Assessment of the Level of Constitutionalism in Transition Economies

  • Gagik HARUTYUNYAN The Constitutional Curt of Republic of Armenia, Republic of Armenia
  • Hayk SARGSYAN Yerevan State University, Republic of Armenia
  • Ruben GEVORGYAN Yerevan State University, Republic of Armenia


This work proposes a methodology for a comparative analysis of the level of constitutionalism and a methodology based on it for constitutional diagnosis and monitoring. This technique is particularly useful for studying the level of constitutionalism in transition countries. It has succeeded in classifying countries by level of constitutionalism and determining their cluster-forming factors.


[1] 2014 index of Economic Freedom. Available at:
[2] Arabie, P., and Hubert, L. 1994. Cluster analysis in marketing research. In: Advanced methods of marketing research (160-189). Black-well, Oxford.
[3] Austen-Smith, D. 2000. Redistributing Income under Proportional Representation. Journal of Political Economy, 108(6): 1235-1269.
[4] Blume, L., and Voigt, S. 2008. Federalism and Decentralization – A Critical Survey of Frequently Used Indicators. Available at:
[5] Chiu, T. et al. 2001. A Robust and Scalable Clustering Algorithm for Mixed Type Attributes in Large Database Environment. Proceedings of the seventh ACM SIGKDD international conference on knowledge discovery and data mining (263-268). ACM, San Francisco, CA.
[6] Elder, J. 1999. Knowing when to factor: Simulating the tandem approach to cluster analysis. Proceeding of the Sawtooth Software Conference (101-108). La Jolla.
[7] Elkins, Z., Ginsburg, T., and Melton, J. 2014. Characteristics of National Constitutions, Version 2.0. Comparative Constitutions Project. Available at:
[8] Everitt, B.S., Landau, S., Leese, M., and Stahl, D. 2011. Cluster Analysis. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken.
[9] Farber, D. 2002. Rights as Signals. Journal of Legal Studies, 31: 83-98.
[10] Fiedler, J., and McDonald, J. 1993. Market fragmentation: Clustering on factor scores versus individual variables. Available at:
[11] Freedom in the World 2014. Freedom House. Available at:
[12] Gorsuch, R. L. 1983. Factor Analysis. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale.
[13] Hall, R., and Jones, C.I. 1999. Why Do Some Countries Produce so Much More Output Per Worker than Others? Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114(1): 83-116.
[14] Harutyunyan, G. 2016b. Role of the Rule of Law Checklist in the system of constitutional monitoring (Conceptual approaches). Constitutional Justice, 3(73): 164-183.
[15] Harutyunyan, G., and Mavcic, A. 1999. The Constitutional Review and Its Development in the Modern World (A Comparative Constitutional Analaysis). Yerevan – Ljubljana.
[16] Harutyunyan, G., Sargsyan, H., and Gevorgyan, R. 2017. Constitutionalism: issues of diagnostics, monitoring and administration. Zangak, Yerevan.
[17] Harutyunyan, G.G. 2011. Constitutionalism: lessons, challenges, guarantees. Logos, Kiev.
[18] Harutyunyan, G.G. 2016a. Constitutional monitoring. Njhar, Yerevan.
[19] Hogarty, K.Y., et al. 2005. The Quality of Factor Solutions in Exploratory Factor Analysis: The Influence of Sample Size, Communality, and Overdetermination. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 65(2): 202-226.
[20] Human Development Index. Human Development Reports. Available at::
[21] Lizzeri, A. and Persico, N. 2001. The Provision of Public Goods under Alternative Electoral Incentives. American Economic Review, 91(1): 225-239.
[22] MacCallum, R.C., Widaman, K.F., Preacher, K.J., and Hong, S. 2001. Sample size in factor analysis: The role of model error. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 36: 611-637.
[23] Nations in Transit 2014. Freedom House. Available at:
[24] Persson, T., and Tabellini, G. 2003. The Economic Effects of Constitutions. MIT Press. Cambridge, MA.
[25] Sargsyan, H. 2016. Approaches of the Instrumentarium Elaboration and Implementation Methods of Constitutional Diagnosis. In: International Almanac Constitutional Justice in the New Millennium (78-93). Njhar, Yerevan.
[26] Sargsyan, H. Gevorgyan, R., and Kochinyan, N. 2016. Constitutional diagnosis and monitoring: tools and methods of realization. Constitutional Justice, 4(74): 56-75.
[27] The SPSS Two Step cluster component. 2001. Technical report. Available at:
[28] The Worldwide Governance Indicators. Available at:
[29] Transparency International. Available at:
[30] Voigt, S. 2011. Positive Constitutional Economics II – A Survey of Recent Developments. Public Choice, 146(1-2): 205-256.
[31] World Bank Open Data. Available at:
[32] Zhuravlev, Yu.I. 1978. On the algebraic approach to solving problems of recognition and classification. In: Problems of cybernetics (5-86). Science, Moscow.
[33] Zhuravlev, Yu.I., Ryazanov, V.V., and Senko, O.V. 2006. Recognition. Mathematical methods. Software system. Practical applications. Phasis, Moscow.
How to Cite
HARUTYUNYAN, Gagik; SARGSYAN, Hayk; GEVORGYAN, Ruben. Assessment of the Level of Constitutionalism in Transition Economies. Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics, [S.l.], v. 8, n. 4(26), p. 1126-1135, nov. 2017. ISSN 2068-696X. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 23 jan. 2018. doi: