The Effects of Shock Advertising on Purchase Intentions and Behavior of Cigarettes in Collectivistic Culture

  • Edi PURWANTO Department of Management, Universitas Bunda Mulia, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Cindy UTAMA Department of Management, Universitas Bunda Mulia, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Betania WIJAYA Department of Management, Universitas Bunda Mulia, Jakarta, Indonesia


Then objective of the research area is to investigate: (1) The effect of the customers purchasing intention on purchasing behavior; (2) The moderating effect of Indonesian collectivist culture on the relationship between shock advertising and the customers purchase intention; and (3) The moderating effect of Indonesian collectivist culture on the relationship between shock advertising and the customers purchase behavior. In the study we collected quantitative data by convenience distributing questionnaires to the respondents are Indonesians in Jakarta, but not limited to Jakarta citizens only. This study uses non-probability sampling technique and the number of respondents or research sample is 250 respondents. The findings, firstly, the results of this research prove that there is a positive and significant effect of purchase intentions and purchase behavior towards cigarette products. Secondly, the use of shock advertising in order to reduce the number of smokers in Indonesia is not really effective, and thirdly, this research also found that there are no moderation affects of the collectivism culture towards the relationship between shock advertising with the purchase behavior to buy cigarettes in Indonesia. This paper shows that shock advertising is not have effect on purchase intentions and purchase behavior towards cigarette products in the collectivist culture, like as Indonesia.


