UNCITRAL Approaches to Regulate Electronic Contracting. Are They Still Applicable? Based on Ukrainian and Other СIS Countries’ Experience

  • Tetiana DUDENKO Department of Civil Law, Yaroslav Mudryi National Law University, Kharkiv, Ukraine
  • Nataliia FILATOVA Department of Civil Law, Yaroslav Mudryi National Law University, Kharkiv, Ukraine
  • Iurii KHODYKO Yaroslav Mudryi National Law University, Kharkiv, Ukraine

Abstract

Contract formation by electronic means nowadays is a widespread phenomenon. Although electronic contracting has been thoroughly analyzed by scholars, there still remain some issues which need to be addressed. In our view, the most essential question raised by electronic contracting is whether there is a need to amend substantial contract law provisions with regard to peculiarities of contracts formed by electronic means. Seeking the answer to this question the UNCITRAL developed several basic approaches which come down to the idea that there is no need to amend substantial contract law provisions and create a special regulation for electronic contracting. However, a lot of countries have deviated from this approach and amended some special rules.


In this article the latest amendments of contract law provisions in the CIS countries as well as the provisions on contract formation which remained untouched are critically analyzed. Based on this analysis the following conclusion is made: the principles of functional equivalence and technology neutrality are still applicable to practice of electronic contracting. However, the ‘contract law neutrality’ approach should be carefully rethought since in some cases there is a need to adapt current contract law provisions to the new realm and new practices of contract formation.


 

