Agrarian Governance – Who, What, Why, How, Where, When, Price, Level?

  • Hrabrin BACHEV Institute of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Academy, Bulgaria

Abstract

The problem of understanding and evaluation of agrarian governance is among the most topical academic and practical tasks. However, there are huge differences in understandings of the governance among scholars, practitioners, official and business documents. Sometimes it is associated with the top management (country, organization); sometimes it is related to government agencies (public administration); sometimes it encompasses the management outside government entities; sometimes it is synonym of Management or a part of Management of organization, while in some case it is more general than Management including a variety of modes. This article adapts the New Institutional Economics methodology and proposes an adequate definition and framework for analyzing the system of agrarian governance. Based on a critical review of publications and experiences, the agrarian governance is understood as a complex system including: agrarian and related agents involved in making management decisions; rules, forms and mechanisms that govern behavior, activities and relationships of agrarian agents; processes and activities related to making governing decisions; a specific social order resulting from functioning of the system. Analysis includes individual elements for the system, different levels and main functional areas, for which adequate methods of institutional approach are suggested. Personal characteristics of participating agents, institutional environment, transaction costs and benefits, comparative efficiency of alternative governing structures, and "time factor" are considered. First holistic assessment found that Governance of Bulgarian agriculture is at moderate level having in mind EU perspective. Highest performance is attained for principles Equity and Solidarity and Good Working Public Sector while in terms of Working Private Sector and Stakeholders Involvements it is lowest.


 

References

[1] Aguilera R., and Cuervo-Cazurra, A. 2009. Codes of Good Governance. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 17(3): 376–387.
[2] Ali, M. 2015. Governance and Good Governance: A Conceptual Perspective. The Dialogue, X(1): 67-77.
[3] Andrews, M. 2008. The good governance agenda: Beyond indicators without theory. Oxford Development Studies, 36(4). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13600810802455120
[4] Babu, S. and Juvvadi, D. 2014. Analisis of Governance in Agriculture – a Conceptual Framework and Applications, IFPRI.
[5] Bachev, H. 2021. Study on Governance Mechanisms and Modes of Ecosystem Services in Bulgarian Farms. Journal of Advanced Research in Management, 12 (24): 54-76.
[6] Bachev, H. 2022. About the Governance Efficiency of Agricultural Farms. The Case of Bulgaria. Journal of Applied Economic Sciences, 1(75): 5-20.
[7] Bachev, H. 2022. An Approach to Assess the Governance Efficiency of Bulgarian Farms. Economic-Alternatives, 769-787.
[8] Bachev, H. 2023. Understanding and Assessment of Agrarian Governance. Recent Trends in Data Mining and Business Forecasting, 4(1): 19-37.
[9] Bachev, H. 2023. What is Agrarian Governance?, in A. Tavidze (Editor) Progress in Economics Research, Vol. 51, Nova Science Publisher, New York.
[10] Bachev, H. and Ivanov, B. 2023. About the Good Governance of Bulgarian Agriculture. Proceedings, 12th International Symposium of Agricultural Sciences, Trebinje.
[11] Bachev, H., Ivanov, B. and Sarov, A. (2020): Unpacking Governance Sustainability of Bulgarian Agriculture, Economic Studies, 6, 106-137.
[12] Bachev, H. 2010. Governance of Agrarian Sustainability, New York: Nova Science Publishers.
[13] Bachev, H. 2011. Needs, Modes and Efficiency of Economic Organizations and Public Interventions in Agriculture. Review of Economics & Finance, 1: 89-103.
[14] Bachev, H. 2012. Efficiency of Farms and Agrarian Organizations. Economic Tought, 4: 46-77.
[15] Bachev, H. 2014. Forms, Factors and Efficiency of Eco-management in Bulgarian Farms. Economic Tought, 5: 86-112.
[16] Backer, L. 2011. Private Actors and Public Governance Beyond the State: The Multinational Corporation, the Financial Stability Board and the Global Governance Order. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies, Vol. 17.
[17] Bayyurt, N., Serin, Z. and Arıkan, F. 2015. Good Governance and Agricultural Efficiency. Journal of Social and Development Sciences, 6(1): 14-23.
[18] Benz, M. and Frey, B. 2005. Corporate Governance: What Can We Learn from Public Governance? in Academy of Management Review, Working Paper No. 16.6.