[1] Ajzen, I. 1991. The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211.
[2] Allison, G. 2008. A Cross-Cultural Study of Motivation for Consuming Luxuries. Thesis for The Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Lincoln University: 200.
[3] Banyte, J., Paskeviciute, K., Rutelione, A. 2014. Features of shocking advertising impact on consumers in commercial and social context. Innovative Marketing, 10(2), 35-46.
[4] Belch, G.E., Belch, M.A., Kerr, G., Powell, I. 2009. Advertising and Promotion: An integrated marketing communication perspective. Australia, McGraw-Hill.
[5] Bezzaouia, M., Joanta, A.R. 2016. The relationships between cultural values and consumer motivations for purchasing luxury brands. Ecoforum, 5(1/8), 150-161.
[6] Brown, M. 2003. Buying or browsing? An exploration of shopping orientations and online purchase intention. European Journal of Marketing, 37(11/12), 1666-1684.
[7] Dahl, D.W., Frankenberger, K.D., Manchanda, R.V. 2003. Does It Pay to Shock? Reactions to Shocking and Nonshocking Advertising Contents among University Students. Journal of Advertising Research, 3(43), 268-280.
[8] Diamantopoulos, A., Winklhofer, H.M. 2001. Index construction with formative indicators: an alternative to scale development. Journal of Marketing Research, 38(2), 269–277.
[9] Fast Company & Inc. 2015. 25 Predictions For What Marketing Will Look Like In 2020. [Web log]. Retrieved from
[10] Fill, C. 2011. Essentials of Marketing Communications. United Kingdom, Pearson Education.
[11] Goel, R.K., Nelson, M.A. 2006. The Effectiveness of Anti-Smoking Legislation: A Review. Journal compilation, 20(3), 325-355.
[12] Ha, J., and Jang, S.C. 2012. The effects of dining atmospherics on behavioral intentions through quality perception. Journal of Services Marketing, 26/3: 204–215.
[13] Hair, J.F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C.M. Mena, J.A. 2012. An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling in marketing research. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40:414–433.
[14] Herman, Maryoni, H.S., Aida, W. 2016. Pengaruh Gambar Iklan Peringatan Merokok pada Bungkus Rokok Terhadap Sikap Berhenti Merokok bagi Pelanggan Merek Sampoerna A Mild di Desa Kepenuhan Barat Mulya. Jurnal Mahasiswa Prodi Manajemen Fakultas Ekonomi. Vol. 3, No. 2: 1-8.
[15] Hung, K-P., Chen, A.H., Peng, N., Hackley, C., Tiwsakul, R.A., and Chou, C-L. 2011. Antecedents of luxury brand purchase intention. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 20(6), 457-467
[16] Irawanto, D.W. 2009. An Analysis Of National Culture And Leadership Practices In Indonesia. Journal of Diversity Management, 4(2), 41-48.
[17] Jauw, A.L.J., and Purwanto, E. 2017. Moderation Effects of Cultural Dimensions on the Relationship between E-Service Quality and Satisfaction with Online Purchase, Quality Access to Success, Vol. 18, No. 157: 55-60.
[18] Javed, M.B., Zeb, H. 2011. Good shock or bad shock: what impact shock advertisements are creating on the mind of viewers//Marketing & Programme Leader International Business: Annual Conference on Innovations in Business & Management [London, 2011, January 26-27]. London, University of East London: 1-12.
[19] Kahttab, S.A., Al-Manasra, E.A., Zaid, M.K.S.A., Qutaishat, F.T. 2012. Individualist, Collectivist and Gender Moderated Differences toward Online Purchase Intentions in Jordan. International Business Research, 5(8), 85-93.
[20] Koekemoer, L. 2004. Marketing Communications. South Africa, Juta and Co. Ltd.
[21] Kostova, D., Blecher, E. 2012. Does Advertising Matter? Estimating the Impact of Cigarette Advertising on Smoking Among Youth in Developing Countries. Western Economic Association International, 1(1), 1-12.
[22] Kotler, P., Adam, S., Brown, L., Armstrong, G. 2006. Principles of Marketing. Australia, Pearson Education.
[23] Lovato, C., Watts, A., Stead, L.F. 2011. Impact of tobacco advertising and promotion on increasing adolescent smoking behaviours. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1(10), 1-45.
[24] Media know all. 2013. A Brief History of Advertising. [Web log]. Retrieved from>.
[25] Newberry, C.R., Klemz, B.R., Boshoff, C. 2003. Managerial implications of predicting purchase behavior from purchase intentions: a retail patronage case study. Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 17 Issue: 6, pp.609-620, https://
[26] Nugroho, C. 2015. Pengaruh Peringatan Gambar Kesehatan dan Resiko yang Diperseptikan Terhadap Minat Beli Konsumen Rokok. Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta. Mini Thesis.
[27] Parry, S., Jones, R., Stern, P., Robinson, M. 2013. Shockvertising: An exploratory investigation into attitudinal variations and emotional reactions to shock advertising. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 1(12), 112-121.
[28] Patient Platform Limited. n.d. Smoking and Others (Passive Smoking). [Web log]. Retrieved from
[29] Pavlou, P.A., Chai, L. 2002. What Drives Electronic Commerce across Cultures? A Cross-Cultural Empirical Investigation of the Theory of Planned Behavior. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 3(4), 240-253.
[30] Pollay, R.W. 1997. Hacks, Flacks, and Counter-Attacks: Cigarette Advertising, Sponsored Research, and Controversies. Journal of Social, 53(1), 53-74.
[31] Pflaumbaum, C. 2011. Shock Advertising – How does the acceptance of shock advertising by the consumer influence the advertiser’s designs?. Dissertation, Curtin University.
[32] Pribadi, J. 2013. Pengaruh Iklan Resiko Merokok Terhadap Sikap, Persepsi Nilai dan Minat Membeli Konsumen Rokok di Banda Aceh. Jurnal Visioner & Strategis. 2(1), 39-48.
[33] Quamila, A. n.d. Efektifkah Gambar Peringatan Bahaya Merokok?. [Web log]. Retrieved from
[34] Saba, A., Messina, F. 2003. Attitudes towards organic foods and risk/benefit perception associated with pesticides. Food Quality and Preference, 14(8), 637–645.
[35] Schiffman, L., Bednall, D., Cass, A.O., Paladino, A., Kanuk, L. 2005. Consumer Behaviour. Australia, Pearson Education.
[36] Sharma, P. 2010. Measuring personal cultural orientations: scale development and validation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 38, 787–806.
[37] Tarkiainen, A., Sundqvist, S. 2005. Subjective norms, attitudes and intentions of Finnish consumers in buying organic food. British Food Journal, 107(11), 808-822.
[38] Thogersen, J. 2007. Consumer decision-making with regard to organic food products. In Vaz, M.T.D.N., Vaz, P., Nijkamp, P. & Rastoin, J.L. (Eds.) Traditional Food Production Facing Sustainability: A European Challenge; Ashgate.
[39] Trembiay, C.H., Trembiay, V.J. 1995. The Impact of Cigarette Advertising on Consumer Surplus, Profit, and Social Welfare. Western Economic Association International, 13(1), 113-124.
[40] Tsai, S.P. 2005. Impact of personal orientation on luxury-brand purchase value: An international investigation. International Journal of Market Research, 47(4), 429-454.
[41] Urwin, B., Venter, M. 2014. Shock Advertising: Not So Shocking Anymore. An Investigation among Generation Y. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences. 5(21), 203-214.
[42] Virvilaite, R., Matuleviÿiene, M. 2013. The impact of shocking advertising on consumer buying behavior: empirical study of Lithuanian consumers. Innovative Marketing, 9(2), 47-56.
[43] Wee, C.S., Ismail, K., and Ishak, N. 2014. Consumers Perception, Purchase Intention and Actual Purchase Behavior of Organic Food Products. Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research, 3(2), 378-397.
[44] Wiyono, G. 2011. 3 in One Merancang Penelitian Bisnis dengan Alat Analisis SPSS 17.0 & SmartPLS 2.0, Unit Penerbit dan Percetakan STIM YKPN, Yogyakarta.
[45] Wong, K.K.K. 2013. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) Thecniques Using SmartPLS. Marketing Bulletin, 24, Technical Note 1: 1-32.
[46] Wong, N.Y., Ahuvia, A.C. 1998. Personal taste and family face: Luxury consumption in Confucian and Western societies. Psychology & Marketing 15(5): 423-432.
[47] World Health Organization. 2014. Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2014. [Web log]. Retrirved from
How to Cite
PURWANTO, Edi; UTAMA, Cindy; WIJAYA, Betania. The Effects of Shock Advertising on Purchase Intentions and Behavior of Cigarettes in Collectivistic Culture. Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics, [S.l.], v. 9, n. 2, p. 625-636, dec. 2018. ISSN 2068-696X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 22 mar. 2023. doi: 2(32).26.