Surrogate Motherhood: Analysis of the Basis of the Legislation of Ukraine and Foreign Countries

  • Valentina A. VASILIEVA Department of Civil Law, Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine
  • Natalia M. STEFANYSHYN Department of Civil Law, Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine
  • Tetiana Ya. SKHAB-BUCHYNSKA Department of Civil Law, Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine

Abstract

In modern conditions, the use of methods of additional reproductive technologies is becoming increasingly relevant, which justifies the need for proper legal regulation of relevant legal relationships. A detailed study of diverse national approaches to solving the problem of surrogate motherhood shows the ambiguity of the position of legislators. Therefore, a comparative analysis of the foundations of legislation in this area gains a special significance within the framework of legal science.The objective of the article is to analyze the essence and content of the institute of surrogate motherhood, evaluate the current legislation of Ukraine in the specified area and conduct comparative analysis with the legislation of other states, elaborate recommendations and outline the prospects for further development of the domestic legal regulation of the studied legal relations.According to the results of the research, the authors define the concept of ‘contract of surrogate motherhood’ and proposes the adoption of a scientifically and legally substantiated Concept of Legal Acknowledgement of the Institute of Surrogate Motherhood, within the framework of which there should be a single normative legal act – the Law of Ukraine ‘On Surrogate Motherhood’ with simultaneous amendments to the current legislation of our country.

