The Transition from Secondary Education to Higher Education: The Portuguese Situation
Decrease in the flow of students from Secondary to Higher Education in Portugal has been attributed by policy-makers to the attraction of the labour market for young people who should be continuing their studies.
But several other reasons, which are generally missing in the official discourse, combine to create this decrease, including the role played by the State's social action policy for Higher Education, the shortness of families’ incomes, the level of schooling of the students’ parents, among others. Also psychological and sociological factors exist, which are often silenced, but which should also be considered to achieve a thorough understanding of the dynamics of flows from Secondary to Higher Education. These factors include the motivation, commitment and self-efficiency of students.
This study starts with a macroeconomic and social approach, using comparative education methodology, to obtain a characterisation of the relative position of Portugal in the European Union (EU). This approach is described in this paper, where the main result is expected to be the conclusion that, among various factors, which include the inadequacy of public policies, the decisive factors for the decline in the flow of transition to Higher Education in Portugal are economic ones, namely access to income.
 Belley, P. and Lochner, L. 2007. The Changing Role of Family Income and Ability in Determining Educational Achievement, Journal of Human Capital, 1(1): 37-89.
 Bray, M., Adamson, B. and Mason, M. 2007. Comparative Education Research: Approach and Methods, (Comparative Education Research Center, The University of Hong Kong).
 Chagas Lopes, M. and Graça, F. 2012. A comprehensive approach towards academic failure: the case of Mathematics I in ISEG graduation, MPRA Paper 42367, University Library of Munich, Germany.
 Chagas Lopes, M. and Graça, F. 2010. Success/Failure in Higher Education: how long does it take to complete some core 1st. year disciplines? MPRA Paper 21953, (University Library of Munich, Germany. Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:21953).
 Correia, J. A. 1999. As ideologias educativas em Portugal nos últimos 25 anos, (Repositorio-aberto.up.pt).
 DGEEC- Direcção Geral de Estatísticas da Educação e Ciência.2018.
 EC – DATABASE, https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/data/database
 EC (European Commission), Social and Economic Conditions of Student Life in Europe (Eurostudent VI 2016-2018, 2018).
 EC, Education at a Glance 2018, https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/education-at-a-glance-2018_eag-2018-en
 Galliott, N. and Graham, L.J.. 2014. A question of agency: applying Sen's theory of human capability to the concept of secondary school student career choice. International Journal of Research & Method in Education.
 Hanushek, E.A. and Woessmann, L. 2012. Do better schools lead to more growth? Cognitive skills, economic outcomes, and causation, Economic Growth 17: 267-321
 Keller, T. 2015. Talented But Unaware? An Analysis of the Role of Self-Assessment in Educational Transition, Budapest Working Papers on the Labour Market.
 Kusurkar, R.A., et al. 2013. How motivation affects academic performance: A structural equation modelling analysis, Advances in Health Sciences Education, 18: 57-69.
 Kyndt, E. et al. 2015.The development of students' motivation in the transition from secondary to higher education: A longitudinal study, Learning and Individual Differences, 39: 114-123.
 Mascarenhas, S. A., Almeida, L. and Barca, A. 2005. Atribuições causais e rendimento escolar: impacto das habilitações escolares dos pais, (repositório.sdum.uminho.pt).
 OECD, Education at a Glance 2018, https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/education-at-a-glance-2018_eag-2018-en
 OECD, OECD Handbook for Internationally Comparative Education Statistics 2018, http://www.oecd.org/education/oecd-handbook-for-internationally-comparative-education-statistics-2018-9789264304444-en.htm
 Parker, J. D.A., et al. 2004. Emotional intelligence and academic success: examining the transition from high school to university, Personality and Individual Differences, 36:163-172.
 PORDATA, www.pordata.pt.
 Renaud-Dube, A., Talbot, D., Taylor, G. and Guay, F. 2015. The relations between implicit intelligence beliefs, autonomous academic motivation, and school persistence intentions: A mediation model, Social Psychology of Education: An International Journal, 18: 255-272.
 Seco, G. et al. 2005. Para uma abordagem psicológica da transição do Ensino Secundário para o Ensino Superior: pontes e alçapões. Instituto Politécnico de Leiria.
 Sen, A. 2003. O Desenvolvimento como Liberdade, Lisboa: Gradiva, 348pp.
The Copyright Transfer Form to ASERS Publishing (The Publisher)
This form refers to the manuscript, which an author(s) was accepted for publication and was signed by all the authors.
The undersigned Author(s) of the above-mentioned Paper here transfer any and all copyright-rights in and to The Paper to The Publisher. The Author(s) warrants that The Paper is based on their original work and that the undersigned has the power and authority to make and execute this assignment. It is the author's responsibility to obtain written permission to quote material that has been previously published in any form. The Publisher recognizes the retained rights noted below and grants to the above authors and employers for whom the work performed royalty-free permission to reuse their materials below. Authors may reuse all or portions of the above Paper in other works, excepting the publication of the paper in the same form. Authors may reproduce or authorize others to reproduce the above Paper for the Author's personal use or for internal company use, provided that the source and The Publisher copyright notice are mentioned, that the copies are not used in any way that implies The Publisher endorsement of a product or service of an employer, and that the copies are not offered for sale as such. Authors are permitted to grant third party requests for reprinting, republishing or other types of reuse. The Authors may make limited distribution of all or portions of the above Paper prior to publication if they inform The Publisher of the nature and extent of such limited distribution prior there to. Authors retain all proprietary rights in any process, procedure, or article of manufacture described in The Paper. This agreement becomes null and void if and only if the above paper is not accepted and published by The Publisher, or is with drawn by the author(s) before acceptance by the Publisher.