[19] Bevir, M. 2012. Governance: A very short introduction. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
[20] Bloor K. 2022. Global Governance: Political and Economic Governance, in Understanding Global Politics by Kevin Bloor, E-International Relations.
[21] Boevsky, I. 2020. Cooperative Movement in Bulgaria, University Publishing, Sofia.
[22] Boevsky, I. and Sarov, A. 2017. Cooperative Governance-Challenges and Perspectives, Proceeding Scientific Forum the XXI Century Business-Trends and Challenges, UNWE, Sofia, 366-377.
[23] Braun, J. and Birner, R. 2017. Designing Global Governance for Agricultural Development and Food and Nutrition Security. Review of Development Economics, 21(2): 265–284.
[24] Carbone, A. 2017. Food supply chains: coordination governance and other shaping forces. Agricultural and Food Economics, 5, 3.
[25] Chakrabarti, U. 2021. Assembling the Local: Political Economy and Agrarian Governance in British India. The University of Pennsylvania Press.
[26] Cheshire L., Higgins, V. and Lawrence, G. 2007. Rural Governance. International perspectives, Routledge.
[27] Chhotray, V. and Stoker, G. 2009. Governance Theory and Practice. A Cross-Disciplinary Approach, PALGRAVE MACMILLAN.
[28] Coase, R. 1937. The Nature of the Firm. Economica, 4(16): 386-405.
[29] Coase, R. 1991. The Institutional Structure of Production, Nobel Prize Lecture, reprinted in 1992. American Economic Review, 82(4): 713-719.
[30] Coase, R. 1998. The New Institutional Economics. American Economic Review, 88(2): 72-74.
[31] Cook, M. 1995. The Future of U.S. Agricultural Cooperatives: A Neo-Institutional Approach. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 77(5).
[32] Dasgupta, S. and Roy, I. 2011. Good Agricultural Governance, A resource guide focused on smallholder crop production, RAP Publication 2011/18, FAO.
[33] Dimitrov, M., et al. 2014. Corporate governance for the XXI century. Gorex Press, Sofia.
[34] Dixit, A. 2016. Economic Governance, The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Springer, 1-11.
[35] Freidberg, S. 2019. “Unable to Determine”: Limits to Metrical Governance in Agricultural Supply chains. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 45(4): 738-760.
[36] Frija A., et al. 2021. The governance of collective actions in agro-silvopastoral systems in Tunisia. A historical institutional analysis, in Governance for Mediterranean Silvopastoral Systems, Routledge.
[37] Fukuyama, F. 2016. Governance: What Do We Know, and How Do We Know It? Annual Review Political Sciences, 19: 89–105.
[38] Furubotn E., and Richter R. 2005. Institutions and Economic Theory: The Contribution of the New Institutional Economics, Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
[39] Ganev, G., Popoca, M. and Bonken, F. 2020. Bulgaria Report, Sustainable Governance Indicators, SGI.
[40] Georgiev, M. and Roycheva, A. 2017. New Institutional Economics and Methods for Measuring the Adaptation of Bulgarian Agriculture. Trakia Journal of Sciences, 15(1): 199-205.
[41] Georgiev, М. 2013. Impact of the Administration Structure and Transaction Costs on the Agricultural Land Market. Trakia Journal of Sciences, 11(11): 527-534.
[42] German, L. 2018. Catalyzing self-governance: Addressing multi-faceted collective action dilemmas in densely settled agrarian landscapes. International Journal of the Commons, 12(2): 217–250.
[43] Herrfahrdth, E. 2006. Water Governance in the Kyrgyz Agricultural Sector, DFID, Bonn.
[44] Higgins, V. and Lawrence, G. 2005. Agricultural Governance: Globalization and the New Politics of Regulation, Routledge.
[45] Hufty, M. 2011. Investigating Policy Processes: The Governance Analytical Framework. In: Research for Sustainable Development, Bern: Geographica Bernensia: 403–424.
[46] Ivanov, B. and Bachev, H. 2023. How Good is the Governance of Bulgarian Agriculture? Economic Alternatives (under publication).
[47] Ivanov, B. 2022. Working paper for application of methodology for assessment for comparative analysis and probability estimation. Institute of Agricultural Economics, Sofia.
