A Discussion on the Research Methodology for Building a Gender-Responsive and Inclusive Education System in a Fragile and Conflict Affected Setting: A Case of the Democratic Republic of Congo

  • Sanders ZAGABE Afrika Bridge Investments, Democratic Republic of Congo


It is widely agreed that gender equality has a huge impact on sustainable economic growth. However, the gap in gender equality is getting larger because of global challenges we are facing creating room for more context-adapted research. Indeed, the fragile and conflicting settings are unique in the way that people perceive life and each other. Furthermore, most research made in this kind of setting is not specific to solving the problems related to the education sector in this context. The uniqueness of the D.R. Congo comes from the fact that the education system has been run by the private sector since its very beginning. Thus, the success of research for inclusive and safe schools for marginalized populations cannot be possible without including a variety of bodies, starting from government to religious organizations, and not leaving behind international organizations and other private entities. To cope with this singularity, the study must apply documentary, survey, longitudinal, cross-sectional, and trend methodology. This methodology will allow the study to dig deep into the beliefs, culture, and habits that make school inaccessible to marginalized people. The method used in writing the article is an analysis of the English and Polish literature on the subject.



[1] Birger, F. 2005. ‘Education in the Democratic Republic of Congo Priorities and Options for Regeneration, a world bank country study’. The World Bank Washington, D.C. n. 34381. Available at: https://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/fr/277181468025495019/pdf/343810PAPER0DR101OFFICIAL0USE0ONLY1.pdf
[2] Bliss, K. E., and Burke, M. 2023. Reaching People in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Settings with Immunization Services. Available at: https://www.csis.org/analysis/reaching-people-fragile-and-conflict-affected-settings-immunization-services
[3] Bolton, L. 2020. Barriers to education for girls in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Knowledge, Evidence, Learning for Development Helpdesk Report 750. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies (2020). Available at: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/294767401.pdf
[4] Bouchrika, I. 2023. ‘What Is Empirical Research? Definition, Types and Samples’ 2023. Available at: https://research.com/research
[5] Cohen, L., Manion, L., and Morrison, K. 2002. Research methods in education. Routledge. Available at: https://www.routledge.com/Research-Methods-in-Education/Cohen-Manion-Morrison/p/book/9781138209886
[6] Unterhalter, E. 2019. ‘Achieving Gender Equality in and through Education’. Global partnership for education, July 2019. Available at: https://www.globalpartnership.org/sites/default/files/2019-07-kix-gender-final-english.pdf
[7] Ferrant, G., and Kolev, A. 2016. ‘The economic cost of gender-based discrimination in social institutions.’ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Center (2016).
[8] Gopinath, G. 2022. ‘IMF First Deputy Managing Director, Delivered at the Korea Gender Equality Forum, September 27 - 28, 2022’. Available at: https://www.imf.org/en/News/Articles/2022/09/27/sp092722-ggopinath-kgef-gender-korea
[9] Green, D. 2017. ‘Theories of change for promoting empowerment and accountability in fragile and conflict-affected settings’. Institute of Development Studies Working Paper 499 (2017). Available at: https://www.ids.ac.uk/publications/theories-of-change-for-promoting-empowerment-and-accountability-in-fragile-and-conflict-affected-settings/
[10] Green, D. 2016. ‘How change happens’. Oxford University Press, page 80-90. DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198785392.001.0001. Available at: http://library.oapen.org/handle/20.500.12657/32066
[11] Kante, I. 2013. ‘Why has the Democratic Republic of the Congo outsourced its responsibility to educate its people? A study on how the inefficiency of the civil service hinders the capacity of the state’ POSC 305 (2013). Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/336197508_Research_on_Education_in_the_DRC
[12] Piętak, L. 2014. ‘Comparative Economic Research. Central and Eastern Europe’. Warsaw: De Gruyter Pages 45-60 2014. Available at: https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/184301/1/cer-2014-0003.pdf
[13] Poliduts, A., Kapkaev, and Yuner. 2015. ‘Economic Growth: Types and Factors’ in Proceedings of International Conference of Eurasian Economies 2015, pp.62-66, Kazan, RUSSIA. DOI: https://doi.org/10.36880/C06.01404
[14] Ragetlie, R., Najjar, D., and Oueslati, D. 2022. ‘Dear Brother Farmer: Gender-Responsive Digital Extension in Tunisia during the COVID-19 Pandemic’. Sustainability 14(7), 4162 2022, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074162
[15] Schamp, J., Vanderplasschen, W., and Meulewaeter, F. 2022. ‘Treatment providers' perspectives on a gender-responsive approach in alcohol and drug treatment for women in Belgium’. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 13, n. 941384 (2022). Available at: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36111302/
[16] Taherdoost, H. ‘Sampling methods in research methodology: how to choose a sampling technique for research’. Hamta Group 2016. Available at: https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3205035
[17] Japan International Cooperation Agency(JICA). ‘Country Gender Profile, Democratic Republic of the Congo’, March 2017. Available at: https://www.jica.go.jp/Resource/english/our_work/thematic_issues/gender/background/c8h0vm0000anjqj6-att/drc_2017.pdf
[18] Ministry of education of D.R. Congo, SECOPE, 2023. Available at: https://www.eduquepsp.education/direction/secope.php
[19] The Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy (NIMD). ‘Working With Political Parties in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Settings’. Available at: https://nimd.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/2015-04-Fragile-and-Conflict-Affected-Settings.pdf
[20] UNDP, WeBelongAfrica, ‘UNDP HIV, Health and Development team, Africa, 2022’. Available at: https://www.undp.org/africa/projects/webelongafrica
How to Cite
ZAGABE, Sanders. A Discussion on the Research Methodology for Building a Gender-Responsive and Inclusive Education System in a Fragile and Conflict Affected Setting: A Case of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Research in Educational Sciences, [S.l.], v. 14, n. 16, p. 40 - 45, dec. 2023. ISSN 2068-8407. Available at: <https://journals.aserspublishing.eu/jres/article/view/8196>. Date accessed: 03 mar. 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.14505/jres.v14.16.04.