References

[1] A comparative study on the regime of surrogacy in EU member states. 2013. The European Parliament.Available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2013/474403/IPOL-JURI_ET(2013)474403_EN.pdf.
[2] Ablyatípova, N.A. 2009. Problems of surrogate motherhood in Ukraine. Actual problems of state and law. 51: 167–173.
[3] Act for Protection of Embryos (The Embryo Protection Act) of 13 December 1990. Bundesministerium der Justiz. 2015. Available at: https://www.rki.de/SharedDocs/Gesetzestexte/Embryonenschutzgesetz_englisch.pdf?__blob=publicationFile
[4] Antsuh, N.S. 2015. Cross-border problems of legal regulation of surrogate motherhood. Chetyre chetverti,
[5] Basay, N.M. 2014. Concept of surrogate motherhood. Civil law and civil process, family law, international private law. Precarpathian Legal Bulletin 3(6): 58–64
[6] Bayborosha, N.S. 2009. Harmonization of the legislation of CIS member states in the field of surrogate motherhood: theoretical aspects. Legal journal 4: 101–108.
[7] Bidaishiyeva, A., et al. 2018. Improving quality of legal regulation for social rights of family and child within new social course in Kazakhstan. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues 21(1): 1544-0044-21-1-165.
[8] Brinsden, P.R. 1999. Surrogacy. A textbook of in vitro fertilization and assisted reproduction. The Bourn Hall guide to clinical and laboratory practice. The Parthenon Publishing Group.
[9] Buhtiyarova, I.R. 2018. Administrative and legal principles of protection of childhood and motherhood in Ukraine.Research Institute of Public Law.
[10] Chernysheva, Yu. A. 2012. Legal status of a child born during the implementation of a surrogate motherhood program. Family and Housing Law 6: 34–36.
[11] Code of Marriage and Family of Ukraine: Law of the USSR dated 20.06.1969, No. 2006-VII. Available at: http://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2006-07.
[12] Constantin, T. 2017. Organizational diagnosis and analysis of psychosocial risk factors: A changing paradigm. Psihologia Resurselor Umane 15(1): 3-10.
[13] Constitution of the Italian Republic. Available at: https://www.senato.it/documenti/repository/istituzione/costituzione_inglese.pdf.
[14] Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) of 18.12.1979. Available at: http://zakon5.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/995_207.
[15] Convention on the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity in Connection with the Advancement of Biology and Medicine (the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine) (ETS-164) Available at: http://aau.edu.ua/static/lll/texts/medlaw/Konvenc%D1%96ya-pro-prava-lyudyny-tab%D1%96omedycynu.pdf.
[16] Da Costa, M.A. 2015. Acids and bases: Development of a sequence teaching for chemical teaching. Periodico Tche Quimica 12(24): 101-110.
[17] Déclaration de l’AMM sur la Fécondation In Vitro et le Transfert d’Embryon: [adoptée par la 39e Assemblée Médicale Mondiale Madrid (Espagne), oct. 1987 et supprimée à l’Assemblée générale de l’AMM, Pilanesberg, Afrique du Sud, Oct. 2006]. Available at: https://www.wma.net/fr/policies-post/declaration-de-lamm-sur-la-fecondation-in-vitro-et-le-transfert-dembryon/.
[18] Dronova, Yu.A. 2007. What you need to know about surrogacy.Gorodets.
[19] Encyclopedic dictionary of medical terms. URL: http://encdic. com/medicine/Gestacionnyj-6738.html.
[20] Fabre, C. 2006. Whose body is it anyway?Oxford Univ. Press.
[21] Family Code of Ukraine: Law of Ukraine dated January 10, 2002, No. 2947-III. Available at: http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2947-14.
[22] Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation of 18 April 1999. Available at: https://www.admin.ch/opc/en/classified-compilation/19995395/index.html.
[23] Fundamentals of Ukrainian Health Care Legislation: Law of Ukraine dated 19.11.1992, No. 2801-XII. Available at: http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2801-12.
[24] Glossary of terms of ART. 2009. Fertility and Sterility 92(5). Available at: http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/infertility/art_terminology2/ru/index.html.
[25] Golovaschuk, A.P. 2017.Civil regulation of relations related to the use of auxiliary reproductive technologies.V.M. Koretsky Institute of State and Law.
[26] History of Sutrimery. 2015. Available at: https://surogatnoematerinstvo.com.ua/ua/surogatne-materinstvo/tse-tsikavo/473-surmaterinstvo-istoriya.
[27] Hurtsilava, L. A. 2007.On the issue of surrogacy agreement.Actual Problems of Russian Law2: 155–161.
[28] Ibraev, Z.G., Yerkebaeva, N.A., Mirzakulova, B.A., Nazarkulova, L.T., Buribayev, Y.A., Khamzina, Z.A. 2017. Social rights, family and child guarantees in the context of the implementation of a new social course in Kazakhstan. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, 20(1): 1544-0044-20-1-128.
[29] International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) of 16.12.1966. Available at: http://zakon5.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/995_042
[30] Jackson, E. 2010. Medical law: text, cases and materials. 2nd ed. Oxford Univ. Press.
[31] Jones, H. W.2007. IVF surrogacy. Fertility and Sterility 8(4): 50–51.
[32] Kohler, K. 2017. Certain aspects of surrogacy in the judicial practice of European courts. Justice of Belarus 4: 69–74.
[33] Korbut, Yu.N. 2011. Determination of the origin of children at birth by a surrogate mother. Paper presented at the scientific-practical seminar of young scientists ‘Actual problems of science of the XXI century’, February 17, in Minsk, Republic of Belarus.
[34] Korenga, Yu.V. 2012. Surrogate Motherhood Treaty. Bulletin of the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine 5: 133–137.
[35] Kostruba, A.V. 2018a. Aspects of civil rights and their integration into international social and environmental legislation. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism 9(5): 995-1002.
[36] Kostruba, A.V. 2018b. Law enforcement as a form of realization of right: Phenomenological analysis experience (Civilized aspect). Revista de Derecho Civil 5(1): 177-190.
