261.
[76] Kotler, P., Splund, C., Rein, I., and Haider, D. 1999. Marketing Places Europe. Harlow, London: Pitman.
[77] Kotler, P.T., Bowen, J. T., and Makens, J. 1996. Marketing for Hospitality and Tourism, 2nd Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall
[78] Lawson, F., and Bond-Bovy, M. 1977. Tourism and Recreational Development. London: Architectural Press.
[79] Levine, T. R., and McCornack, S. A. 1992. Linking love and lies: A formal test of the McCornack and Parks model of deception detection. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 9(1): 143-154.
[80] Lopes, S. D. 2011. Destination Image: Origins, Development and Implications. PASOS. Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural, 9 (2): 305 – 315.
[81] Lubbe, B. 1998. Primary image as a dimension of destination image: an empirical assessment. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 7(4): 21-43.
[82] Malhotra, N. K. 2007. Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation. 5th edition. Pearson International Edition. Prentice Hall.
[83] Mansfeld, Y. 1992. From motivation to actual marketing. Annals of Tourism Research, 19: 399-419.
[84] Mayo, E. J. 1973. Regional images and regional travel behavior. The Travel Research Association Fourth Annual Conference proceeding. Sun Valley, ID: TTRA.
[85] Miles, R. E., Snow, C. C., Meyer, A. D., and Coleman, H. J. 1978. Organizational strategy, structure, and process. Academy of Management Review, 3(3): 546-562.
[86] Miller, N. E., and Dollard, J. 1941. Social learning and imitation. Published by Pub. for the Institute of human relations by Yale university pressH. Milford, Oxford University Press.
[87] Milman, A., and Pizam, A. 1995. The role of awareness and familiarity with a destination: The Central Florida case. Journal of Travel Research, 33(3): 21-27.
[88] Jalilvand, M. R., Samiei, N., Dini, B., and Manzari, P. Y. 2012. Examining the structural relationships of electronic word of mouth, destination image, tourist attitude toward destination and travel intention: An integrated approach. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 134-143
[89] Moore, R. L., and Graefe, A. R. 1994. Attachments to recreation settings: The case of rail‐trail users. Leisure Sciences, 16(1): 17-31.
[90] Osgood, C., and Tannenbaum, P. 1955. The principle of congruity in the prediction of attitude change. Psychology Review, 62: 42-55.
[91] Phelps, A. 1986. Holiday destination image - the problem of assessment: An example developed in Menorca. Tourism Management, 7(3): 168-180.
[92] Rial, A., Ferreira, S.D. and Varela, J. 2009. Análise conjunta: uma aplicação ao estudo das preferências dos consumidores, Portuguese Journal of Marketing, 25.
[93] Riley, S., and Palmer, J. 1975. Of attitudes and latitudes: a repertory grid study of perceptions of seaside resorts. Journal of the Market Research Society, 17(2): 74-89.
[94] Roth, K., and Diamantopoulos, A. 2009. Advancing the country image construct. Journal of Business Research, 62: 726 – 740.
[95] Hosany, S. and Gilbert, D. 2010. Measuring tourists’ emotional experiences toward hedonic holiday destinations. Journal of Travel Research,49(4): 513–526.
[96] Schneider, D. J. 2005. The psychology of Stereotyping. New York, USA: The Guilford Press.
[97] Scott, D. R., Schewe, C. D., and Frederick, D. G. 1978. A multi-brand /multi-attribute model of tourist state choice. Journal of Travel Research, 17(1): 23-29.
[98] Seaton, T. V. 1994. Tourism marketing and research. In Tourism: The State of the Art, pp. 428–435. Chichester: Wiley.
[99] Sessa, A. 1989. Characteristics of tourism. In Tourism Marketing and Management Handbook, S. F. Witt and L. Moutinho, eds., pp. 43–45. Cambridge: Prentice Hall.
[100] Sherry, J. F. 1990. A sociocultural analysis of a Midwestern American flea market. Journal of Consumer Research, 17(1): 13-30.
[101] Smith, S. L. 1994. The tourism product. Annals of Tourism Research, 21: 582–595.
[102] Snepenger, D., Murphy, L., Snepenger, M., and Anderson, W. 2004. Normative meanings of experiences for a spectrum of tourism places. Journal of Travel Research, 43 (2): 108-117.
[103] Snow, C. C., and and Miles, R. E. 1983. The role of strategy in the development of a general theory of organizations. Advances in Strategic Management, 2(1): 213-259.
[104] Solomon, M. 2010. Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, and Being. 9th Edition. Prentice-Hall.
[105] Solomon, M., Bamossy, G., Askegaard, S., and Hogg, M. 2006. Consumer Behavior: An European Perspective, Third Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA: Pearson Education Limited.
[106] Solomon, M., Russell-Bennett, R., and Previte, J. 2012. Consumer Behaviour. Pearson Higher Education AU.
[107] Solomon, M.R. 1996. Consumer Behavior. Prentice Hall International, 3rd Ed., London, UK.
[108] Stabler, M. J. 1988. The image of destination regions: theoretical and empirical aspects. In Marketing in the Tourism Industry: The Promotion of Destination Regions, B. Goodall and G. Ashworth, eds., pp. 133–161. London: Croom Helm.
[109] Sun, Q. 2009. An Analytical Model of the Determinants and Outcomes of Nation Branding. University of North Texas.
[110] Tajfel, H. 1981. Human Groups and Social Categories: Studies in Social Psychology, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY.
[111] Taylor, S. E., Fiske, S. T., Etcoff, N. L., and Ruderman, A. J. 1978. Categorical and contextual bases of person memory and stereotyping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36(7): 778 - 793.
[112] Telisman-Kosuta, N. 1989. Tourist destination Image. In Tourism Marketing and Management Handbook, S. F. Witt and L. Moutinho, eds., pp. 557–561. Cambridge: Prentice Hall.
[113] Thompson, J. D. 1967. Organizations in Action: Social Science Bases of Administrative Theory. Transaction Publishers.
[114] Venkatraman, N. 1989. The Concept of fit in strategy research: Toward verbal and statistical correspondence. The Academy of Management Review, 14 (3): 423-444.
[115] Venkatraman, N., and Camillus, J. C. 1984. Exploring the concept of “fit” in strategic management. Academy of Management Review, 9(3): 513-525.
[116] Williams, D. R., and Vaske, J. J. 2003. The measurement of place attachment: Validity and generalizability of a psychometric approach. Forest Science, 49(6): 830-840.
How to Cite
RAHAYU, Sri; ASSAURI, Sofjan; HERUWASTO, Ignatius. The Idea of Congruence between Image and Society Stereotype on Attitude toward Tourist Destination. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, [S.l.], v. 8, n. 4, p. 761-774, oct. 2017. ISSN 2068-7729. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 25 june 2022. doi: