How does Government Support Affect Primary Employment by Entrepreneurs in US States?

  • Halil D. KAYA Finance, Department of Accounting and Finance, College of Business and Technology, Northeastern State University, Broken Arrow, Oklahoma, USA


In this study, we examine if government support to entrepreneurs in US states affects the ‘type of entrepreneurship’ in these states. We differentiate between ‘full-time entrepreneurs’ who has their business as their primary employment and ‘part-time entrepreneurs’ who has their business as their secondary job or hobby. Our hypothesis is that more government support would help entrepreneurs so that they would not need to direct all of their time, energy, and focus on their small business. Our results show that, although there are more ‘part-time entrepreneurs’ in the states with relatively more government support for entrepreneurs, the results are statistically insignificant. Therefore, we can conclude that government support in a state generally does not alter the ‘type of entrepreneurship’ in that state.


[1] Anwar, N., and Daniel, E. 2016. The Role of Entrepreneur-Venture Fit in Online Home-based Entrepreneurship: A Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Enterprising Culture.
[2] Block, J.H., and Landgraf, A.2016. Transition from part-time entrepreneurship to full-time entrepreneurship: the role of financial and non-financial motives. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 12(1): 259-282.
[3] Cagetti, M., and De Nardi, M.C. 2006. Entrepreneurship, frictions, and wealth. Journal of political Economy, 114(5): 835-870.
[4] Folta, T.B., Delmar, F., and Wennberg, K.2010. Hybrid entrepreneurship. Management Science, 56(2): 253-269.
[5] Giacomin, O., Janssen, F., Guyot, J.L., and Lohest, O. 2011. Opportunity and/or necessity entrepreneurship? The impact of the socio-economic characteristics of entrepreneurs.
[6] Heimonen, T. 2013. Entrepreneurship in Golden Years-Creative Opportunity or Not? China-USA Business Review, 12(1).
[7] Kerr, W., and Nanda, R. 2009. Financing constraints and entrepreneurship. No. w15498. National Bureau of Economic Research.
[8] Kourilsky, M.L., and Walstad, W.B. 2002. The early environment and schooling experiences of high-technology entrepreneurs: Insights for entrepreneurship education. International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 1(1): 1-20.
[9] Okpara, F.O. 2007. The value of creativity and innovation in entrepreneurship. Journal of Asia Entrepreneurship and Sustainability, 3(2): 1.
[10] Rangarajan, R., and Lakshmi, R. 2013. Creativity and Innovation in Entrepreneurship-A Brief Assessment. Sumedha Journal of Management, 2(4): 55.
[11] Rantamaki-Lahtinen, L., and Vihinen, H. 2004. The role of equine industries in Finnish rural development–rural entrepreneurship and policy perspectives. Nordic Association of Agricultural Scientists: Horse Management-Premises and Landscape (Seminar 367).
[12] Shah, S.K., and Tripsas, M. 2007. The accidental entrepreneur: The emergent and collective process of user entrepreneurship. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 1(12): 123-140.
[13] Tambunan, T.. 2009. Women entrepreneurship in Asian developing countries: Their development and main constraints. Journal of Development and Agricultural Economics, 1(2): 027-040.
[14] Van der Merwe, S.P., and Lebakeng, M. 2010. An empirical investigation of women entrepreneurship in Lesotho. African International Business and Management Conference, Nairobi, Kenya.
[15] Warnick, B.J. 2016. Passion for product, process, or both? Expanding our conception of passion in entrepreneurship. Diss. Indiana University.
[16] Williams, C.C. 2007. The nature of entrepreneurship in the informal sector: evidence from England. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 12(02): 239-254.
[17] Williams, C.C., and Nadin, S.J. 2012. Tackling entrepreneurship in the informal economy: evaluating the policy options. Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, 1(2): 111-124.
[18] Williams, C.C., and Round, J. 2007. Entrepreneurship and the informal economy: a study of Ukraine's hidden enterprise culture. Journal of developmental entrepreneurship, 12(01): 119-136.
How to Cite
KAYA, Halil D.. How does Government Support Affect Primary Employment by Entrepreneurs in US States?. Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics, [S.l.], v. 9, n. 2, p. 516-521, dec. 2018. ISSN 2068-696X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 18 june 2024. doi: 2(32).16.