[37] Kostruba, A.V. 2018c. The place and role of right depriving legal facts in the legal regulation mechanism of civil property relations. Utopia y Praxis Latinoamericana 23(82): 171-183.
[38] Kvit, N.M. 2016. Institute of Surrogate Motherhood: Problems of Collision Regulation. Almanac of International Law14: 38–48.
[39] Lezhenin, V.N. 2002. Contractual problems associated with surrogacy. Paper presented at the scientific conference’Actual problems of civil law, civil and arbitration process’, March 15–16, in Voronezh, Russian Federation.
[40] MacCallum, F. 2003. Surrogacy: the experience of commissioning couples. Human Reproduction 18(6):1334–1342.
[41] Mazilescu, C.-A., Gangloff, B. 2017. Social utility and desirability of internal and external employees: Insights for collaboration at work. Psihologia Resurselor Umane 15(1): 69-79.
[42] Nyssanbekova, L., Toktybekov, T., Yessetova, S., Zhanat, Z. 2016. Some aspects of personality of individual in international law (rights of individual in the international criminal court, rights of migrants, refugees, rights of women and children in international humanitarian law, rights of investors). Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics 7(6): 1455-1464.
[43] Nyssanbekova, L.B., et al. 2015. Analysis of the concept of ‘natural person’ in public law and private law relations. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 6(5): 83-87.
[44] On Amendments and Additions to Certain Legislative Acts of the USSR on Matters Related to Women, Family and Childhood: Law of the USSR dated 22.05.1990, No. 1501-I. Available at: http://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/ru/v1501400-90.
[45] On Approval of the Procedure for the Use of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in Ukraine: Order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine dated 09.09.2013, No. 787. Available at: http://zakon0.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/z1697-13.
[46] On Approval of the Rules for State Registration of Civil Status Acts in Ukraine: Order of the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine dated October 18, 2000, No. 52/5.Available at: http://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/z0719-00.
[47] On Mediation at Adoption: The German Law of 02.07.1976. Gesetz über die Vermittlung der Annahme als Kind und über das Verbot der Vermittlung von Ersatzmüttern (Adoptionsvermittlungsgesetz – AdVermiG). Bundesgesetzblatt Nr. 78 vom 07.07.1976. Available at: http://www.bgbl.de/xaver/bgbl/start.xav?startbk=Bundesanzeiger_BGBl&jumpTo=bgbl176s1762.pdf#__bgbl__%2F%2F*%5B%40attr_id%3D%27bgbl176s1762.pdf%27%5D__1446215628622.
[48] On the health of the people and the health care system. The Code of Kazakhstan of 19.09.2009 № 193-IV. Available at: http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/K090000193_#z1952.
[49] Peresada, O.A., Lebedko, A.V. 2005. Assisted Reproductive Technologies: Ethical and Legal Issues. Medical News 6: 9–10.
[50] Pestrikova, A.A. 2007. Surrogate motherhood obligations. Samara Academy of Humanities.
[51] Recommendations of the Inter-Parliamentary Assembly of the States Parties to the Commonwealth of Independent States ‘On the ethical and legal regulation and safety of genetic medical technologies in the CIS countries’. Available at: http://iacis.ru/activities/documents/rekomendatsii/?sort_by=name.
[52] Rozhnon, O. 2010. Surrogate Motherhood: Problems of Legal and Contractual Regulation. Small Encyclopedia of the Notary 3(51): 120–140.
[53] Rusanovova, N.E. 2008. Reproductive Opportunities for Demographic Development. Kompaniya Sputnik.
[54] Samoylova, V.V. 2014. Surrogacy as a legal institution.Available at: http://teoria-practica.ru/rus/files/arhiv_zhurnala/2014/4/yurisprudentsiya/samoylova.pdf.
[55] Surrogate Motherhood Treaty: UK Law of 16.07.1985. Surrogacy Arrangements Act 1985. Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1985/49.
[56] Svitnev, K.N. 2006. Surrogate motherhood: history and modernity. Medical Newspaper 7.
[57] Talanov, Yu.Yu. 2012. Surrogate Maternity: Moral and Legal Aspects. Collection of scientific works of Gregory Skovoroda Kharkiv National Pedagogical University. ‘Law’19: 42–47.
[58] The Civil Code of Ukraine: Law of Ukraine of 16.01.2003, No 435-IV. Available at: http://zakon5.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/435-15.
[59] The Convention on the Protection of Children and Cooperation in the Field of Interstate Adoption (1993 Convention on International Adoption) of 29 May 1993. Available at: http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/995_365.
[60] UN Convention on the Rights of the Child of 20.11.1989. Available at: http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/995_021.
[61] Veres, I.Ya. 2013. Problems of legal regulation of surrogate motherhood. Lawyer 3: 27–31.
[62] Women and health: today's evidence tomorrow's agenda. World Health Organization. 2009. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/44168/9789241563857_eng.pdf?sequence=1.
[63] Yavor, O.A. 2012. Legal aspects of surrogate motherhood. University Scientific Notes 4(44): 127–133.
[64] Zashchirinskaia, O.V., et al. 2018. Concepts of friendship among primary school children with intellectual disability. Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University Bulletin 8(2): 26-42.
[65] Zashchirinskaya, O.V., Nikolaeva, E.I., Rybnikov, V.Y., Byzova, V.M. 2017. The influence of family communication on the specificity of the gestures perception by children of primary school age with mild mental retardation. Novosibirsk State Pedagogical University Bulletin 7(5): 81-93.
Published
2019-11-03
How to Cite
VASILIEVA, Valentina A.; STEFANYSHYN, Natalia M.; SKHAB-BUCHYNSKA, Tetiana Ya.. Surrogate Motherhood: Analysis of the Basis of the Legislation of Ukraine and Foreign Countries. Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics, [S.l.], v. 9, n. 6, p. 2176-2189, nov. 2019. ISSN 2068-696X. Available at: <https://journals.aserspublishing.eu/jarle/article/view/3986>. Date accessed: 26 may 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.14505//jarle.v9.6(36).33.