References

[1] Gautrais, V. 2003. The colour of E-consent. University of Ottawa Law & Technology Journal, 1: 189-212.
[2] Kim, N.S. 2015. Wrap contracting and the online environment: Causes and cures. California Western School of Law Research Paper. Available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2650132
[3] Mootz, F.J. 2008. After the battle of the forms: commercial contracting in the electronic age. Journal of Law and Policy for the Information Society. Available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=981288
[4] Moringiello, J.M. 2005. Signals, assent and internet contracting. Rutgers Law Review, 57(4): 1307-1349.
[5] Moringiello, J.M., and Reynolds, W.L. 2010. Electronic contracting cases 2009-2010. Business Lawyer. Available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1628688
[6] Nolan, D. 2010. Offer and acceptance in the electronic age. Contract Formation and Parties. Available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3082505
[7] Rawls, A. 2009. Contract formation in an internet age. Columbia Science and Technology Law Review. Available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=1818330
[8] Russ, B. 2016. All wrapped up and now here to go: Wrap contracts meet the rapture. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.2731804
[9] Sasso, L. 2016. Certain comparative notes on electronic contract formation. Electronic Contracting in Europe, 214(55): 21-23.
[10] von Bar, C., and Clive, E. (Eds.). 2009. Principles, Definitions and Model Rules of European Private Law. Draft Common Frame of Reference (DCFR). European Law Publishing.
[11] Winn, J., and Haubold, J. 2002. Electronic promises: contract law reform and e-commerce in a comparative perspective. Erasmus Law Review, 27(5): 1-31.
[12] Civil Code of Republic of Armenia. 1998. Available at: http://www.translation-centre.am/pdf/Translat/ HH_Codes/CIVIL_CODE_en.pdf
[13] Civil Code of Republic of Belarus 218-3 from the 7th of December, 1998. Available at: http://xn----7sbakgchd ukjdc8auvwj.xn--90ais/statya-161
[14] Civil Code of Republic of Kazakhstan ҚР 1999.11.04 N 472. 1999. Available at: https://online.zakon.kz/ document/?doc_id=1006061
[15] Civil Code of Republic of Moldova LPC133/2018. 2018. Available at: http://lex.justice.md/ru/378416/
[16] Civil Code of Russian Federation. 1994. Available at: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons _doc_LAW_5142/
[17] Civil Code of Ukraine 435-IV 16th of January, 2003. Available at: http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/675-19/paran214#n214
[18] Directive 2002/65/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 September 2002 concerning the distance marketing of consumer financial services and amending Council Directive 90/619/EEC and Directives 97/7/EC and 98/27/EC. 2002. Available at: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/994_b31/ ed20160218
[19] Directive 2002/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 December 2002 on insurance mediation. 2002. Available at: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/994_a80
[20] Directive 2002/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 December 2002 on insurance mediation. 2002. Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX%3A32002L0092
[21] Directive 2008/48/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2008 on credit agreements for consumers and repealing Council Directive 87/102/EEC. 2008. Available at: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/ laws/show/994_b19
[22] Directive 2011/83/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2011 on consumer rights, amending Council Directive 93/13/EEC and Directive 1999/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and repealing Council Directive 85/577/EEC and Directive 97/7/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council Text with EEA relevance. 2011. Available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/ ?uri=celex%3A32011L0083
[23] German Civil Code. 2013. Available at: https://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/englisch_bgb/
[24] Guide to Enactment of the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Signatures. 2001. Available at: https://www.uncitral.org/pdf/english/texts/electcom/ml-elecsig-e.pdf
[25] Law of Republic of Kazakhstan on Electronic Document and Digital Signature. 2003. Available at: https://cis-legislation.com/document.fwx?rgn=3148
[26] Law of Republic of Moldova on Electronic Commerce. 2004. Available at: http://base.spinform.ru/show_ doc.fwx?rgn=7763
[27] Resolution of the Grand Chamber of Supreme Court from 03 July 2019 in case № 14-13119. 2019. Available at: http://reyestr.court.gov.ua/Review/82998244
[28] Resolution of the Supreme Court from 28 August 2019 in case No. 688/3062/16-ц. 2019. Available at: http://reyestr.court.gov.ua/Review/83976416
[29] The Law on Electronic Commerce No. 675-VIII from the 3d of September, 2015. Available at: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/675-19
[30] The Law on Electronic Document and Digital Signature No. 370-II from the 7th of January, 2003. Available at: https://online.zakon.kz/document/?doc_id=1035484#pos=192;-42
[31] The Law on Electronic Document and Digital Signature No. 3Р-40 from the 15th of January, 2005. Available at: http://www.parliament.am/legislation.php?sel=show&ID=2252&lang=arm&enc=utf8.
[32] UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce (1996) with additional article 5 bis as adopted in 1998 and Guide to Enactment. 1998. Available at: https://www.jus.uio.no/lm/un.electronic.commerce.model. law.1996/doc.html
[33] UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce with Guide to Enactment. 1996. Available at: https://www.uncitral.org/pdf/english/texts/electcom/05-89450_Ebook.pdf
[34] UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Signatures. 2001. Available at: https://uncitral.un.org/en/texts/ ecommerce/modellaw/electronic_signatures
[35] UNIDROIT Principles of commercial contracts (PICC). 2016. Available at: https://www.unidroit.org/ instruments/commercial-contracts/unidroit-principles-2016
[36] Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) USA. 2012. Available at: https://www.law.cornell.edu/ucc/index.html
[37] United Nations Convention on the Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracts. 2007. Available at: https://www.uncitral.org/pdf/english/texts/electcom/06-57452_Ebook.pdf
[38] United Nations Convention on the Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracts, 2005 United Nations (UN). 2005. Available at: https://www.jus.uio.no/lm/un.use.of.electronic.communication.in. international.contracts. convention. 2005/
Published
2019-12-30
How to Cite
DUDENKO, Tetiana; FILATOVA, Nataliia; KHODYKO, Iurii. UNCITRAL Approaches to Regulate Electronic Contracting. Are They Still Applicable? Based on Ukrainian and Other СIS Countries’ Experience. Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 8, p. 2317 – 2326, dec. 2019. ISSN 2068-696X. Available at: <https://journals.aserspublishing.eu/jarle/article/view/5278>. Date accessed: 22 may 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.14505/jarle.v10.8(46).10.