Unraveling the Gender Gap: A Comparative Analysis of School Enrollment and Secondary Education Completion in Pakistan's Provinces

  • Nadia REHMAN School of Education, Shaanxi Normal University, Xian, China
  • Irum ANDLEEB Fatima Jinnah Women University, Pakistan
  • Mussarat IQBAL School of Education, Shaanxi Normal University, Xian, China

Abstract

This study examines the gender gap in school enrollment and secondary school completion in Pakistan using secondary data from the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey (PSLM) and Pakistan Education Statistics reports. A comparative analysis of the four provinces and their districts is conducted to identify regional dynamics contributing to gender disparities in education. The research investigates the relationship between students who ever attended school, those who passed secondary school, and the gender gap in enrollment. Descriptive statistics analyze school enrollment rates and dropouts across different regions. Data from the official governmental reports, including the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics and PSLM (2019-20), and education statistics reports from 2017 for Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Balochistan, serve as the foundation for this analysis. The study offers valuable insights into the complex web of causality and influence shaping the persistence of gender disparities in education in Pakistan.

References

[1] Abdullah, M., and Zakar, P. D. R. 2020. Health literacy in South Asia: Clarifying the connections between health literacy and wellbeing in Pakistan. South Asian Studies, 34(2).
[2] Ahmad, I., Alam, A., Khan, N., and Ullah, R. 2023. Inequality Regimes, Patriarchal Connectivity, And Women’s Right To Property Inheritance In Rural Pakistan. Journal of Positive School Psychology, 1251-1267.
[3] Ahmed, K. A., et al. 2022. An analysis of the gender and social determinants of health in urban poor areas of the most populated cities of Pakistan. International Journal for Equity in Health, 21(1): 1-11.
[4] Ali, T. S., et al. 2022. Perpetuation of gender discrimination in Pakistani society: results from a scoping review and qualitative study conducted in three provinces of Pakistan. BMC Women's Health, 22(1): 1-21.
[5] Angrist, N., Djankov, S., Goldberg, P., and Patrinos, H. A. 2019. Measuring human capital. Available at SSRN 3339416.
[6] Awaworyi Churchill, S., Nuhu, A. S., and Lopez, K. 2019. Persistence of gender inequality: The role of ethnic divisions. Applied Economics, 51(8): 781-796.
[7] Batool, H., Anwar, M., and Asghar, N. 2021. Women Empowerment in the Perspective of Socioeconomics Dynamics: A Case Study of Northern Punjab, Pakistan. İlköğretim Online- Elementary Education Online, 20(5): 4852-4863.
[8] Batool, I., Saqib, M., and Ghaffari, A. S. 2019. Attitude Towards Third Gender: A Case Study Of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Applied Social Sciences, 9(1): 19-36.
[9] Bertocchi, G., and Bozzano, M. 2020. Gender gaps in education (pp. 1-31). Springer International Publishing.
[10] Beteille, T., Tognatta, N., Riboud, M., and Nomura, S. 2020. Ready to learn: Before school, in school, and beyond school in South Asia. World Bank Publications.
[11] Beyer, L. E., and Zeichner, K. 2018. Teacher education in cultural context: Beyond reproduction. In Critical studies in teacher education (pp. 298-334). Routledge.
[12] Bizenjo, S. (2020). Education in Pakistan: Are low-cost private schools closing the gender gap? International Journal of Educational Development, 77, 102209.
[13] Breda, T., Jouini, E., Napp, C., and Thebault, G. 2020. Gender stereotypes can explain the gender-equality paradox. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(49): 31063-31069.
[14] Brollo, F., Hanedar, E., and Walker, M. S. 2021. Pakistan: Spending Needs for Reaching Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). International Monetary Fund.
[15] Bukhari, M. A. H. S., Gaho, M. G. M., and Soomro, M. K. H. 2019. Gender inequality: problems and its solutions in Pakistan. The Government-Annual Research Journal of Political Science, 7(7).
[16] Choudhry, A. N., Abdul Mutalib, R., and Ismail, N. S. A. 2019. Socio-cultural factors affecting women economic empowerment in Pakistan: A situation analysis. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 9(5): 90-102.
[17] Dasgupta, A., and Karandikar, A. 2021. Gender-gap in learning outcomes under rainfall shocks: The role of gender norms (No. 70).
[18] Durrani, N., and Halai, A. 2018. Dynamics of gender justice, conflict and social cohesion: Analysing educational reforms in Pakistan. International Journal of Educational Development, 61: 27-39.
[19] Durrani, N., and Halai, A. 2020. Gender equality, education, and development: Tensions between global, national, and local policy discourses in postcolonial contexts. In Grading goal four (pp. 65-95). Brill.
[20] Fakhr, Z., and Messenger, H. 2020. Gender inequality and academic freedom in Pakistani higher education. In Faculty and Student Research in Practicing Academic Freedom (Vol. 31, pp. 67-84). Emerald Publishing Limited.
[21] Fausto-Sterling, A. 2019. The dynamic development of gender variability. In Homosexuality, transsexuality, psychoanalysis and traditional Judaism (pp. 155-182). Routledge.
[22] Holz, S., and Bano, A. 2022. Navigating Respectability in Patriarchal Contexts: Ethical Dilemmas of Women Researchers in Pakistan. International Quarterly for Asian Studies, 53(4): 553-585.
[23] Jæger, M. M., and Karlson, K. 2018. Cultural capital and educational inequality: A counterfactual analysis. Sociological Science, 5: 775-795.
[24] Khan, S. N., and Ali, E. I. 2018. The Moderating Effect of Intellectual Capital on the Relationship between Corporate Governance and Companies Performance in Pakistan. Journal of Governance and Integrity, 2(1): 12-22.
[25] Khurshid, A. 2016. Domesticated gender (in) equality: Women’s education and gender relations among rural communities in Pakistan. International Journal of Educational Development, 51: 43-50.
[26] Kim, S. Y. 2021. Determining critical factors of gender inequality: Evidence from 34 OECD and non-OECD countries. World Development Perspectives, 21, 100284.
[27] Kitterød, R. H., and Nadim, M. 2020. Embracing gender equality. Demographic Research, 42: 411-440.
[28] Pasha, H. K. (2023). Gender Differences in Education: Are Girls Neglected in Pakistani Society? Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 1-46.
[29] Pervez, S., and Iraqi, K. M. (2018). Gender Discrimination–Prevailing State In Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies, 16(1): 153-170.
[30] Raza, A., and Sohaib Murad, H. 2010. Gender gap in Pakistan: A socio‐demographic analysis. International Journal of social economics, 37(7): 541-557.
[31] Saleemi, S., and Kofol, C. 2022. Women’s participation in household decisions and gender equality in children’s education: Evidence from rural households in Pakistan. World Development Perspectives, 25, 100395.
[32] Sattar, T., Ahmad, S., and Asim, M. 2022. Intimate partner violence against women in Southern Punjab, Pakistan: A phenomenological study. BMC women's health, 22(1): 505.
[33] Seron, C., Silbey, S., Cech, E., and Rubineau, B. 2018. ‘I am Not a Feminist, but...’: Hegemony of a meritocratic ideology and the limits of critique among women in engineering. Work and occupations, 45(2): 131-167.
[34] Shah, S. A., and Armstrong, G. 2019. Exploring the Gender Gap in Reading in Pakistan. Teaching and Teacher Education: South Asian Perspectives, 113-149.
[35] Siddiqui, S., Zainal, H., Harun, S. N., Ghadzi, S. M. S., and Ghafoor, S. 2020. Gender differences in the modifiable risk factors associated with the presence of prediabetes: A systematic review. Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews, 14(5): 1243-1252.
[36] Syed, J., and Ali, F. 2019. A relational perspective on gender equality and mainstreaming. Human Resource Development International, 22(1): 4-24.
[37] Tayyaba, S. 2012. Rural‐urban gaps in academic achievement, schooling conditions, student, and teachers' characteristics in Pakistan. International Journal of Educational Management, 26 (1): 6-26.
[38] Xu, S., Asiedu, M., and Effah, N. A. A. 2022. Inclusive Finance, Gender Inequality, and Sustainable Economic Growth in Africa. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 1-37.
[39] Zafar, Z., and Ali, S. 2018. Education System of Pakistan: Social Functions and Challenges. Journal of Indian Studies, 4(1): 31-51.
[40] Zulfiqar, G., and Prasad, A. 2021. Challenging social inequality in the Global South: Class, privilege, and consciousness-raising through critical management education. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 20(2): 156-181.
Published
2023-12-10
How to Cite
REHMAN, Nadia; ANDLEEB, Irum; IQBAL, Mussarat. Unraveling the Gender Gap: A Comparative Analysis of School Enrollment and Secondary Education Completion in Pakistan's Provinces. Journal of Research in Educational Sciences, [S.l.], v. 14, n. 16, p. 26 - 39, dec. 2023. ISSN 2068-8407. Available at: <https://journals.aserspublishing.eu/jres/article/view/8195>. Date accessed: 03 mar. 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.14505/jres.v14.16.03.