[48] James, H., Klein, P. and Sykuta, M.2011. The Adoption, Diffusion, and Evolution of Organizational Form: Insights from the Agrifood Sector. Managerial and Decision Economics, 32(4): 243–59.
[49] Katsamunska, P. 2016. The Concept of Governance and Public, Governance Theories. Economic Alternatives, 2: 134-141.
[50] Kumar, A., and Sharma, A. 2020.Socio-Sentic framework for sustainable agricultural governance. Sustainable Computing: Informatics and Systems, 28: 100274.
[51] Ledger, T. 2016. Power and Governance in Agri-food Systems: Key Issues for Policymakers, TIPS.
[52] Levi-Four D. (ed.) 2012. The Oxford Handbook of Governance. Oxford University Press.
[53] Malapi-Nelson, A. 2017. Cybernetics: The Book, the Club, and the Decline. The Nature of the Machine and the Collapse of Cybernetics: A Transhumanist Lesson for Emerging Technologies. Palgrave Studies in the Future of Humanity and its Successors. Cham (Zug), Springer.
[54] Morfi, C 2020. Organisation and Governance of Agri-Food Systems Implications of Intellectual Property Rights in Plant Biotechnology, Doctoral Thesis, Faculty of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
[55] Muluneh, T. 2021. Conceptualizing Digital Agricultural Governance. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, 10(1).
[56] Narzary, M. 2015. Concept of Good Governance. In S. Mangla (Ed), Citizenship and Governance, 17-45. New Delhi: Kaveri Books.
[57] North, D. 1990 Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[58] North, D. 1991. Institutions. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5(1): 97–112.
[59] Osabohien, R., Ufua, D., Moses, C. L., and Osabuohien, E. 2020. Accountability in agricultural governance and food security in Nigeria. Brazilian Journal of Food Technology, 23.
[60] Ostrom, E. 1990. Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, Cambridge University Press.
[61] Ostrom, E. 1999. Revisiting the Commons: Local Lessons, Global Challenges, Science 284: 278–282.
[62] Ostrom, E. 2009. Beyond Markets and States: Polycentric Governance of Complex Economic Systems, Nobel Prize Lecture, December 8, 2009.
[63] Ostrom, E. 2014. A Polycentric Approach for Coping with Climate Change. Annals of Economics and Finance, 15-1: 97–134.
[64] Ostrom, E. and Schlüter, A. Achim (Editors) 2007. The challenge of self-governance in complex, globalizing economies: Collection of revised papers of a PhD seminar, Arbeitsbericht, Working Paper No. 47-2007
[65] Planas J., Schuurman, A. and Segers, Y. 2022. The formation of agricultural governance: the interplay between state and civil society in European agriculture, 1870-1940, WASSRural and Environmental History.
[66] Riegner, M. 2012. Measuring the Good Governance State: A Legal Reconstruction of the World Bank’s “Country Policy and Institutional Assessment”, IRPA Working Paper – GAL No. 6/2012.
[67] Rodorff V., et al. 2019. Good Governance: A Framework for Implementing Sustainable Land Management, Applied to an Agricultural Case in Northeast-Brazil. Sustainability, 11(16):4303.
[68] Ronaghi, M., Ronaghi, M. and Kohansal, M. 2020. Agricultural Governance, Verlag: GlobeEdit.
[69] Sacconi, L. 2012. Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Governance, EconomEtica, No. 38, SSRN, Working papers, N.38.
[70] Schwindenhammer, S. 2018. The New Regionalism in Global Organic Agricultural Governance Through Standards: A Cross-Regional Comparison. Global Environmental Politics, 18(3).
[71] Scmitter, P. 2018. Defining, explaining and then, exploiting the elusive concept of 'governance', Springer Heidelberg.
[72] Shand, R. 2018. The Governance of Sustainable Rural Renewal. A comparative global perspective, Routledge.
[73] Skerman. T. 2016. Agribusiness Governance Finding the Green Zone, Rural Leaders.
[74] Stefanov, R., Yalamov, T. and Mineva, D. 2016. Hidden Economy and Good Governance in Southeast Europe, Regional Assessment Report, SELDI.
[75] Steffek, J. and Wegmann, P. 2021. The Standardization of “Good Governance” in the Age of Reflexive Modernity. Global Studies Quarterly, 1(4): ksab029.
[76] Sykuta, M. 2010. Concentration, Contracting and Competition: Problems In Using The Packers & Stockyards Act To Supplement Antitrust. The CPI Antitrust Journal, 4(2).
[77] Sykuta, M., and Cook, M. 2001. A New Institutional Economics Approach to Contracts and Cooperatives. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 83(5).
[78] Terziev, D., Zhou, P., Terziyska, R., and Zhang, D. 2018. Food Safety: Technologies and Governance, Sofia: Yearbook of UNWE, 121-140.
[79] Tleubayev, A., et al. 2021. Corporate governance and firm performance within the Russian agri-food sector: does ownership structure matter? International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, 24(4).
[80] Torres-Salcido, G. and Sanz-Cañada, J. 2018. Territorial Governance. A Comparative Research of Local Agro-Food Systems in Mexico. Agriculture, 8, 18.
[81] Tripathi, R. 2017. Good Governance: Origin, Importance and Development in India. International Journal of Development Research, 07(11): 16968
[82] Trubek, D. and Trubek, L. 2007. New Governance & Legal Regulation: Complementarity, Rivalry, and Transformation. SSRN Legal Studies Research Paper Series, Paper No. 1047.
[83] Tyndale, W. and Frith, J. 1831. The works of Tyndale. Ebenezer Palmer.
[84] Vymětal, P. 2007. Governance: Defining the Concept, Faculty of International Relations, University of Economics, Prague, Working Papers, 1/2007
[85] Weiss, T. 2000. Governance, good governance and global governance: conceptual and actual challenges”, Third World Quarterly, 21(5): 795– 814.
[86] Williamson, O. 1996. The Mechanisms of Governance. Oxford University Press.
[87] Williamson, O. 1999. Public and Private Bureaucracies: A Transaction Cost Economics Perspective. Journal of Law Economics and Organization, 15(1): 306-42
[88] Williamson, O. 2000. The New Institutional Economics: Taking Stock, Looking Ahead. Journal of Economic Literature. Vol. XXXVIII: 595–613.
[89] Williamson, O. 2005. The Economics of Governance. American Economic Review, 95(2): 1-18.
[90] Wolman H., Levy, A. and Hincapie, D. 2008. GOVERNMENT and GOVERNANCE, In Wolman et al. Economic Competitiveness and the Determinants of Sub-National Area Economic Activity (2008) and Kosarko and Weissbourd (2010), Economic Impacts of GO TO 2040.
[91] *** AAID (2008). Economic governance, ANNUAL THEMATIC PERFORMANCE REPORT 2006–07 Australian Agency for International Development, FEBRUARY 2008
[92] *** BRITANICA. 2023. Governance. Available at: https://www.britannica.com/topic/civil-union
[93] *** Council of Europe. 2022. 12 Principles of good democratic governance, Council of Europe.
[94] *** Darjaven vestnik. 2020. Law for Governing Agro-Food Chain. State Gazette, 51, 5 June 2020.
[95] *** DFID, 2010. The limits of decentralized governance: the case of agriculture in Malawi, DFID, Policy Brief 033.
[96] *** EC, 2021. Public Administration and Governance: BULGARIA, EC.
[97] *** EU, 2019. European Governance, EU. Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/summary/glossary/governance.html
[98] *** IFAD 1999. Good Governance: an Overview, IFAD, Executive Board – Sixty-Seventh Session, Rome, 8-9 September 1999.
[99] *** IoG 2003. Principles for Good Governance in the 21st Century, Institute of Governance.
[100] *** OECD, 2015, G20/OECD Principles of Corporate Governance, OECD Publishing, Paris.
[101] *** OECD, 2019. Review of the Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises. BULGARIA, OECD.
[102] *** UN 2015. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), United Nation.
[103] *** Wikipedia 2023. Governance. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Governance
[104] *** World Bank 1992. Governance and Development, World Bank.
[105] *** World Bank 2022. Worldwide Governance Indicators. World Bank.
Published
2023-06-26
How to Cite
BACHEV, Hrabrin. Agrarian Governance – Who, What, Why, How, Where, When, Price, Level?. Theoretical and Practical Research in Economic Fields, [S.l.], v. 14, n. 1, p. 105 - 125, june 2023. ISSN 2068-7710. Available at: <https://journals.aserspublishing.eu/tpref/article/view/7867>. Date accessed: 19 june 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.14505/tpref.v14.1(27).10.